|Romance of the Three Kingdoms|
An illustration of the book
|Publication date||14th century|
|This article contains Chinese text. Luo Guanzhong ( c 1330?-1400? born Luo Ben (罗本 was a Chinese author attributed with writing Romance of the Three Kingdoms (三国演义 China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National An historical novel is a Novel in which the story is set among historical events or more generally in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the Author The OCLC Online Computer Library Center is according to its website a "nonprofit membership computer library service and research organization dedicated to the public purpose |
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters. Mojibake is the happenstance of incorrect unreadable characters (garbage characters shown when Computer software fails to render a text correctly according to its associated A Chinese character, also known as a Han character ( is a Logogram used in writing Chinese (hanzi Japanese (
Romance of the Three Kingdoms (traditional Chinese: 三國演義; simplified Chinese: 三国演义; pinyin: sānguó yǎnyì), written by Luo Guanzhong in the 14th century, is a Chinese historical novel based upon events in the turbulent years near the end of the Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms era, starting in 168 and ending with the reunification of the land in 280. Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Luo Guanzhong ( c 1330?-1400? born Luo Ben (罗本 was a Chinese author attributed with writing Romance of the Three Kingdoms (三国演义 An historical novel is a Novel in which the story is set among historical events or more generally in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the Author The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. The Three Kingdoms period ( is a period in the History of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties following immediately the loss of Events By Place Roman Empire Emperor Probus suppresses the revolt of the usurper Proculus. 
It is acclaimed as one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature, with a grand total of 800,000 words, 1191 characters, and 120 chapters. The Four Great Classical Novels, or Four Major Classical Novels ( of Chinese literature, are the four novels commonly counted by scholars to be the greatest and most Chinese literature extends back thousands of years from the earliest recorded dynastic court Archives to the mature fictional Novel that arose during the Ming Dynasty
Myths from the Three Kingdoms period existed as oral traditions before any written compilations. The Three Kingdoms period ( is a period in the History of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties following immediately the loss of In these popular stories, the characters typically took on exaggerated characteristics, often becoming immortals or supernatural beings with magical powers. With their focus on the history of Han Chinese, the stories grew in popularity during the reign of the foreign Mongol emperors of the Yuan Dynasty. Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. The Yuan Dynasty ( Pinyin: Yuáncháo Dai Ön Ulus (Дай Юан Улс was a ruling Dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai During the succeeding Míng Dynasty, an interest in plays and novels resulted in further expansions and retelling of the stories. The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led
The earliest attempt to combine these stories into a written work was Sanguozhi Pinghua (三國誌評話，三国志评话; Sānguózhì Pínghuà), literally "Story of Sanguozhi", published sometime between 1321 and 1323. The Records of Three Kingdoms ( is the official and authoritative historical text on the period of Three Kingdoms covering from 189 to 280, This version combined themes of legend, magic, and morality to appeal to the peasant class. Elements of reincarnation and karma were woven into this version of the story. Karma ( Sanskrit: कर्म, kárman - "act action performance" Pali: kamma) is the concept of "action"
The Romance of the Three Kingdoms as we know it today is attributed to Luo Guanzhong, written between 1330 and 1400 (late Yuan to early Ming period). It was written in partly vernacular and partly Classical Chinese and was considered the standard text for 300 years. Vernacular Chinese is a style or register of the Written Chinese Language essentially modeled after the spoken language and associated with Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of Written Chinese based on the Grammar and Vocabulary of ancient Chinese Luo made use of available historical records, including the Records of the Three Kingdoms compiled by Chen Shou, which covered events from the Yellow Turban Rebellion in AD 184 up to the unification of the three kingdoms under the Jin Dynasty in AD 280. The Records of Three Kingdoms ( is the official and authoritative historical text on the period of Three Kingdoms covering from 189 to 280, Chen Shou (233–297 born in Nanchong, Sichuan, was the author of the Records of Three Kingdoms, a historical account of the Three The Yellow Turban Rebellion, sometimes also translated as the Yellow Scarves Rebellion, ( was a AD 184 peasant rebellion against Emperor Ling of Han The Jìn Dynasty ( 265 – 420) one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms period and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties Luo Guanzhong also included material from Tang Dynasty poetic works, Yuan Dynasty operas and his own personal interpretation of elements such as virtue and legitimacy. Luo combined this historical knowledge with a gift for storytelling to create a rich tapestry of personalities, and initially published it in 24 volumes. During Kangxi's reign in the Qing Dynasty, Mao Zonggang (毛宗岗) significantly edited the text, fitting it into 120 chapters. The Kangxi Emperor ( Mongolian Enkh Amgalan Khaan, May 4, 1654 &ndash December 20, 1722) was the third Emperor of Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China Nowadays, Mao's version is the most common.
This novel reflects the Confucian values that were prominent at the time it was written. Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B According to Confucian moral standards, loyalty to one's family, friends, and superiors are important measures for distinguishing good and bad people. In the novel, characters who were not loyal to the collapsing Han Dynasty are portrayed as bad people; on the contrary, modern mainstream ideology in Communist China would say that the deeply suffering masses were trying to overthrow the ruling feudal lords. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed
It must be understood that one of the greatest achievements of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms is the extreme complexity of its stories and characters. The novel is studded with numerous "mini-stories", many of which could be developed into full-length novels in their own right (the Battle of Red Cliffs and the treatment of Guan Yu by Hua Tuo being two examples). The Battle of Red Cliffs, otherwise known as the Battle of Chibi, ( was a decisive battle at the End of Han Dynasty, immediately prior to the period of the Three Guan Yu ( Chinese: 關羽 Guān Yǔ was a general under the warlord Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of Hua Tuo (d 208 was a renowned physician during the Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of China. As such, the following effort only serves as a very high level summary of the entire story:
The story begins in the last years of the Han Dynasty when incompetent eunuchs deceived the emperor and banished good officials. The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. A eunuch (ˈjuːnək is a Castrated man in particular one castrated early enough to have major hormonal consequences the term usually refers to those castrated in order to The government had become extremely corrupt on all levels, leading to widespread deterioration of the empire. During the reign of the penultimate Han emperor, Emperor Ling, the Yellow Turban Rebellion broke out under the leadership of Zhang Jiao, who allegedly practiced Taoist wizardry and held immortal powers. Emperor Ling of Han, trad ch 漢靈帝, sim ch 汉灵帝, py. The Yellow Turban Rebellion, sometimes also translated as the Yellow Scarves Rebellion, ( was a AD 184 peasant rebellion against Emperor Ling of Han Zhang Jiao or Zhang Jue (d 184 was the leader of the Yellow Turbans during the late Eastern Han Dynasty of China. Zhang pretended to be a traveling healer curing people of sickness while secretly inciting them to revolt. In this time of turmoil, many of the major characters are introduced; Liu Bei, Guan Yu, Zhang Fei, Cao Cao, Sun Jian, etc. Liu Bei (161– June 21 223) styled Xuándé (玄徳 was a general warlord and later the founding emperor of Shu Han during the Guan Yu ( Chinese: 關羽 Guān Yǔ was a general under the warlord Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of Zhang Fei (?-221 AD was a military general of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms era of China. Cáo Cāo ( 曹[[wikt 操|操]] 155 &ndash March 15, 220) was a regional Warlord and the penultimate Chancellor of the Sun Jian (155 &ndash 191 was a military general and minor Warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in ancient China
The rebellion was barely suppressed by imperial troops under the command of He Jin, Emperor Ling’s brother-in-law and the Supreme Commander of the armies of the Central Government. He Jin (135 &ndash 189 was the elder half-brother of Empress He, consort to Emperor Ling of the late Eastern Han Dynasty in China. Fearing his growing power, the eunuchs under Zhang Rang lured He Jin alone into the palace following Emperor Ling's death and murder that was orchestrated by his rivals. Zhang Rang (張讓 (pinyin Zhāng Ràng (d 189 was a Eunuch of the late Han Dynasty, who served Emperor Ling of Han; he was also the leader of the His stunned guards, led by Yuan Shao, responded by charging into the palace, which turned into an indiscriminate slaughter. In the ensuing confusion, the child Emperor Shao and the Prince of Chenliu (later Emperor Xian) disappeared from the palace.
Soon, the Emperor and the Prince were discovered by soldiers belonging to the warlord Dong Zhuo from Western Liang, who proceeded to seize control of the capital under the pretext of protecting the emperor. Dong Zhuo (died May 22, 192) was a powerful warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of China. This article refers to the Han-founded kingdom in what is now Gansu, whose sovereigns were ancestors of the eventual Tang Dynasty emperors Dǒng later had Emperor Shao deposed and replaced with the Prince of Chenliu, who became Emperor Xian. Under Dong Zhuo’s violent rule, the people suffered greatly. There were assassination attempts on him by both the court physician Wu Fu and Cao Cao but both attempts failed.
Cao Cao managed to escape and issued an edict in the emperor's name to all governors, calling them to remove Dong Zhuo from power. Under general Yuan Shao, 18 governors and nobles joined forces in a campaign against Dong Zhuo, but undermined by poor leadership and conflict of interest, they only managed to drive him from the capital Luoyang to Chang'an. Yuan Shao (? - 202 was a powerful warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of China. The Campaign against Dong Zhuo (董卓討伐戰 in 190 was initiated by a coalition of regional officials hoping to end Chancellor Dong Zhuo 's influence Luoyang ( is a Prefecture-level city in western Henan province, People's Republic of China. Chang'an ( is an ancient Capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history. However, Dong Zhuo was later betrayed and murdered by his own foster son Lü Bu, from a dispute over the beautiful Diaochan, in a scheme orchestrated by minister Wang Yun. Lü Bu (died 198 was a military general and later minor Warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of China. Diao Chan was one of the Four Beauties of ancient China. She was said to have been born in 161 or 169 AD depending on the source Wang Yun (137 AD &ndash 192 AD was the Minister over the Masses under Emperor Xian during the late Eastern Han Dynasty of China.
In the meantime, however, the empire was already disintegrating into civil war. Sun Jian, governor of Changsha, found the Imperial Jade Seal at the bottom of a well in the ruins of Luoyang but secretly kept it for his own purposes, further weakening royal authority. Sun Jian (155 &ndash 191 was a military general and minor Warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in ancient China Changsha ( is the Capital city of Hunan, a province of south-central China, located on the lower reaches of Xiang river a branch of the The Imperial Seal of China, or the Heirloom Seal of the Realm ( Traditional Chinese: 傳國璽 Simplified Chinese: 传国玺 is a Chinese Without a strong central government, warlords began to rise up and fight each other for land and power. In the north, Yuan Shao and Gongsun Zan were at war, and in the south, Sun Jian and Liu Biao. Gongsun Zan (? - 199 styled Bogui (伯珪 A native of Liaoxi (遼西 he was a warlord with fierce reputation during the late Eastern Han Dynasty era of China Liú Biǎo (? - August208 AD was the governor of the Jing province during the late Eastern Han Dynasty Many others, even those without title or land, such as Cao Cao and Liu Bei, were also starting to build up power.
Cao Cao took Emperor Xian from Dong Zhuo’s former subordinates Li Jue and Guo Si and established the new court in Xuchang. Li Jue may refer to Li Jue (Three Kingdoms Li Jue (Kuomintang Guō Sì (146 &ndash 197 was formerly an officer under Niu Fu, who was a general serving under Dong Zhuo. Xuchang ( is a Prefecture-level city in central Henan province, People's Republic of China. Even more powerful now with the emperor in his control, Cao Cao quickly subdued his rivals such as Yuan Shu, Lu Bu and Zhang Xiu, culminating in his greatest military victory, over Yuan Shao in the famous Battle of Guandu despite being outnumbered 10-to-1. This article is about the warlord during the Eastern Han Dynasty Lü Bu (died 198 was a military general and later minor Warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of China. Zhang Xiu (? &ndash 207 was a minor warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of China. The Battle of Guandu (官渡之戰 was a Battle during the prelude to the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history that took place at the Yellow River Cao Cao pursued the defeated Yuan clan and finally united northern China, which later served as the foundation for the Kingdom of Wei. Cao Wei ( was one of the empires that competed for control of China during the Three Kingdoms period
Meanwhile, an ambush had violently concluded Sun Jian's life in a war with Liu Biao, fulfilling his own rash oath to heaven. His eldest son Sun Ce then delivered the Imperial Jade Seal as tribute to rising royal pretender Yuan Shu of Huainan, in exchange for much needed reinforcements. Sun Ce (175 &ndash 200 was a military general and Warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. This article is about the warlord during the Eastern Han Dynasty Now, like the proverbial tiger that has been given claws, he soon secured himself a state in the rich riverlands of Jiangdong, on which the Kingdom of Wu would eventually be founded. Eastern Wu ( Chinese: 東吳 Pinyin: Dōng Wú also known as Sun Wu ( Traditional Chinese: 孫吳 pinyin Sūn Wú refers to a Tragically, Sun Ce also died at the height of his career from illness under stress of his terrifying encounter with the ghost of Yu Ji, a venerable magician whom he had falsely accused and executed in jealousy. Gan Ji (? &ndash 200 was a Taoist priest who lived during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. However, his successor and younger brother Sun Quan, led by skilled advisors Zhou Yu and Zhang Zhao, proved to be a masterful and charismatic ruler, inspiring hidden talents from across the land such as Lu Su to join his service, while raising a strong military which would truly receive a trial by fire in Cao Cao’s great southern campaign. Sun Quan ( (182 - 252 son of Sun Jian, courtesy name Zhòngmóu (仲謀 formally Emperor Da of (Eastern Wu was the founder of Eastern Wu Zhou Yu (周瑜 175-210 was a famous and one of the most capable military strategists for Sun Ce and his successor Sun Quan during the Three Kingdoms era the Zhang Zhao (156 – 236 was a civil officer who served Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms era of China. Lu Su (172 - 217 styled Zijing (子敬 was an advisor for the Kingdom of Wu during the Three Kingdoms era of China.
Liu Bei, along with his sworn brothers Guan Yu and Zhang Fei had sworn allegiance to the Han Dynasty (in the famous Oath of the Peach Garden) and pledged to do their best to serve the emperor and the common people. The Oath of the Peach Garden (桃園三結義 was an Oath in the Historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, by which the three warriors However, their goals and ambitions had not been realized till the later part of the novel. Liu Bei, ever since he had successfully quelled the Yellow Turban Rebellion, was not recognized for his efforts and was made only the magistrate of a small county. Later, Liu Bei joined Gongsun Zan and participated in the war against Dong Zhuo. Cao Cao invaded Xuzhou as a revenge against Tao Qian, the governor of Xuzhou who unknowingly allowed his subordinate to kill Cao Cao’s father. Administration The Prefecture-level city of Xuzhou administers eleven county-level divisions, including five districts, two county-level Translation Editions Meng Erdong ed Tao Yuanming Ji Yi Zhu ISBN 7-80626-064-1 Liu Bei led his troops from Pingyuan to help Tao Qian and Tao passed on his post as Governor of Xuzhou to Liu Bei before he died. At that same time, Lu Bu was at war with Cao Cao as he also longed to dominate China ever since he had killed Dong Zhuo. Lu Bu was defeated by Cao Cao and he sought refuge under Liu Bei. Later, Lu Bu repaid Liu Bei’s kindness with evil and seized control of Xuzhou. Liu Bei was forced to join forces with Cao Cao and they defeated Lu Bu. Lu Bu was executed and Liu Bei became officially recognized by Emperor Xian as the Emperor’s Uncle. Liu Bei plotted with some officials to kill Cao Cao as Cao Cao wielded far too much power and had the intention of usurping the throne. Liu Bei failed to kill Cao Cao as the plot was exposed. He seized control of Xuzhou but lost to Cao Cao when Cao Cao led his troops to conquer Xuzhou. Liu Bei got control of Runan with help from some former Yellow Turban rebels but was defeated once again by Cao Cao in battle. Liu Bei had no choice but to move to Jingzhou to seek Liu Biao’s protection. Liu Biao treated Liu Bei with respect and put him in charge of Xinye. Xinye ( Pinyin: Xīnyě is one of the counties of Nanyang that lies in the southwest of Henan province in central China. At Xinye, Liu Bei recruited the talented Zhuge Liang personally and slowly built up his forces. Zhuge Liang (181–234 was Chancellor of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China
Cao Cao, who declared himself the Prime Minister, led his troops to attack southern China after uniting the north. At Xinye, he was defeated twice by Liu Bei’s forces but Liu Bei lost Xinye and had to move to Jingzhou. Unfortunately, Liu Biao had died by then and left Jingzhou split between his two sons Liu Qi and Liu Cong. Liu Bei led the civilians of Xinye to Xiangyang, where Liu Cong ruled but Liu Bei was denied entry. Xiangyang ( Traditional Chinese: 襄陽 Simplified Chinese: 襄阳 Pinyin: Xiāngyáng was a Chinese city famous for the Siege of Xiangyang Liu Cong later surrendered to Cao Cao, and Liu Bei had no choice but to move to Jiangxia where Liu Qi ruled. On the way, Liu Bei and the civilians were pursued by Cao Cao’s troops and several innocent civilians were killed. Liu Bei and his men managed to reach Jiangxia where he established a strong foothold against Cao Cao’s invasion.
To resist Cao Cao’s invasion, Liu Bei sent Zhuge Liang to persuade Sun Quan in Jiangdong to form an alliance. Zhuge Liang managed to persuade Sun Quan to form an alliance with Liu Bei against Cao Cao and stayed in Jiangdong as a temporary advisor. Sun Quan placed Zhou Yu in command of the forces of Jiangdong (Eastern Wu) to defend against Cao Cao’s invasion. Eastern Wu ( Chinese: 東吳 Pinyin: Dōng Wú also known as Sun Wu ( Traditional Chinese: 孫吳 pinyin Sūn Wú refers to a Zhou Yu felt that the talented Zhuge Liang would become a future threat to Eastern Wu and tried several times to kill Zhuge, but failed. In the end, he had no choice but to co-operate with Zhuge Liang for the time being as Cao Cao’s armies were at the border. Cao Cao was defeated at the Battle of Red Cliffs, also called the battle of Chi Bi, by the combined forces of Liu Bei and Sun Quan and forced to flee back to Jingzhou. The Battle of Red Cliffs, otherwise known as the Battle of Chibi, ( was a decisive battle at the End of Han Dynasty, immediately prior to the period of the Three
After the great battle at the Red Cliff, Eastern Wu and Liu Bei vied for control of Jingzhou. Zhou Yu led the troops of Eastern Wu to attack Jingzhou and gained a victory, but eventually Jingzhou ended up in Liu Bei’s hands, as Zhuge Liang had advised Liu Bei to seize Jingzhou while Zhou Yu and Cao Cao’s forces were at war. Zhou Yu was extremely unhappy and reported the matter to Sun Quan. Sun Quan dispatched Lu Su to Jingzhou to negotiate with Liu Bei for Jingzhou. Again and again, Liu Bei refused to hand over Jingzhou to Eastern Wu. Sun Quan had no choice but to use new strategies suggested by Zhou Yu to take Jingzhou. One of these was the Beauty Scheme, in which Sun Quan lured Liu Bei to Jiangdong (where he intended to hold Liu Bei hostage in exchange for Jingzhou) by pretending to betroth his younger sister to Liu Bei. However, Zhuge Liang outwitted Zhou Yu, and Liu Bei returned to Jingzhou safely with his new wife. Zhou Yu tried and failed repeatedly to take Jingzhou. After being infuriated by Zhuge Liang twice, Zhou Yu eventually coughed out blood. The third time, he coughed out even more, and died unconscious.
In the northwest, Ma Chao started a campaign against Cao Cao to avenge his father, Ma Teng, who was killed by Cao Cao. Ma Chao (176 – 222 was the eldest son of Ma Teng and a military general during the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of Ma Teng (156 - 212 was a warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of China. Ma Chao’s forces were formidable as he had the support of Han Sui and troops from the Qiang minority. Han Sui (??–215 was a warrior and military leader in the waning years of the Han Dynasty and during the Three Kingdoms era of China. However, Cao Cao managed to defeat Ma Chao’s forces by using cunning strategies to make Ma Chao and Han Sui turn against each other. Han Sui defected to Cao Cao and Ma Chao was left stranded. Ma Chao later sought refuge under Zhang Lu of Hanzhong, and eventually joined Liu Bei. Zhang Lu (? - 216 was a warlord during the Three Kingdoms era of China.
After Zhou Yu’s death, relations between Liu Bei and Sun Quan deteriorated, but not to the point of outright war. Following Zhuge Liang's advice, Liu Bei invaded and conquered Xichuan, where the incompetent noble Liu Zhang ruled. Xichuan County ( Chinese::淅川县 Pinyin: Xīchuān Xiàn is a county of Nanyang Henan, China. Liu Zhang may refer to Liu Zhang (Han prince, Western Han imperial clan member involved in overthrowing the Lü clan during the Lü Clan Disturbance He also took Hanzhong, which had been in Cao Cao’s control. Hanzhong ( is a city in Shaanxi province in central China. Population (2004 approx Liu Bei proclaimed himself King of Hanzhong, while Cao Cao had himself promoted from Prime Minister to King of Wei; Sun Quan was known as the Duke of Wu. At this time, Liu Bei ruled a vast area of land from Jingzhou to Sichuan in the west. ( Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in western China with its capital in Chengdu. This would later serve as a strong foundation for the founding of the Kingdom of Shu-Han. Shu Han ( Traditional Chinese: 蜀漢 Pinyin: Shǔ Hàn sometimes known as the Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ was one of the Three Kingdoms competing Meanwhile, Sun Quan and Cao Cao were also at war, with defeats and victories for both sides at the battles of Ruxu and Hefei.
The situation among the three major powers almost reached a stalemate after this, until Cao Cao died due to a brain tumor. The following year, Cao Cao’s son Cao Pi forced Emperor Xian to abdicate, ending the Han Dynasty which had lasted for centuries. Cao Pi (曹丕 187 - June 29, 226) formally Emperor Wen of (Cao Wei (曹魏文帝 Courtesy name Zihuan (子桓 was Cao Pi proclaimed himself emperor and renamed his dynasty Cao Wei. In response to this, Liu Bei declared himself Emperor of Shu-Han, to signify that he still carried on the bloodline of the Han royal family, but was based in Shu. ( Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in western China with its capital in Chengdu.
Sun Quan, tired of Liu Bei’s repeated refusals to hand over Jingzhou, made plans to retake it. He made peace with Cao Cao and was bestowed the title of Prince of Wu. Liu Bei left his sworn brother Guan Yu in charge of Jingzhou, and Guan led the Jingzhou troops to attack Cao Cao. Sun Quan took advantage of the situation and sent Lu Meng to seize Jingzhou. Lü Meng (178 - 219 was a renowned officer under Sun Quan during the Three Kingdoms period of China. Lu Meng disguised his troops as merchants and finessed a quiet entry. As Guan was besieging Wei general Cao Ren, Lu Meng's forces attacked Guan from the rear, and routed his army with ease. Cao Ren (168 &ndash 223 was a military general under the powerful warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of In desperate retreat, his army scattered, Guan Yu was captured. Sun Quan had him beheaded after he refused to renounce his loyalty to Liu Bei. Liu Bei deeply grieved the death of Guan Yu and the loss of Jingzhou. He was already planning to avenge Guan Yu when he heard that his other sworn brother, Zhang Fei, had been murdered in his sleep by subordinates who then fled to Eastern Wu. Liu Bei was determined to avenge both brothers. Disregarding advice from Zhuge Liang and others, Liu Bei led a formidable army of 750,000 to attack Eastern Wu.
Sun Quan offered Liu Bei the return of the Jing province and of his sister (Liu's ex-wife Sun Ren). Liu Bei's advisers, including Zhuge Liang, urged him to accept these terms, but Liu persisted. After initial victories, a series of strategic mistakes due to the impetuosity of Liu Bei led to the cataclysmic defeat of Han troops in the Battle of Yiling. However, Lu Xun, the commander of Wu who spearheaded the war against Shu-Han, refrained from pursuing Liu Bei’s defeated troops. Lu Xun (183 &ndash 245 was an officer of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms era of China. Famous generals from both Wu and Shu-Han forces perished. Lu Xun’s caution was vindicated when Cao Pi launched an invasion against Wu, thinking that Wu forces would still be abroad. The invasion was crushed by strong Wu resistance, coupled with a plague outbreak.
Meanwhile, in Baidicheng, sixty-two year old Liu Bei, ailing after three years of neglecting his health, died, leaving his young son Liu Shan in the care of Zhuge Liang. Baidi or Baidicheng ( Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 白帝城 8 km east of the present day Fengjie County seat in Chongqing Liu Shan, (commonly mispronounced as Liu Chan) (207 &ndash 271 was the second and last emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era In a moving final conversation between Liu Bei and Zhuge Liang, Liu Bei asked Zhuge Liang to assume the imperial throne himself in place of Liu Shan, should Liu Shan prove to be inept. He refused to do so, and swore that he would remain faithful to the trust that Liu Bei had for him. This promise was to be a raison d'être for the rest of Zhuge Liang's life.
Cao Pi, following Sima Yi’s advice, induced several forces, including Sun Quan, turncoat Shu general Meng Da, Meng Huo of the Nanman, and the Qiang tribe, to attack Shu Han, in coordination with a Cao Wei army. Sima Yi (179 - 251 was a strategist general and politician of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms era of China. Meng Da (d 227 was a general who served under Liu Zhang, Liu Bei, Cao Pi, and Cao Rui during the last years of the Eastern Han Dynasty Meng Huo (孟獲 was aristocrat in the Nanzhong region south of Shu Han, during the Three Kingdoms era of China. Nanman ( 南蠻, pinyin Nánmán literally "southern barbarians" were Aboriginal tribes who lived in southwestern China. Zhuge Liang successfully deployed the Shu Han troops and caused the five armies to retreat without shedding a single drop of blood. An envoy from Shu Han named Deng Zhi subsequently persuaded Sun Quan to renew its former alliance with Shu Han. Deng Zhi (died 251 was a minister serving under Liu Bei during the Three Kingdoms era of China.
In one of his final strokes of brilliance, Zhuge Liang personally led the Shu troops to subdue the southern barbarian king Meng Huo of the Nanman tribe. The barbarian troops were no match for the Shu troops and Zhuge Liang captured Meng Huo seven times by using cunning strategies. The first six times, Meng Huo complained that he had been captured by trickery, and had no chance to fight a real battle with the Shu troops. Zhuge Liang agreed to let him go every time, allowing him to come back again for another battle. The seventh time, Zhuge Liang wanted to release Meng Huo once again but this time Meng Huo refused. Meng Huo was ashamed of rebelling against Shu-Han and was so deeply touched by Zhuge Liang’s benevolence that he swore allegiance to Shu-Han forever.
At this time, Cao Pi also died of illness and was succeeded by Cao Rui. Cao Rui ( 205 - 22 January 239) was the son of Cao Pi and the second emperor of the Cao Wei. Ma Chao died of illness as well, age 48. In Jiangdong, Sun Quan declared himself Emperor of Eastern Wu. Zhuge Liang then turned his eyes northwards, and planned to attack Wei to restore the Han Dynasty as he had promised Liu Bei at the latter’s deathbed. However, his days were numbered and Shu was far too weak to overcome the material superiority of Wei. His last significant victory against Wei was probably the defection of Jiang Wei, a young general whose brilliance paralleled his own. Jiang Wei (202 - 264 was a military general and later regent of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms era of China.
Zhuge Liang had all along had a chronic illness, which was compounded when he refused to rest even into the early hours of the morning, so that he would be able to complete his analysis of the battlegrounds or to formulate his next plan. He finally died of sickness at the Battle of Wuzhang Plains, while leading a stalemated battle against the Wei commander, Sima Yi, with his far superior force. The Battle of Wuzhang Plains (五丈原之戰 is a famous standoff between the kingdoms of Wei and Shu in 234 A Sima Yi (179 - 251 was a strategist general and politician of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms era of China. As a final ploy, he set up a statue of himself to scare off Sima Yi in order to buy time for the Shu army to retreat.
The long years of battle between Wei and Shu saw many changes in the ruling Cao family in Wei. The Cao family gradually grew weak after the death of Cao Rui and Sima Yi slowly plotted to usurp the throne. Sima Yi removed Cao Shuang, a powerful noble of Wei from power with a cunning strategy and since then the power of Wei had been in the hands of Sima Yi. Cao Shuang (died 249 was the son of Cao Zhen, a famous commander of the Kingdom of Wei during the Three Kingdoms period After Sima Yi’s death, his sons Sima Shi and Sima Zhao continued wielding the power of Wei in their hands. Sima Shi (208-255 courtesy name Ziyuan (子元 was an official of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms era of China. Sima Zhao (211-265 courtesy name Zishang (子尚 was the son of chief military strategist Sima Yi of Cao Wei, during the Three Kingdoms Sima Zhao had Cao Fang removed from the throne and replaced Cao Fang with Cao Mao. For the singer see Cao Fang (singer. Cao Fang, ch 曹芳, py. Cao Mao (242-260 courtesy name Yanshi (彥士 wg yen-shih was an emperor of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period. Later, Cao Mao tried to assassinate Sima Zhao, who had the intention of usurping the throne, but was killed by Sima Zhao’s subordinate. Sima Zhao pretended to grieve and mourn Cao Mao’s death and even later had his subordinate, whom he ordered to kill Cao Mao, executed for committing regicide. The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a Monarch, or the person responsible for it
Jiang Wei, who succeeded Zhuge Liang’s brilliance, carried on Zhuge Liang’s campaign against Wei for a bitter three decades. However, Liu Bei’s son Liu Shan did not heed Jiang Wei’s advice and listened to the evil eunuch Huang Hao instead. Liu Shan, (commonly mispronounced as Liu Chan) (207 &ndash 271 was the second and last emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era Huang Hao was a Eunuch serving Liu Shan, second and last emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in In order to escape from the rival officials in the court, Jiang Wei decided to resigned from his military title for the time being and went off to a fertile land of Tazhong. The Wei general Deng Ai, who was at war with Jiang Wei, took the chance to attack Shu-Han. Deng Ai (d264 was a talented general of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms era of China. Deng Ai and his troops arrived in front of Chengdu, the capital city of Shu-Han, by taking a shortcut. ( located in southwest People's Republic of China, is the capital of Sichuan province and a Sub-provincial city. Liu Shan surrendered without a battle and ended the Kingdom of Shu-Han. Jiang Wei planned to rebuild Shu-Han by uniting forces with a Wei general, Zhong Hui, who was at odds with Deng Ai. Zhong Hui, (225–264 Courtesy name Shiji (士季 was a military general during the Three Kingdoms era of China. However, he was not able to see it to the end when his heartache grew intolerable in the midst of the final battle. Seeing the rebellion has failed, he then killed himself with a sword, marking the last stand of Shu.
In Eastern Wu, there was internal conflict among the nobles ever since the death of Sun Quan. Zhuge Ke tried to usurp the throne of Eastern Wu but was assassinated by Sun Lin. Zhuge Ke (203 – 253 courtesy name Yuanxun (元遜 was an officer for Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms era of China. Sun Lin (231-258 Courtesy name Zitong (子通 was a Regent during the reigns of emperors Sun Liang and Sun Xiu of Eastern Later, Sun Lin himself also lusted for power and had the emperor of Eastern Wu Sun Liang deposed and replaced with Sun Xiu. Sun Liang (243–260 was an Emperor of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period. Sun Xiu (235&ndash September 3, 264) Courtesy name Zilie (子烈 formally Emperor Jing of (Eastern Wu, was the third emperor Sun Xiu sought help from the old veteran general Ding Feng and had Sun Lin assassinated, and the power of Eastern Wu went back into the hands of the emperor. Ding Feng (190 - 271 styled Chengyuan (承淵 was a military general serving under the Kingdom of Wu during the Three Kingdoms era of China This did not last for long.
In Wei, Sima Yan, son of Sima Zhao, finally forced the last Wei emperor Cao Huan to abdicate in the same manner as Cao Pi had forced Emperor Xian of Han to abdicate. Life before establishment of the Jìn Dynasty Sīmǎ Yán was born to Sima Zhao and his wife Wang Yuanji, daughter of the Confucian scholar Wáng Cao Huan, ch 曹奐, py. cáo hùan, Wg. Ts'ao-Huan (246-303 was a grandson of Cao Cao and last emperor Sima Yan established the Jin Dynasty in AD 265, declaring himself the first emperor of the new dynasty. The Jìn Dynasty ( 265 – 420) one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms period and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties The Kingdom of Wei came to an end.
Sima Yan ordered the Jin troops to attack Eastern Wu from the former land of Shu-Han and succeeded in conquering Eastern Wu after a long period of struggle when the last tyrannical emperor of Eastern Wu, Sun Hao surrendered. Sun Hao (孫皓 (242-284 Courtesy name Yuanzong (元宗 originally named Sun Pengzu (孫彭祖 with the Courtesy name Yuanzong (元宗 Thus the Three Kingdoms period concluded after almost a century of civil strife.
Based on a well-known period in Chinese history, the novel, however, show a certain extent of deviation from the academic historical records. The following is a list of fictitious stories from the Chinese novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms. It is said that the novel consists of 70% history and 30% non-history. The "non-history" parts have different sources, besides unofficial historical records, folk stories and Sanguozhi Pinghua, some were created by the author on his own.
One important point to note is that the Romance of the Three Kingdoms features Liu Bei and his kingdom as the protagonist, hence the depiction of the people in Shu-Han was gloriifed. The antagonists, Cao Cao, Sun Quan and their kingdoms, on the other hand, were often smeared throughout the context. The alternation were due to the royal (and civil) recognition of Shu-Han in the Ming Dynasty, unlike in the Jin Dynasty, when Cao Wei was considered the only legitimate one.
Some non-historical scenes in the novel have become well-known and entered traditional Chinese culture.
Luo Guanzhong's re-telling of this story also gives a window into the politics of his time. Pang De (170 &ndash 219 was a prominent general under the powerful warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of The Battle of Fancheng (樊城之戰 was fought between the forces of Liu Bei and Cao Cao in the prelude to the Three Kingdoms period in ancient Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China The later Míng Emperor Wanlì had officially elevated Guan Yu to the position of a god, Lord Guan, to promote Guan Yu's characteristics of bravery and extreme fidelity (characteristics the emperor no doubt wanted to promote in his subjects). Wanli Emperor ( September 4, 1563 - August 18, 1620) was Emperor of China ( Ming dynasty) between 1572 and 1620 Guan Yu ( Chinese: 關羽 Guān Yǔ was a general under the warlord Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of Recent research finds in Luo Guanzhong's Guan Yu a fascinating reflection of Chinese culture under Míng rule, the author complying with the program of imperial propaganda while also subtly subverting it.
Besides the famous oath, many Chinese proverbs in use today are derived from the novel:
Romance of the Three Kingdoms recorded stories of a Buddhist monk, who was a friend of the renowned general Guan Yu and informed him of an assassination attempt. Guan Yu ( Chinese: 關羽 Guān Yǔ was a general under the warlord Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of As the novel was written in the Ming Dynasty, more than 1000 years after the era, these stories showed that Buddhism had long been a significant ingredient of the mainstream culture and may not be historically accurate. The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led Luo Guanzhong preserved these descriptions from earlier versions of the novel to support his portrait of Guan Yu as a faithful and a man of virtue. Luo Guanzhong ( c 1330?-1400? born Luo Ben (罗本 was a Chinese author attributed with writing Romance of the Three Kingdoms (三国演义 Guan Yu was, from then onwards, known as Guan Gong, "Lord Guan. "
Regarding this novel and another Chinese classic Water Margin, there is a popular saying in China that goes: "少不讀水滸, 老不讀三國", translated as "The young shouldn't read Water Margin while the old shouldn't read The Three Kingdoms. Water Margin ( (also Outlaws of the Marsh, All Men Are Brothers or The Marshes of Mount Liang) is one of the Four Great Classical Novels " The former depicts the lives of outlaws and their defiance with the established social system. Depicting frequent violence, brawls, passionate brotherhood and an emphasis on machismo, it could easily have a negative influence on young boys. The latter presents all kinds of sophisticated stratagems, deceptions, frauds, trickeries, traps and snares employed by the three kingdoms and their individual characters to compete with each other, which might tempt the experienced old readers (the elderly are traditionally well respected, trusted and considered wise and kindhearted in Chinese society) to use them to harm other people. Also, old people are supposed to "know the will of the heavens" (says Confucius). Confucius ( lit " Master Kung " September 28, 551 BC - 479 BC) was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher They shouldn't exhaust or strain themselves with always having to consider how to deceive others.
The story of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms has been told in numerous forms including television series, manga and video games. A television program (US television programme (UK or television show (U ˈmɑŋgə is the Japanese word for Comics (sometimes called komikku コミック and print Cartoons In their modern form manga date from shortly A video game is a Game that involves interaction with a User interface to generate visual feedback on a video device.
The Ravages of Time is a Chinese Manhua which retells the events of Romance of the Three Kingdoms. The Ravages of Time (火鳳燎原 is an on-going Chinese Manhua series re-telling the events in the Three Kingdoms Period of Chinese history and the story Manhua ( are Chinese Comics originally produced in China. Possibly due to their greater degree of artistic freedom of expression and closer international ties The drawing style is dark and grim, and while it keeps the main plot intact, the finer details are dramatized.
Romance of the Three Kingdoms has been adapted into several comic versions in Japan, varying in levels of historical accuracy and loyalty to the original novel and popular tradition. Some of the most widely read in Japan are Sangokushi (which is also the Japanese reading for "The Three Kingdoms", the historical account on which "Romance of the Three Kingdoms" is based) by Yokoyama Mitsuteru (Ushio), Sōten Kōro by King Gonta (Kodansha), Ryūrōden by Yoshito Yamahara (Kodansha), and Tenchi o Kurau by Motomiya Hiroshi (Shueisha). was a famous Japanese manga artist. His works include Tetsujin 28-go, Giant Robo, Akakage, Babel is a Japanese Manga by manga artist, adapted from an original story by. is the largest Japanese publisher headquartered in ( Bunkyo) Tokyo. also known as Legend of the Dragon's Son, is an ongoing Historical Fantasy Manga by Yoshito Yamahara. is the largest Japanese publisher headquartered in ( Bunkyo) Tokyo. is a major publisher in Japan, headquartered in Tokyo. The company was founded in 1925 as the entertainment-related publishing division of Japanese publisher Shogakukan
The manga Ikki Tousen is loosely based on Romance of the Three Kingdoms, but the characters in the story refer to the names in the Japanese version of the book. or "Bakunyū" Hyper-Battle Ikki Tōsen is a 13 episode Anime series loosely based on the Manga by Yuji Shiozaki, which In the series most characters appear to have similar fates to the characters of the same name from the classic novel.
The story serves as the basis for SD Gundam Sangokuden: Romance of the Three Kingdoms, a manga/model kit line in the long running Musha Gundam SD Gundam series. is the SD Gundam series for 2007 and the 18th work in the Musha Gundam series are Gundam units modelled after Samurai, Ninja, or other forms of feudal Japanese warriors Super Deformed Gundam or SD Gundam is a series that spawned from the Gundam series
There are multiple television series based on this tale. The 84-episode TV serial Romance of the Three Kingdoms was aired by CCTV, while the Japanese anime series Yokoyama Mitsuteru Sangokushi ran for 47 episodes on TV Tokyo between 1991 and 1992, focusing on the stories before the Battle of Chi Bi. In 1995, CCTV produced a television adaptation of the novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms. China Central Television or Chinese Central Television, commonly abbreviated as CCTV ( is the major television broadcaster in Mainland China (anime in Japanese, is a Japanese Anime series based on the Sangokushi Manga by Mitsuteru Yokoyama, itself based on Eiji Yoshikawa 's retelling of The Battle of Red Cliffs, otherwise known as the Battle of Chibi, ( was a decisive battle at the End of Han Dynasty, immediately prior to the period of the Three
In 2007, a new anime series was created, focusing very loosely on the tale, it is called Koutetsu Sangokushi
Three Kingdoms: Resurrection of the Dragon IMDB, is a movie based on Romance of the Three Kingdoms Novel, released in 2008. is one of the Japanese Anime loosely-based adaptations of the Chinese Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Three Kingdoms Resurrection of the Dragon ( is a 2008 Chinese film based on the Historical novel Romance of Three Kingdoms The movie focused on the the Story of Zhao Yun, also known as Zhao Zilong. For the Song Emperor see Emperor Lizong of Song. Zhao Yun (? - 22 The plot is very different compare to the novel.
There are also PC games based on this tale. The best known of these games are from Koei, which released eleven Romance of the Three Kingdoms strategy titles, usually only released in Asia, excluding expansions (known as 'PK' packs). This article is about the software company For the Japanese era name see Kōei (era. is a Computer and Video game that originated from Japan. It is a series of turn-based computerized wargames by Koei. These strategy titles are one of their most famous franchises and were originally based on the same concept as the earlier Nobunaga's Ambition. This series is also released on video games consoles such as the NES, Super NES, Sega Genesis, Sega CD, Sega Saturn, PlayStation and PlayStation 2. The Nintendo Entertainment System (often abbreviated as NES or simply Nintendo) is an 8-bit Video game console that was released by The Super Nintendo Entertainment System or Super NES (also called SNES and Super Nintendo) is a 16-bit Video game console that was is a multinational Video game Software and Hardware development company and a former Home computer The is an add-on device for the Sega Mega Drive that was released in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Japan. The is a 32-bit Video game console that was first released on November 22 1994 in Japan, May 11 1995 in North America The PlayStation (abbreviated PS, PSone, PS1, or informally as PSX) is a 32-bit fifth generation Video game console Unlike their PC counterparts, the console versions are much more frequently found outside of Asia.
Another popular Three Kingdoms game series by Koei is Dynasty Warriors, which uses an action "beat 'em up"-style with tactical elements. is a series of tactical action Video games created by Koei. The award-winning series Games Original game The series has been released for PlayStation, PlayStation 2, PlayStation3, Xbox, Xbox 360, PlayStation Portable, Game Boy Advance, Nintendo DS, and the PC. It has also generated a spinoff series, Dynasty Tactics, and Warriors Orochi series. Dynasty Tactics ( Sangokushi Senki, 三国志戦記 is a series of strategy games for the Sony Playstation 2. Warriors Orochi, known in Japan as, is a PlayStation 2 and Xbox 360 Hack and slash Video game developed by Koei
Also seen are the Sango Fighter series which portrayed the generals as characters in a two-dimensional fighting game. Sango Fighter (武將爭霸 is a Fighting game for DOS made by the Taiwanese Panda Entertainment and released in 1993.
A 2D computer role-playing game, entitled Fantasia Sango, was released by Taiwanese game company UserJoy Technology. 2D computer graphics is the Computer -based generation of Digital images mdashmostly from two-dimensional models (such as 2D geometric models text and digital A computer role-playing game ( CRPG) is a broad Video game genre originally developed for personal computers and other home computers Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. UserJoy Technology (宇峻奧汀 founded in Taiwan since 1995 is a company involved in Video game development publishing and maintenance It uses the events of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms as the backdrop for the plot. The re-telling of the story also involves traditional Chinese supernatural entities and concepts. Besides Fantasia Sango, UserJoy Technology has also developed The Legend of Three Kingdoms Online, a MMORPG. The Legend of Three Kingdoms Online (三國群英傳Online is a 2 A massively multiplayer online role-playing game ( MMORPG) is a genre of Computer role-playing games (CRPGs in which a large number of players interact with
Capcom released various games based on Motomiya Hiroshi's manga Tenchi o Kurau. These were "brawler" games released for the arcade known as Dynasty Wars, and its sequel, Warriors of Fate. An arcade game is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in businesses such as Restaurants Pubs Video arcades and Family Entertainment is a side-scrolling Beat-'em-up arcade game released in 1989 by Capcom, based on a Japanese Manga Tenchi wo Kurau and a reenactment Warriors of Fate is the English adaptation of the Japanese Arcade game,, which uses the manga Tenchi wo Kurau (based on the Romance of the There are also two console role playing games for the NES, the first of which was released in North America as Destiny of an Emperor. A console role-playing game is a video game genre that has its origin rooted in Video game consoles and includes game mechanics and frequently settings derived is a traditional Role-playing game for the Nintendo Entertainment System.
Three installments of a similar game to Warriors of Fate, Knights of Valour, were released by International Games System. International Games System (鈊象電子 or IGS is a company based in Taiwan, which develops video game software for the arcade and PC These are best described as side-scrolling "beat-'em-up" games, similar to the Double Dragon arcade games.
Sega released a hybrid card/board/strategy game entitled Sangokushi Taisen, in which players manipulate cards on a tabletop to move military units in order to take destroy enemy castles. is a multinational Video game Software and Hardware development company and a former Home computer
In the MMORPG MapleStory, there are a number of equipment suits that are named after and designed to look like characters from the Romance of the Three Kingdoms. A massively multiplayer online role-playing game ( MMORPG) is a genre of Computer role-playing games (CRPGs in which a large number of players interact with MapleStory (메이플스토리 is a free-of-charge, 2D, Side-scrolling Massively multiplayer online role-playing game developed by
The real-time strategy game Three Kingdoms: Fate of the Dragon, released for the PC by Eidos Interactive in 2001, portrays all of the events appearing in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms story. A real-time strategy ( RTS) Video game is a strategic game that is distinctly not turn-based. The Three Kingdoms Fate of the Dragon is a Video game developed by Overmax Studios in 2001 for the PC Eidos Interactive is a publisher of video and Computer games with its parent company based in England.
The Magic: The Gathering expansion Portal: Three Kingdoms is drawn specifically from this tale. This article is somewhat over-complete Please do not add significant new content without first discussing it on the talk page Portal Three Kingdoms is the third Magic The Gathering expansion of the Portal block and the third starter level set