The Roman Question was a political dispute between the Italian Government and the Papacy from 1861 to 1929. This articles covers the history of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and
The Roman Question began when Rome was declared Capital of Italy on March 27, 1861, and ended with the Lateran Pacts between Mussolini's government and Pope Pius XI. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Events 196 BC - Ptolemy V ascends to the throne of Egypt. 1309 - Pope Clement V excommunicates Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Lateran Treaty is one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, three agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy Pope Pius XI ( Latin: Pius PP XI; Italian: Pio XI; May 31 1857 &ndash February 10 1939) born After the capture of Rome on 20 September 1870, the popes considered themselves (in the words of Pope Pius IX) "prisoners in the Vatican". The Capture of Rome (20 September 1870 was the final event of the long process of Italian unification known as the Risorgimento, which finally unified the Italian Blessed Pope Pius IX (May 13 1792 &ndash February 7 1878 born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was Pope from June 16 1846 until 1878 A prisoner in the Vatican is what Pope Pius IX claimed to be after the army of the Kingdom of Italy entered Rome ( September 20
After the Lateran Pacts were signed in 1929, the Popes regularly visited parts of Rome outside the Vatican. In particular, they took possession, after their election, of their cathedral, the Basilica of St. John Lateran, situated on the opposite side of the city. The Basilica of St John Lateran ( Italian: Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano) is the Cathedral of the church of Rome and the official They also went to their summer residence at Castel Gandolfo, which has extraterritorial privileges, like an embassy, but is not part of Vatican City State. Castel Gandolfo is a small Italian town in Lazio that occupies a height overlooking Lake Albano about 30 km south-east of Rome, on the Alban Travelling further afield began with Pope John XXIII, was extended outside Italy by Pope Paul VI and reached a climax with Pope John Paul II, whose travels outside Italy added up to three times the distance between the earth and the moon. Pope John (numberingBlessed Pope Pope
On February 18, 1861, the deputies of the first Italian Parliament assembled in Turin. Events 3102 BC - Epoch (origin of the Kali Yuga. 1229 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II Holy Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common On March 17, 1861, the Parliament proclaimed Victor Emmanuel II King of Italy, and on March 27, 1861 Rome was declared Capital of the Kingdom of Italy. Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Victor Emmanuel II King of Italy ( Vittorio Emanuele II; March 14, 1820 – January 9, 1878) was the King of Events 196 BC - Ptolemy V ascends to the throne of Egypt. 1309 - Pope Clement V excommunicates Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common However, the Italian Government could not take its seat in Rome because a French garrison, maintained there by Napoleon III of France, was defending Pope Pius IX. Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President Following the signing of the September Convention, the seat of government was moved from Turin to Florence in 1865. The September Convention was a Treaty, signed on 15 September 1864 between the Italian government and Napoleon III, under which Napoleon III
In July 1870, the Franco-Prussian War began. The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871 In early August, Napoleon III recalled his garrison from Rome and could no longer protect what remained of the Papal States. The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa Widespread public demonstrations demanded that the Italian government take Rome. The Italian government took no direct action until the collapse of Napoleon at the battle of Sedan. The Battle of Sedan was fought during the Franco-Prussian War on 1 September 1870 King Victor Emmanuel II sent Count Ponza di San Martino to Pius IX with a personal letter offering a face-saving proposal that would have allowed the peaceful entry of the Italian Army into Rome, under the guise of protecting the pope.
According to Raffaele De Cesare:
|“||The Pope’s reception of San Martino [10 September 1870] was unfriendly. Pius IX allowed violent outbursts to escape him. Throwing the King’s letter upon the table he exclaimed, "Fine loyalty! You are all a set of vipers, of whited sepulchres, and wanting in faith. " He was perhaps alluding to other letters received from the King. After, growing calmer, he exclaimed: "I am no prophet, nor son of a prophet, but I tell you, you will never enter Rome!" San Martino was so mortified that he left the next day. ||”|
The Italian army, commanded by General Raffaele Cadorna, crossed the frontier on 11 September and advanced slowly toward Rome, hoping that an unopposed entry could be negotiated. Events 9 - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul The Italian army reached the Aurelian Walls on 19 September and placed Rome under a state of siege. The Aurelian Walls (Mura aureliane were City walls built between 271 and 275 in Rome during the reign of the Roman Emperors Aurelian and Events 335 - Dalmatius is raised to the rank of Caesar by his uncle Constantine I. Pius IX decided that the surrender of the city would be granted only after his troops had put up a token resistance, enough to make it plain that the take-over was not freely accepted. On 20 September, after a cannonade of three hours had breached the Aurelian Walls at Porta Pia, the Bersaglieri entered Rome (see capture of Rome). Events 451 - The Battle of Chalons takes place in North Eastern France. Porta Pia is a gate in the Aurelian Walls of Rome. Italy. One of Pope Pius IV 's civic improvements to the city it is named after him The Bersaglieri (bersaʎˈːɛri are a Corps of the Italian Army created by General Alessandro La Marmora in 1836 to serve in the Piedmontese Army The Capture of Rome (20 September 1870 was the final event of the long process of Italian unification known as the Risorgimento, which finally unified the Italian 49 Italian soldiers and 19 papal Zouaves died. Zouave was the title given to certain Infantry regiments in the French Army, normally serving in French North Africa between 1831 and 1962 Rome and the region of Lazio were annexed to the Kingdom of Italy after a plebiscite. For the football club see SS Lazio Lazio ( Latium in Latin) is a regione of central
Again, according to Raffaele De Cesare:
|“||The Roman question was the stone tied to Napoleon's feet — that dragged him into the abyss. He never forgot, even in August 1870, a month before Sedan, that he was a sovereign of a Catholic country, that he had been made emperor, and was supported by the votes of the conservatives and the influence of the clergy; and that it was his supreme duty not to abandon the pontiff. [. . . ] For twenty years Napoleon III had been the true sovereign of Rome, where he had many friends and relations [. . . ] Without him the temporal power would never have been reconstituted, nor, being reconstituted, would have endured. The temporal power of the Popes is the political and governmental activity of the Popes of the Roman Catholic Church, as distinguished from their spiritual "||”|
Pope Pius IX, asserting that the Holy See needed to maintain clearly manifested independence from any political power in its exercise of spiritual jurisdiction, and that the Pope should not appear to be merely a "chaplain of the King of Italy," rejected the Law of Papal Guarantees of 1871, which offered an annual financial payment to the Pope. The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic After the overthrow of the Papal States in 1870 Italy 's Law of Guarantees accorded the Pope certain honors and privileges similar to those enjoyed by the
Historical dramas such as Fabiola and Quo Vadis have been interpreted as implicitly comparing the Roman Question to the persecution of the early Catholic Church. Fabiola or the Church of the Catacombs is a novel by the English Cardinal Nicholas Wiseman. Quo Vadis A Narrative of the Time of Nero, commonly known as Quo Vadis, is a Historical novel written by Henryk Sienkiewicz.