|Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic|
Biserica Română Unită cu Roma, Greco-Catolică
|Founder||Bishop Atanasie Anghel|
outlawed in 1948
March 14, 1990
March 14, 1990
|Major Archbishop||Lucian Mureşan|
|Territory||Romania (mainly in Transylvania and Banat)|
The Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic (Romanian: Biserica Română Unită cu Roma, Greco-Catolică) is an Eastern Rite or Greek-Catholic Church ranked as a Major Archiepiscopal Church, which uses the Byzantine liturgical rite in the Romanian language. Events 1489 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) Events 1489 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) In the Eastern Catholic Churches, major archbishop is a title for an hierarch to whose Archiepiscopal see is granted the same jurisdiction in his autonomous Blaj (blaʒ in Romanian; Hungarian: Balázsfalva; German: Blasendorf) is a city in Alba County, Transylvania Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Romanian or Daco-Romanian ( dated: Rumanian or Roumanian; self designation limba română, ˈlimba roˈmɨnə is a Romance Romanian or Daco-Romanian ( dated: Rumanian or Roumanian; self designation limba română, ˈlimba roˈmɨnə is a Romance This article refers to Eastern Churches in full communion with the Holy See In the Eastern Catholic Churches, major archbishop is a title for an hierarch to whose Archiepiscopal see is granted the same jurisdiction in his autonomous The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Romanian or Daco-Romanian ( dated: Rumanian or Roumanian; self designation limba română, ˈlimba roˈmɨnə is a Romance
Since 1994, the Romanian Greek-Catholic Church has been led by the Most Reverend Lucian Mureşan, Archbishop of Făgăraş and Alba Iulia, who on December 16, 2005 became its first Major Archbishop when it was raised to the rank of a Major Archiepiscopal Church by Benedict XVI. Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In the Eastern Catholic Churches, major archbishop is a title for an hierarch to whose Archiepiscopal see is granted the same jurisdiction in his autonomous Pope Benedict XVI ( Latin: Benedictus PP XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Alois Ratzinger The Church has four other dioceses in Romania: (Oradea Mare, Eparchy of Cluj-Gherla, Eparchy of Lugoj and Eparchy of Maramureş),  and one, directly subject to the Holy See, in the United States of America (Eparchy of Saint George in Canton, Ohio). The Greek Catholic diocese of Oradea Mare was founded in 1777, followers of the Greek Rite having been up to that time under the jurisdiction of the Latin bishop The Greek Catholic Diocese of Cluj-Gherla is a Diocese of the Byzantine Rite of the Romanian Greek Catholic Church. The Eparchy of Lugoj is a diocese of the Romanian Church United with Rome Greek-Catholic. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Canton is a city in the US state of Ohio and the County seat of Stark County. 
According to the information, valid for the end of 2003, given in the 2005 Annuario Pontificio, it then had 737,900 followers, many bishops, some 716 diocesan priests and 347 seminarians of its own rite. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Annuario Pontificio ( Italian for Pontifical Yearbook) is the annual directory of the Holy See. However, according to the 2002 Romanian state census, the number of followers in Romania is as low as 191,556 The dispute over the figure is included in the United States Department of State report on religious freedom in Romania. Freedom of religion is the freedom of an individual or community in public or private to manifest religion or belief in teaching practice worship and observance 
Romania also has another five dioceses for Latin Rite Catholics, who are more numerous. Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania The Latin Rite is one of the 23 Sui iuris Particular Churches within the Catholic Church.
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In 1701 many of the Romanians of Transylvania, headed by Bishop Atanasie Anghel, entered into full communion with the See of Rome, while keeping their own Greek Byzantine liturgical rite. Families of churches Eastern Christians have a shared tradition but they became divided ( Schism) during the early centuries of Christianity in disputes about The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents This is a general introduction to ecumenical councils For the Roman Catholic councils, see Catholic Ecumenical Councils. The Christianization of Bulgaria was the process of converting 9th-century medieval Bulgaria to Christianity. The Christianization of Kievan Rus' took place in several stages The East-West Schism, or the Great Schism, divided medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek and Western (Latin branches which later became known as the See also Christianity in Asia Judging from the New Testament account of the rise and expansion of the early church during the first few centuries of Christianity the Coptic history is part of History of Egypt that begins with the introduction of Christianity in Egypt in the 1st century AD during the The Eastern Orthodox Churches trace their roots back to the Apostles and Jesus Christ. 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The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in transliterated Amharic: Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental The Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ ‘Ittā Qaddishtā wa-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world This article refers to Eastern Churches in full communion with the Holy See The Sign of the Cross, or Signum crucis in Latin is a ritual hand motion made by members of many but not all branches of Christianity. The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. Iconography is the branch of Art history which studies the identification description and the interpretation of the content of images Ascetic redirects here You might also be looking for Acetic acid. In the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic liturgical tradition the omophorion ( Greek:; Slavonic: омофоръ omofor) Hesychasm ( Greek hesychasmos, from hesychia, "stillness rest quiet silence" is an Eremitic tradition of Prayer in An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn, "image" is a religious work of art most commonly a painting from Eastern Christianity. Negative theology - also known as the Via Negativa ( Latin for "Negative Way" and Apophatic theology - is a Theology that Filioque, a Latin phrase meaning "and (from the Son" In Western Christianity, it was added to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed Miaphysitism (sometimes called henophysitism) is the Christology of the Oriental Orthodox Churches Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning 'one alone' and physis meaning 'nature' or Monophysiticism is the Christological position that Nestorius Nestorius (c  386 &ndashc  451) was a pupil of Theodore of Mopsuestia in Antioch in Syria (modern In Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy and Eastern Catholic theology theosis (written also theiosis, theopoiesis, theōsis Theoria (Greek) is Greek for Contemplation or 'the perception of Beauty regarded as a Moral faculty' ( OED) Phronema is a Greek term that is used in Eastern Orthodox Theology to refer to mindset or outlook; it is the Orthodox mind. The Philokalia ( Gk φιλοκαλείν "Love of the Beautiful" is a collection of texts by masters of the Eastern Orthodox, hesychast Praxis is the customary use of knowledge or skills distinct from theoretical knowledge Theotokos (Θεοτόκος translit Theotókos) is a title of Mary the mother of Jesus used especially in the Eastern Orthodox, Ousia () is the Ancient Greek noun formed on the feminine present participle of ( to be) it is analogous to the English participle Historical context The Energies of God are a central principle of Theology in the Eastern Orthodox Church, understood by the orthodox Fathers Metousiosis is a Greek term () that means literally a change of (essence inner reality Transylvania (Ardeal or ro ''Transilvania'' Erdély, see also other denominations) is a Central European region located in the eastern half of the Carpathian The term Communion is derived from Latin communio (sharing in common The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called the Rite of Constantinople or Constantinopolitan Rite, is the liturgical rite used currently (in various languages This was a result of diploma issued by the Emperor Leopold I, which decreed Transylvania's Romanian Orthodox Church to be one with the Roman Catholic Church. Early life He was a younger brother of Ferdinand IV of Hungary and Mariana of Austria. Transylvanians were therefore encouraged to become Catholics and adhere to the newly created Greek-Catholic Church by retaining their Orthodox ritual, but accepting the four doctrinal points established by the Council of Florence between 1431 and 1445: the Pope as the supreme head of the church; the existence of Purgatory; the Filioque clause; and the use of unleavened bread in Holy Communion. The Council of Florence (originally Council of Basel) was an Ecumenical Council of Bishops and other ecclesiastics of the Roman Catholic Church History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and See also Intermediate state Limbo|Heaven|Sheol|Hades in Christianity|Hell in Christianity Purgatory, in the original sense is the condition or process of purification Filioque, a Latin phrase meaning "and (from the Son" In Western Christianity, it was added to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed The Eucharist, also called Holy Communion or Lord's Supper and other names is a Christian Sacrament by which in a common interpretation those
Metropolitan Atanasie Anghel and his Holy Synod took this course to obtain for the Romanians of Transylvania (then part of the Habsburg Empire) the same rights as those of the other Transylvanian nations, which were part of the Unio Trium Nationum (Hungarian nobility, Germanic Transylvanian Saxons and Székely). Transylvania (Ardeal or ro ''Transilvania'' Erdély, see also other denominations) is a Central European region located in the eastern half of the Carpathian Habsburg Monarchy (alternatively Habsburg Empire) refers to the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor Unio Trium Nationum ( Latin for "Union of the Three Nations" was a pact of mutual aid formed in 1438 by three Estates of Transylvania: the (largely The Transylvanian Saxons (Siebenbürger Sachsen Erdélyi szászok Saşi are a people of German ethnicity who settled in Transylvania (Siebenbürgen from the 12th For the village in northeastern Hungary see Székely (village The Székely ( pronounced) or Szekler people (Székely The event coincided with the arrival of the Jesuits, who attempted to align Transylvania more closely with Western Europe. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order However, not all Romanians agreed with this conversion, leading to several peaceful movements of the Romanian Orthodox population that advocated for freedom of worship for all the Transylvanian population, most notably being the movements led by Visarion Sarai, Nicolae Oprea Miclăuş and Sofronie of Cioara. Sofronie of Cioara ( Romanian: Sofronie de la Cioara is a Romanian Orthodox Saint.
The bishop's residence was moved from Alba Iulia to Făgăraş in 1721 and then, in 1737 to Blaj, which became a centre of learning and national awakening for all Romania. Alba Iulia ( Latin: Apulum, German: Karlsburg / Weißenburg, Hungarian: Gyulafehérvár, former Erdel Belgradı Făgăraş (Fogarasch Fogaras is a city in central Romania, located in Braşov County. Blaj (blaʒ in Romanian; Hungarian: Balázsfalva; German: Blasendorf) is a city in Alba County, Transylvania This was in part due to the fact that, unlike the Romanian Orthodox who until 1863 officially used Church Slavonic in their Byzantine liturgy, the Romanian Church United with Rome used the Romanian vernacular since its beginnings. Church Slavonic (also Church Slavic, Old Bulgarian) is the Liturgical language of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Macedonian Orthodox When, in the 19th century, Hungary followed a Magyarization policy, the Greek-Catholic Church played a prominent part in resisting ethnic assimilation, with the Transylvanian School (Şcoala Ardeleană) and the Transylvanian Memorandum. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Magyarization (also "Magyarisation" "Hungarisation" "Hungarization" "Hungarianization" "Hungarianisation" is a designator applied A region or society where several different groups are spontaneously assimilated is sometimes referred to as a Melting pot. The Transylvanian School ( Şcoala Ardeleană in Romanian) was a cultural movement which was founded after part of the Romanian Orthodox Church in Habsburg The Transylvanian Memorandum was a Petition sent in 1892 by the leaders of the Romanians of Transylvania to the Austro-Hungarian
Other eparchies were set up at Oradea (1777) and at Gherla and Lugoj (1853); and Blaj, under the title of Alba Iulia and Făgăraş, became their metropolitan (in the sense of archiepiscopal) see. On December 16, 2005, the Church was raised to the dignity of a Major Archiepiscopal Church. Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In the Eastern Catholic Churches, major archbishop is a title for an hierarch to whose Archiepiscopal see is granted the same jurisdiction in his autonomous
The Greek-Catholic Church was repressed at various times throughout history, by various groups, and took many forms.
In 1948, the Communist regime that had taken power deposed all the bishops of the Greek-Catholic Church and, on October 21st 1948, the 250th anniversary of the Romanian Greek Catholic Union with the Roman Catholic Church, arranged the "spontaneous" passage of all its members (decree 358/1948), who were then some 1,500,000 in numbers, to the Romanian Orthodox Church, to which some of its property, including four cathedrals, were given, while the rest was confiscated by the State. Events 1512 - Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg. Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Romanian Orthodox Church ( Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is a Autocephalous Eastern Orthodox church
The Catholic bishops, and many Greek-Catholic priests, were arrested for "antidemocratic activity", mainly for refusal to give up ties with the "reactionary" Holy See. The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic In the meantime, the Orthodox Church was "purged" of priests unfriendly to the Communist regime and, for the next 40 years, it had good relations with the Communist authorities.
Iuliu Hossu, Bishop of Cluj, refused the proposal of the Romanian Orthodox Patriarch, Iustinian Marina, to become the Orthodox Archbishop of Iaşi and metropolitan of Moldavia, and thereby even the official successor to the Romanian Orthodox Patriarch himself. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Iuliu Hossu ( January 30 1885, Milaş, present-day Bistriţa-Năsăud County &ndash May 28 1970, Bucharest The Greek Catholic Diocese of Cluj-Gherla is a Diocese of the Byzantine Rite of the Romanian Greek Catholic Church. Justinian Marina (born Ioan Marina) ( February 2, 1901, in Şueşti, Vâlcea County – March 26, 1977 Iaşi (pronunciation in Romanian: /jaʃʲ/ or Jassy, is a city and municipality in north-eastern Romania. Moldavia (Moldova is a geographic and historical region and former Principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between Eastern Carpathians He remained under house arrest, and each year sent a memorandum to the President of the Republic, asking that the country's laws and Romania's international agreements be observed with regard to the Romanian Greek-Catholic Church. In 1969, Pope Paul VI asked him to accept appointment to the cardinalate. Pope A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. As he preferred to stay with his people, the Pope made him cardinal only "in pectore", i. e. without publishing the fact, which he revealed only on March 5, 1973, three years after Bishop Hossu's death. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90000 to attack the Sassanid Empire, in a Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar.
Another remarkable Romanian ecclesiastic of the time was Alexandru Todea (1912–2002). Alexandru Todea ( June 5 1912, Teleac, Mureş County &ndash May 22 2002, Târgu-Mureş) was a Romanian Secretly ordained as a titular bishop on 19 November 1950, he was arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment in the following year. A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He was given amnesty in 1964 and on March 14, 1990, after the fall of the Communist regime, was appointed Archbishop of Făgăraş and Alba Iulia, becoming a cardinal in the following year. Events 1489 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar)
After more than forty years of surviving only in secrecy and illegally, the Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic, was able to appear again in public only after the 1989 Romanian Revolution. The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of increasingly violent riots and fighting in late December 1989 that overthrew the Communist regime of Nicolae Normative act 9/31, passed on 31 December 1989, repealed Decree 358/1948 as repugnant and bringing grave prejudice upon the Romanian State. Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar)
With some delay, some of the Church's property, in particular the cathedrals of Cluj, Blaj, Lugoj and Oradea, which the Communist Government had transferred to the Orthodox Church, were restored to it. This article is about the history and organisation of the cathedral
Unlike other sources of pressure, Latin Rite pressure against this Church came from within Catholicism, one segment of the same Universal Church attempting to modify, suppress or even outright ban another part. The Latin Rite is one of the 23 Sui iuris Particular Churches within the Catholic Church. The Latin Rite is one of the 23 Sui iuris Particular Churches within the Catholic Church.
Historically, Eastern Catholic Churches in general came under pressure to modify their practices, to Romanize. Liturgical Latinisation is the process by which the liturgical practices of the Churches of Eastern Christianity (particularly the Eastern Catholic Churches In the case of the Byzantine-Rite Romanian Catholic Church, the pressure grew with the creation, 17 years after Romania's Greek-catholics recreated a full communion with Rome, of the "Commission, created in 1717 and operational in the heart of the Congregation for the Propagation of Faith ('Propaganda Fide') until 1862, for the correction of the liturgical books of the Church of the East. The Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples ( Congregatio pro Gentium Evangelisatione) is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for A liturgical book is a book published by the authority of a Church, that contains the text and directions for the Liturgy of its official Religious services These interventions felt the effects of the mentality and convictions of the times, according to which a certain subordination of the non-Latin liturgies was perceived toward the Latin rite liturgy which was considered 'ritus praestantior. ' This attitude may have led to interventions in the Eastern liturgical texts which today, in light of theological studies and progress, have need of revision, in the sense of a return to ancestral traditions. "
Given that the Commission came into being so close to the date of reunification, Romanian Byzantine Catholicism is naturally the most profoundly affected of all the eastern churches as it never had a chance to gain its legs and get a sense of self within Catholicism prior to the creation of this innovating Commission. Another reason Romanizing pressure was more intense was the fact that the Romanian language itself is derived from Latin, not Old Church Slavonic or Greek, and Romanization was therefore more attractive to Romanian Byzantine Catholics than it was to, say, Ukrainian Catholics.
Latin Rite repression of this Church recently centers in the United States and consists of repeated, and sometimes successful requests for partial or total suppression of the Church's Rite. This has largely been based on the issue of a married clergy in the Eastern Rites in general and has produced schism in many eastern rite US parishes.