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Military of ancient Rome (portal)
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The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis, lit. Commonwealth English! -->The military of ancient Rome relates to the combined military forces of Ancient Rome from the founding of the city The structural history of the Roman military describes the major chronological transformations in the organization and constitution of Ancient Rome 's armed forces, The Roman army was a set of military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military This is a list of both unit types and ranks of the Roman army from the Roman Republic to the fall of This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion primarily focusing on Principate (early Empire 30BC - 284AD legions for which there exists Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = "supports" formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC&ndash284 AD A Manius Acilius Glabrio -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 191 BC -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 91 -- Titus The Roman Navy ( Latin: Classis, lit "fleet" comprised the naval forces of the Roman state From its origin as a city-state in Italy in 9th century BC the rise as an empire covering much of Eurasia and North The following is a List of Roman wars fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date The following is a list of Roman Battles fought by the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, the Roman Empire, and sometimes the Byzantine Empire As with most other military forces the Roman military adopted a "carrot and stick" approach to military with an extensive list of decorations for military gallantry The technology history of the Roman military covers the development of and application of technologies for use in the armies and navies of Rome from the Roman Republic to the fall The military engineering of Ancient Rome 's armed forces was of a scale and frequency far beyond that of any of its contemporaries The Latin word castra, with its singular castrum, was used by the ancient Romans to mean buildings or plots of land reserved to or constructed for use as a military Roman Siege engines were for the most part adapted from Hellenistic Siege Technology. List of ancient Roman Triumphal arches (By modern country France Carpentras Triumphal Arch The Roman Roads were essential for the growth of the Roman Empire, by enabling the Romans to move armies and trade goods and to communicate news Roman military personal equipment was produced in large numbers to established patterns and used in an established way Rome's military was always tightly keyed to its political system The strategy of the Roman Military encompasses its Grand strategy (the arrangements made by the state to implement its political goals through a selection of military goals Roman infantry tactics refers to the theoretical and historical deployment formation and maneuvers of the Roman infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall Roman military borders and fortifications were part of a Grand strategy of territorial defense in the Roman Empire. A limes (or the Limes Romanus) was a Border defense or delimiting system of Ancient Rome. Hadrian's Wall ( Latin: perhaps Vallum Aelium, "the Aelian wall" is a stone and turf Fortification built by the Roman Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. "fleet") comprised the naval forces of the Roman state. Unlike modern naval forces, it never existed as an autonomous service, but operated as an adjunct to the Roman army. The Roman army was a set of military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military Founded in ca. 311 BC, and massively expanded during the course of the First Punic War, the Roman navy played a vital role in the early stages of the Roman Republic's ascension to hegemony in the Mediterranean Sea, especially in the wars against Carthage. The First Punic War ( 264 to 241 BC) was the first of three major wars fought between Carthage and the Roman Republic. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC and were probably the largest wars yet of the ancient However, it was gradually reduced in size and significance, undertaking mainly policing duties, under the Empire. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial In the 4th century, the bulk of the Roman fleet was moved to the Eastern Roman Empire, and continued to serve as the Byzantine navy. The Byzantine navy comprised the naval forces of the Byzantine Empire.
The first mention of a Roman fleet is in ca. 311 BC, after the conquest of Campania, when two new officials, the duumviri navales, were appointed on an ad hoc basis and tasked with the maintenance of a fleet. Campania is a region of Southern Italy in Europe. The region has a population of around 5 In Ancient Rome, duumviri ( Lat duumvir, "one of the two men" in plural originally duoviri, "the two men" was the official  As a result, the Republic acquired its first fleet, consisting of 20 ships, most likely triremes, with each duumvir commanding a squadron of 10 ships. Trireme ( τριήρης sing τριήρεις pl triremis sing Nevertheless, prior to the First Punic War the main task of this fleet was patrolling along the Italian coast and rivers, protecting seaborne trade from piracy. The First Punic War ( 264 to 241 BC) was the first of three major wars fought between Carthage and the Roman Republic. Whenever larger tasks had to be undertaken, such as the naval blockade of a besieged city, the Romans called on the allied Greek cities of southern Italy, the socii navales, to provide ships and crews. 
The first Roman expedition outside mainland Italy was against the island of Sicily in 265 BC, which led to the outbreak of hostilities with Carthage. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers Carthage at the time was the dominant sea power in the western Mediterranean, possessing a long maritime and naval experience and a large fleet. Operations in Sicily had to be supported by a fleet, so in 261 BC, the Romans set out to construct a fleet of 100 quinquiremes and 20 triremes. A quinquereme (Latin or penteres (Greek is a type of ancient oar-propelled warship that was used by the Greeks of the Hellenistic period and later by the Carthaginians  According to Polybius, the Romans seized a shipwrecked Carthaginian warship, and used it as a blueprint for a massive naval build-up. Polybius (ca 203 &ndash 120 BC, Greek) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic Period noted for his book called The Histories  The new fleets were commanded by the annually elected Roman magistrates, but naval expertise was provided by the lower officers, who continued to be provided by the socii, mostly Greeks. The Roman Magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome. This practice was continued until well into the Empire, something also attested by the direct adoption of numerous Greek naval terms. 
Despite the buildup, the Roman crews remained inferior in naval experience to the Carthaginians, and could not hope to match them in naval tactics, which required great maneuverability. Naval tactics in the age of galleys were used from antiquity to the early 17th century when Sailing ships replaced oared Galleys Weapons They therefore employed a novel weapon which transformed sea warfare to their advantage. They equipped their ships with the corvus, possibly developed earlier by the Syracusians against the Athenians. A corvus (meaning "crow" or "raven" in Latin) or harpago (probably the correct ancient name) was a Roman military This was a long plank with a spike for hooking onto enemy ships. Using it as a boarding bridge, marines were able to board an enemy ship, transforming sea combat into a version of land combat, where the Roman legionaries had the upper hand. Boarding, in its simplest sense refers to the insertion onto a ship's deck of people However, it is believed that the corvus' weight made the ships unstable, and could capsize a ship in rough seas. 
Although the first sea engagement, the Battle of the Lipari Islands in 260 BC, was a defeat for Rome, the forces involved were relatively small. The Battle of the Lipari Islands or Lipara ( Lipara harbour 260 BC) was the first encounter between the fleets of Carthage and Through the use of the corvus, the fledgling Roman navy won its first major engagement later that year at the Battle of Mylae. The Battle of Mylae took place in 260 BC during the First Punic War and was the first real naval battle between Carthage and the Roman Republic During the course of the war, Rome continued to win victories at sea and gained naval experience, although it also suffered a number of catastrophic losses due to storms, while conversely, the Carthaginian navy suffered from attrition. Their string of successes allowed Rome to push the war further across the sea to Africa and Carthage itself, and in the last battle of the war, at Aegates Islands in 241 BC, the Romans displayed superior seamanship to the Carthaginians. The Battle of the Aegates Islands or Aegusa ( Aegadian Islands, off the western coast of the island of Sicily, 10 March 241 BC) was 
At the beginning of the Second Punic War (218 BC - 202 BC), the balance of naval power in the Western Mediterranean had shifted from Carthage to Rome. The Second Punic War (referred to as "The War Against Hannibal" by the Romans lasted from 218 to 201 BC and involved combatants in the western Events By place Carthage A Carthaginian army under Hannibal attacks Rome's Spanish allies Events By place Carthage Accused of treason by the Carthaginians after being defeated by the Romans at the Battle of the This caused Hannibal, Carthage's great general, to shift the strategy, bringing the war to the Italian peninsula. Hannibal (Pronounced in Phoenician: Hanniba'al means " Ba'al is my grace " or " Ba'al has given me grace " 247 BC &ndash Unlike the first war, the navy played little role on either side in this war or in the Third Punic War, except for carrying supplies and reinforcements. The Third Punic War ( 149 BC to 146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage Long before Rome conquered Illyria in 168 BC and established the region as a province, the First Illyrian War in 229 BC marks the date which the Roman Navy first sailed across the Adriatic Sea and began her eastwards expansion. Illyria ( Albanian Iliria ( Ancient Greek; Latin Illyria; see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the The Roman province of Illyricum replaced the formerly independent kingdom of Illyria. In the Illyrian Wars of 229 BC and 219 BC, Rome overran the Illyrian settlements in the Neretva river valley and suppressed the Events By place Greece The First Illyrian War starts when the Roman Senate dispatches an army under the command of the Consuls  As Rome became increasingly involved in the affairs of the Eastern Mediterranean, the Roman fleet played again an important role. By the end of the 2nd century BC, Roman control over all of what was later to be dubbed mare nostrum ("our sea") had been established. The 2nd century BC started the first day of 200 BC and ended the last day of 101 BC.
After Rome's eventual victory over Carthage, there was no other sea power left to contend with Rome's marine might in the West. Following the defeat of Macedon, Rhodes and the Seleucid Empire in the early 2nd century BC, and the disbandment of their navies, the Roman Navy was drastically reduced, depending on their Greek allies to supply ships and crews as needed. Macedon or Macedonia ( Greek grc Μακεδονία grc-Latn Makedonía) was the name of a kingdom centered in the northern-most Rhodes (Ρόδος Ródos, ˈɾo̞ðo̞s Rodi ردوس Rodos; Ladino: Rodi or Rodes) is a Greek island The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i  In the absence of a strong naval presence however, and with the disruption caused by the Mithridatic Wars, piracy flourished throughout the Mediterranean, especially in Cilicia, but also in Crete and other places, further reinforced by money and warships supplied by Mithridates of Pontus, who hoped to enlist them in his wars against Rome. There were three Mithridatic Wars between Rome and Pontus in the first century BC Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering Geography Cilicia extended along the Aegean coast east from Pamphylia, to Mount Amanus ( Gavurdağı Mount) which separated it from Syria Crete ( Greek: Κρήτη transliteration: Krētē, modern transliteration Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the See Mithridates for people and concepts with the same name Mithridates VI (Μιθριδάτης 132&ndash63 BC also known as Mithridates  The pirates defeated several Roman commanders, and raided unhindered even the shores of Italy. Their activity posed a growing threat for the Roman economy, and several prominent Romans, including two praetors with the retinue and the young Julius Caesar, were captured and held for ransom. Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities the commander of an Army, either before Ransom is the practice of holding a prisoner to extort money or property to secure their release or it can refer to the sum of money involved But perhaps most importantly, the pirates disrupted the Rome's lifeline: the massive shipments of grain and other produce from Africa and Egypt that were needed to sustain the city's population. 
The grain shortages were a major political issue, as popular discontent threatened to become explosive. In 74 BC, with the outbreak of the Third Mithridatic War, Marcus Antonius (the father of Mark Antony) was appointed praetor with extraordinary imperium, but signally failed to defeat the pirates; rather, he was defeated off Crete in 72 BC, and died shortly after. The Third Mithridatic War ( 75 - 65 BC) was one of three Mithridatic Wars fought between Mithridates VI of Pontus and the Roman Republic Marcus Antonius Creticus (flourished 2nd century BC & 1st century BC) was a Roman politician member of the Antonius family Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N ( c January 14 83 BC&ndash August 1, 30 BC known in English as Mark Imperium in a broad sense translates as power. In Ancient Rome the concept applied to People, and meant something like "power  Finally, in 67 BC the Lex Gabinia was passed in the Plebeian Council, vesting Pompey with unprecedented powers and authorizing him to move against them. Events By place Rome Consuls Manius Acilius Glabrio and Gaius Calpurnius Piso. The Lex Gabinia (Gabinius's Law was a law established in Ancient Rome in 67 BC. The Plebeian Council ( Latin: concilium plebis) was the principal popular assembly of the ancient Roman Republic. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation  In a massive and concerted campaign, Pompey cleared the seas from the pirates. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation  Afterwards, the fleet was reduced again to policing duties against intermittent piracy. The last major campaign of the Roman navy in the Mediterranean until the 3rd century AD would be in the civil wars that ended the Republic. List of Civil wars involving Rome. There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the time of the late Republic.
As the Roman Republic unraveled, competing Roman generals once again built up their naval might. Sextus Pompeius, in his conflict with Octavian, had been given command of the Italian fleet by the Senate in 43 BC, and controlled the politically crucial supply of grain from Sicily to Rome. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was  After suffering a defeat from Sextus in 42 BC, Octavian initiated massive naval armaments, aided by his closest associate, Marcus Agrippa: ships were built at Ravenna and Ostia, the new harbor of Portus Julius built at Cumae, and soldiers and rowers levied, including over 20,000 manumitted slaves. Agrippa redirects here For other uses of the name see Agrippa (disambiguation. Portus Julius (alternately spelled in the Latin "Iulius" was the home port for the Roman western imperial fleet the classis Misenensis, named for nearby Cape There is also a small modern Greek Euboean city called Κυμη, near the ruins of the ancient Cuma  Finally, Octavian and Agrippa defeated Sextus in the Battle of Naulochus in 36 BC, putting an end to all Pompeian resistance. The naval Battle of Naulochus was fought on 3 September 36 BC between the fleets of Sextus Pompeius and Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, off Year 36 BC was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Octavian's power was further enhanced after his victory against the combined fleets of Mark Antony and Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, in the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, where Antony had assembled 500 ships against Octavian's 400 ships. Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N ( c January 14 83 BC&ndash August 1, 30 BC known in English as Mark Cleopatra VII Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; January 69 BC &ndash 30 BC was a Hellenistic ruler of Egypt Ptolemaic Egypt began when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt in 305 BC and ended with the death of queen Cleopatra The Battle of Actium was the decisive engagement in the Final War of the Roman Republic between the forces of Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony Year 31 BC was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar.  This last naval battle of the Roman Republic definitively established Octavian as the sole ruler over Rome and the Mediterranean world. In the aftermath of his victory, he formalized the Fleet's structure, establishing several key harbors in the Mediterranean (see below). The now fully professional navy had its main duties consist of protecting against piracy, escorting troops and patrolling the river frontiers of Europe. It remained however active in the periphery of the Empire.
Under Augustus and after the conquest of Egypt there were increasing demands from the Roman economy to extend the trade lanes to India. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Arabian control of all sea routes to India was an obstacle. One of the first naval operations under princeps Augustus was therefore the preparation for a campaign on the Arabian peninsula. Aelius Gallus, the prefect of Egypt ordered the construction of 130 transports and subsequently carried 10,000 soldiers to Arabia. Gaius Aelius Gallus was a Roman Prefect of Egypt from 26 - 24 BC.  But the following march through the desert towards Yemen failed and the plans for control of the Arabian peninsula had to be abandoned. Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab)
At the other end of the Empire, in Germania, the navy played an important role in the supply and transport of the legions. Germania was the Latin Exonym for For other uses see Legion The Roman Legion (from Latin legio "military levy Conscription," In 15 BC an independent fleet was installed at the Lake Constance. Under the designation Lake Constance or Lake of Constance ( German Bodensee) one summarizes the three independent bodies of water Obersee Later, the generals Drusus and Tiberius used the Navy extensively, when they tried to extend the Roman frontier to the Elbe. Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, born Decimus Claudius Drusus (the date of his name change is unknown and variously called Drusus, Drusus I, Nero Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (or Tiberius I) born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16 42 BC – March 16 AD 37) was the second Roman The Elbe ( die Elbe Low German: de Ilv) is one of the major Rivers of Central Europe. In 12 BC Drusus ordered the construction of a fleet of 1,000 ships and sailed them along the Rhine into the North Sea. Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, born Decimus Claudius Drusus (the date of his name change is unknown and variously called Drusus, Drusus I, Nero The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge The North Sea is a marginal, Epeiric sea of the Atlantic Ocean on the European Continental shelf.  The Frisians and Chauci had nothing to oppose the superior numbers, tactics and technology of the Romans. The Frisians are an ethnic group of Germanic people living in coastal parts of The Netherlands and Germany. The Chauci were a populous Germanic tribe that inhabited the extreme northwestern shore of Germany between Frisia in the west and the Elbe estuary When these entered the river mouths of Weser and Ems, the local tribes had to surrender. The Weser (ˈveːzɐ is a River in north-western Germany. Formed at Hann The Ems (Ems Eems is a River in northwestern Germany and northeastern Netherlands.
In 5 BC the Roman knowledge concerning the North and Baltic Sea was fairly extended during a campaign by Tiberius, reaching as far as the Elbe: Plinius describes how Roman naval formations came past Heligoland and set sail to the north-eastern coast of Denmark, and Augustus himself boasts in his Res Gestae: "My fleet sailed from the mouth of the Rhine eastward as far as the lands of the Cimbri to which, up to that time, no Roman had ever penetrated either by land or by sea. Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (or Tiberius I) born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16 42 BC – March 16 AD 37) was the second Roman The Elbe ( die Elbe Low German: de Ilv) is one of the major Rivers of Central Europe. Heligoland (Helgoland Heligolandic: deät Lun) is a small German Archipelago in the North Sea. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Res Gestae Divi Augusti, ( Latin: "The Deeds of the Divine Augustus" is the funerary inscription of the first Roman emperor, Augustus . . ".  The multiple naval operations north of Germania had to be abandoned after the battle of the Teutoburg Forest in the year 9 AD. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest took place in the year 9 A
In the years 15 and 16, Germanicus carried out several fleet operations along the rivers Rhine and Ems, without permanent results due to grim Germanic resistance and a disastrous storm. Germanicus Julius Caesar ( 24 May 16 BC or 15 BC&ndash October 10, 19) By 28, the Romans lost further control of the Rhine mouth in a succession of Frisian insurgencies. From 37 to 85, the Roman navy played an important role in the Roman conquest of Britain. Year 37 was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Year 85 was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. This page refers to the conquest begun in AD 43 For other Roman invasions see Caesar's invasions of Britain and Carausian Revolt. Especially the classis Germanica rendered outstanding services in multitudinous landing operations. In 46 a naval expedition made a push deep into the Black Sea region and even travelled on the Tanais. Year 46 was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey The Don (Дон is one of the major rivers of Russia. It rises in the town of Novomoskovsk 60 Kilometres southeast from Tula, southeast By 57 an expeditionary corps reached Chersonesos (see Charax, Crimea). Year 57 was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Chersonesos (Χερσόνησος Chersonesus Old East Slavic: Корсунь Korsun; Херсонес Khersones; also transliterated as Chersonese Charax is the largest Roman military settlement excavated in the Crimea.
It seems that under Nero the navy obtained strategically important positions for trading with India; but there was no known fleet in the Red Sea. Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus ( December 15, 37 – June 9, 68) born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. Possibly, parts of the Alexandrian fleet were operating as escorts for the Indian trade. Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια In the Jewish revolt, from 66 to 70, the Romans were forced to fight Jewish ships, operating from a harbour in the area of modern Tel Aviv, on Israel's Mediterranean coast. Year 66 was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Year 70 was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Tel Aviv-Yafo (תֵּל ־אָבִיב-יָפוֹ تل أبيب Tal ʾAbīb) (usually Tel Aviv) is the second-largest city in Israel For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. In the meantime several flotilla engagements on the Sea of Galilee took place. The Sea of Galilee, also Sea of Genneseret, Lake Kinneret or Lake Tiberias (Hebrew ים כנרת) (Arabic بحيرة طبريا)
During the Batavian rebellion of Gaius Julius Civilis (69-70), the rebels got hold of a squadron of the Rhine fleet by treachery, but could not employ it in a decisive strike against the rival fleet. The Revolt of the Batavi took place in the Roman province of Germania Inferior (S Gaius Julius Civilis was the leader of the Batavian rebellion against the Romans in 69. 69 (sex position & book by Ryu Murakami are -- already linked by "" with other meanings Year 70 was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The remaining ships returned to Imperial authority, when Civilis was defeated in open battle.
In the years 82 to 85, the Romans launched a campaign against the Caledonians in modern Scotland. Year 82 was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Year 85 was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The Caledonians ( Latin: Caledonii) or Caledonian Confederacy, is a name given by historians to a group of the Indigenous Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. In this context the Roman navy significantly escalated activities on the eastern Scottish coast. Simultaneously multiple expeditions and reconnaissance trips were launched. During these the Romans would capture the Orkney Islands for a short period of time and obtained information about the Shetland Islands. Orkney (also known as the Orkney Islands or incorrectly the Orkneys) is an Archipelago in northern Scotland, situated 10 miles (16 km north Shetland (formerly spelled Zetland, from etland; Old Norse non Hjaltland; Sealtainn is an Archipelago off the northeast coast of Supposedly the Romans also landed on the Hebrides and in Ireland. See also Hebrides (disambiguation The Hebrides (ˈhɛbrɨˌdiːz "HEB-ri-deez" Gaelic: Innse Gall) comprise a widespread and diverse Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world
Under the Five Good Emperors the navy operated mainly on the rivers; so it played an important role during Trajan's conquest of Dacia and temporarily an independent fleet for the Euphrates and Tigris rivers was founded. The Five Good Emperors is a term that refers to five consecutive emperors of the Roman Empire who represented a line of virtuous and just rule — Nerva, Trajan Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus, commonly known as Trajan ( September 18 53 &ndash August 9 117) was a Roman Emperor who Dacia, in ancient geography was the land of the Dacians. It was named by the ancient Hellenes ( Greeks) " Getae " The Euphrates ( ( Arabic: ar نهر الفرات; Turkish: tr Fırat Syriac: syr ܦܪܬ; Hebrew: he פרת The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great Rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of southeastern Also during the wars against the Marcomanni confederation under Marcus Aurelius several combats took place on the Danube and the Tisza. The Marcomannic Wars (called by the Romans bellum Germanicum or expeditio Germanica) were a series of wars lasting over a dozen years from about AD 166 Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (often referred to as "the wise" ( April 26, 121 – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj "Tisa" redirects here For other uses see Tisa (disambiguation and Tisza (disambiguation.
Under the aegis of the Severan dynasty, the only known military operations of the navy were carried out under Septimius Severus, using naval assistance on his campaigns along the Euphrates and Tigris, as well as in Scotland. The Severan dynasty was a Roman imperial Dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 193 and 235. Lucius Septimius Severus (or rarely Severus I) ( April 11 145 - February 4 211) was a Roman general and Roman Emperor The Euphrates ( ( Arabic: ar نهر الفرات; Turkish: tr Fırat Syriac: syr ܦܪܬ; Hebrew: he פרת The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great Rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of southeastern Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Thereby Roman ships reached inter alia the Persian Gulf and the top of the British Isles. The Persian Gulf, in the Southwest Asian region is an extension of the The British Isles (Irish variously Na hOileáin Bhriotanacha, Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa, Éire agus an Bhreatain Mhór; Ellanyn Goaldagh Eileanan
Under the barracks emperors, the navy made it through a major crisis, when, during the rule of Trebonianus Gallus, for the first time Germanic tribes built up their own powerful fleet in the Black Sea. A Barracks emperor was a Roman Emperor who seized power by virtue of his command of the army Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus (206 - August 253 was Roman Emperor from 251 to 253 in a joint rule with his son Volusianus. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic Via two surprise attacks (256) on Roman naval bases in the Caucasus and near the Danube, numerous ships fell into the hands of the Germans, whereupon the raids were extended as far as the Aegean Sea; Byzantium, Athens, Sparta and other towns were plundered and the responsible provincial fleets were heavily debilitated. The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. This article is about the city See also Byzantine Empire. Byzantium ( Greek: Βυζάντιον Latin: la BYZANTIVM Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's The city of Sparta ( Doric Σπάρτα Attic Σπάρτη It was not until the attackers made a tactical error, that their onrush could be stopped. In 268 another, much fiercer Germanic attack took place. Events By Place Roman Empire September - Gallienus, aided by Aurelian, defeats the Goths at the Battle Part of the invading fleet attacked the Mediterranean islands of Crete, Rhodes and Cyprus, while the other part targeted the Greek mainland. Once again the Romans had nothing to withstand against this attack. Only when the Germanic force set off for the interior could Claudius Gothicus defeat them.
In 286 the Roman Empire faced again a great danger when the commander of the British Fleet, Carausius, rose up and seceded with Britannia and parts of the northern Gallic coast. For the processor see Intel 80286. Events By Place Roman Empire March 1 — Diocletian The Classis Britannica (literally British fleet, in the sense of 'the fleet in British waters' or 'the fleet of the province of Britannia ' rather than 'the fleet Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius (died 293 was a military commander of the Roman Empire in the 3rd century With a single blow Roman control of the channel and the North Sea was lost, and emperor Maximinus was forced to create a completely new Northern Fleet, but in lack of training it was almost immediately destroyed in a storm. This article deals with 4th century Roman Emperor For other uses of the name see Maximin. Only under Caesar Constantius Chlorus was the navy again able to deliver troops to Britannia. Caesar (plural Caesars Latin: Caesar (plural Caesares is a Title of imperial character Flavius Valerius Constantius ( March 31 c 250&ndash July 25 306) was an emperor of the Western Roman Empire (305&ndash306 By a concentric attack on Londinium the insurgent province was retaken. This article covers the history of London during the Roman period from around 47 AD when the Roman city of Londinium was founded It has been estimated that the Roman navy's strength was at 46,000 men at the beginning of Diocletian's reign, but the end of his reign, he succeeded in increasing it to 64,000 men. 
In 330 both main fleets were stationed in Constantinople. Events By Place Roman Empire May 11 — Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome Classic naval battles were now a rare case. Documents tell of the victory of Crispus over the fleet of Licinius in 324, the destruction of the boats under Gainas in 400 and naval operations in the struggle with Geiseric in the 5th century. Flavius Julius Crispus, also known as Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus was a Caesar of the Roman Empire. For other Romans of this name see Licinius (gens. Valerius Licinianus Licinius (c Events By Place Roman Empire July 3 — Battle of Adrianople: Constantine I defeats Licinius, forcing him Gainas was an ambitious Gothic leader who served the Eastern Roman Empire during the reigns of Theodosius I and Arcadius. Events By Place Western Roman Empire Italy is first invaded by Alaric (probable date Geiseric the Lame (c 389 &ndash January 25, 477) also spelled as Gaiseric or Genseric, was the King of the Vandals The Roman fleets suffered defeats against the powerful Vandal fleet in 460 and 468, under the emperors Majorian and Anthemius. Iulius Valerius Maiorianus (November 420 - 7 August 461) commonly known as Majorian, was Western Roman Emperor (457 See Anthemius of Tralles for an architect of Hagia Sophia. For the Praetorian prefect and grandfather of the Emperor see Anthemius (praetorian prefect When the Völkerwanderung struck with full force on the Roman borders, the endeavors of the navy could hardly change a thing. The Migration Period, also called Barbarian Invasions, or sometimes Völkerwanderung ( German for "wandering of peoples" is the English name Until the breakdown of the Western Roman Empire in 476 the Roman warships were solely employed to evacuate Roman citizens out of troublespots. Events By place Western Roman Empire September 4 — Romulus Augustus, the last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire The navy stationed in the Eastern Empire became the cadre for the Byzantine navy. The Byzantine navy comprised the naval forces of the Byzantine Empire. Under the rule of Justinian I triremes were still in use, although mainly dromons were employed, Constantinople was itself protected by a fleet of liburnians. Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or The dromons (from Greek δρόμων dromon, ie "runner" were the most important Warships of the Byzantine navy from the Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS The Liburnians (or Liburni, Greek: Λιβυρνοί were an ancient people inhabiting the district called Liburnia, a coastal region of the northeastern
The bulk of a ship's crew was formed by the rowers the remiges (sing. Gaius Duilius (lived 3rd century BC) was a Roman politician and admiral involved in the First Punic War. The Battle of Mylae took place in 260 BC during the First Punic War and was the first real naval battle between Carthage and the Roman Republic This is about the Roman general and consul for other Romans of that name see Marcus Atilius Regulus (disambiguation. The battle of Cape Ecnomus ( 256 BC) was a Naval battle, fought off Cape Ecnomus (modern day Poggio di Sant'Angelo Licata, Sicily See Lutatius for other people with the same name For the poet see Catullus Gaius Lutatius Catulus ( Latin: The Battle of the Aegates Islands or Aegusa ( Aegadian Islands, off the western coast of the island of Sicily, 10 March 241 BC) was Agrippa redirects here For other uses of the name see Agrippa (disambiguation. The Battle of Actium was the decisive engagement in the Final War of the Roman Republic between the forces of Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony Gaius or Caius Plinius Secundus, ( AD 23 – August 25, AD 79 better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient Author The classis Misenensis ("Fleet of Misenum " later awarded the honorifics praetoria and Pia Vindex, was the senior fleet of the imperial remex) or eretai in Greek. Despite popular perception, the Roman fleet relied throughout its existence on rowers of free status, and galley slaves were usually not put at the oars, except in times of pressing manpower demands or extreme emergency. " Galley slave " is a term used to refer to prisoners condemned (in an obsolete form of punishment to man the oars of a Galley.  In Imperial times, non-citizen freeborn provincials (peregrini) and ex-slaves became the mainstay of the Roman rowing force. Peregrinus was the term used during the early Roman empire, from 30 BC to 212 AD to denote a free provincial subject of the empire who was not a Roman citizen 
Among the crew were usually also a number of principales (junior officers) and immunes (specialists exempt from certain duties), some of which, mostly in administrative positions, were identical to those of the army auxiliaries and some of which (mostly of Greek provenance) were peculiar to the fleet. Ancient Rome 's military was highly advanced for its time divided into multiple units to maximize efficiency and power Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = "supports" formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC&ndash284 AD An inscription from the island of Cos dated to the First Mithridatic War lists us a ship's officers, the nautae: the gubernator (kybernētēs in Greek) was the helmsman or pilot, the celeusta (keleustēs in Greek) supervised the rowers, a proreta (prōreus in Greek) was the look-out stationed at the bow, a pentacontarchos was apparently a junior officer, and an iatros (Lat. The First Mithridatic War ( 90 &ndash 85 BC) was a conflict fought between the Kingdom of Pontus and revolting Greek cities -Athens being the most prominent- medicus), a ship's doctor. 
Each ship was commanded by a trierarchus, while squadrons were put under a nauarchus, who often appears to have risen from the ranks of the trierarchi. Trierarch was the title of officers who commanded a Trireme in the classical Greek world Navarch ( ναύαρχος, pronounced návarkhos) is a Greek word meaning "leader of the ships" which in some states became the title of an office The position of nauarchus princeps appeared later in the Imperial period, who functioned either as a commander of several squadrons or an executive officer under a civilian admiral.  These were professional officers, usually peregrini who had a status equal to an auxiliary centurion (and were thus increasingly called centuriones [classiarii] after ca. Centurion redirects here This article is about the Roman soldier AD 70).  Only in the 3rd century were these officers equated to the legionary centurions in status and pay, and could henceforth be transferred to a legionary position. 
During the early Principate, a ship's crew, regardless of its size, was organized as a centuria. Centuria ( Latin plural centuriae) is a Latin substantive from the stem centum (a hundred denoting units consisting of (originally only approximately Crewmen could sign on as marines, rowers/seamen, craftsmen and various other jobs, though all personnel serving in the imperial fleet were classed as milites ("soldiers"), regardless of their function; only when differentiation was required, the terms classiarius or classicus were added. Marines (from the English adjective marine, meaning of the sea, from Latin language mare, meaning sea via French adjective Along with several other instances of prevalence of army terminology, this testifies to the lower status of the naval personnel, who were inferior to the auxiliaries and the legionaries. Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = "supports" formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC&ndash284 AD Emperor Claudius first gave legal privileges to the navy's crewmen, enabling them to receive Roman citizenship after their period of service. Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus or Claudius I ( August 1, 10 BC &ndash October 13, AD 54 ( Tiberius Claudius Drusus from birth to Citizenship in the time of Ancient Rome was a privileged status afforded to certain individuals with respect to laws property and governance  This period was initially set at a minimum of 26 years (one year more than the legions), and was later expanded to 28. Upon honorable discharge (honesta missio), the sailors received a sizable cash payment as well. 
During the Republic, command of a fleet was given to a serving magistrate or promagistrate, usually of consular or praetorian rank. A magistrate is a judicial officer In Common law systems a magistrate usually has limited authority to administer and enforce the Law. A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office During the Punic Wars for instance, one consul would usually command the fleet, and another the army. In the subsequent wars in the Eastern Mediterranean, praetors would assume the command of the fleet. Since these men were political appointments, the actual handling of the fleets and of separate squadrons was entrusted to their more experienced legates and subordinates. Its was therefore during the Punic Wars that the separate position of praefectus classis ("fleet prefect") first appeared. 
After the fleet's reorganization by Augustus, the term praefectus classis was used for the commanders of the various fleets. They were initially appointed either from among the Emperor's freedmen or from the equestrian class, securing the Emperor's control over the fleets. A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. From the period of the Flavian emperors, only equestrians with military experience who had gone through the militia equestri, were appointed. The Flavian dynasty was a Roman imperial Dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 and 96 AD encompassing the reigns of Vespasian (69&ndash79  Nevertheless, the prefects were political appointees, and despite their military experience, usually in command of army auxiliary units, their experience in naval matters was minimal, forcing them to rely on their professional subordinates. 
The generic Roman term for an oar-driven galley warship was "long ship" (Latin: navis longa, Greek: naus makra), as opposed to the sail-driven navis oneraria, a merchant vessel, or the navigia minora, the smaller craft, like the scapha. 
The navy consisted of a wide variety of different classes of warships, from the heavy polyremes to the light raiding and scouting vessels. During and after the Punic Wars, the mainstay of the Roman navy was the quinquereme (Gk. A quinquereme (Latin or penteres (Greek is a type of ancient oar-propelled warship that was used by the Greeks of the Hellenistic period and later by the Carthaginians pentērēs), which was copied from a captured Carthaginian model, and the quadrireme (Gk. Quadriremes is the Latin name for a class of ancient Warship used in Ancient Rome, and before that in the Greek Navy. tetrērēs). Triremes continued to serve as well as a smaller, faster vessel, especially among the allied contingents. Trireme ( τριήρης sing τριήρεις pl triremis sing The term "trireme" can however refer to several types of ships with three banks throughout the Republican and Imperial periods, and is not necessarily indicative of one particular design. In addition, the presence of two "sixes" (hexareme, Gk. hexērēs) is recorded, which were used as flagships. The Romans do not seem to have engaged in the construction of gigantic warships like their contemporary Hellenistic navies, at least until the Civil Wars. During the final confrontation between Octavian and Mark Antony, Octavian's fleet was composed of quinqueremes, together with some "sixes" and many triremes and liburnians, while Antony, who had the resources of Ptolemaic Egypt to draw upon, fielded a fleet also mostly composed of quinquiremes, but with a sizeable complement of heavier warships, including some "tens" (deceres).  Later historical tradition made much of the prevalence of lighter and swifter vessels in Octavian's fleet, with Vegetius even ascribing Octavian's victory to the liburnians. Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus was a writer of the Later Roman Empire. 
This prominence of lighter craft is perhaps best explained in light of subsequent developments. After Actium, the operational landscape had changed: for the remainder of the Principate, no naval opponent existed to challenge Roman naval hegemony, and no massed naval confrontation was likely. The tasks at hand for the Roman navy were now policing the Mediterranean waterways and the border rivers, suppression of piracy, and escort duties for the grain shipments and for imperial army expeditions. Lighter ships were far better suited to these tasks, and after the reorganization of the fleet, the largest ship kept in service was a hexareme, the flagship of the Classis Misenensis. The classis Misenensis ("Fleet of Misenum " later awarded the honorifics praetoria and Pia Vindex, was the senior fleet of the imperial The bulk of the fleets was composed of the lighter triremes and liburnians (Latin: liburna, Greek: libyrnis), with the latter apparently providing the majority of the provincial fleets. The Liburnians (or Liburni, Greek: Λιβυρνοί were an ancient people inhabiting the district called Liburnia, a coastal region of the northeastern  In time, the term "liburnian" came to mean "warship" in a generic sense. 
In addition, there were smaller oared vessels, such as the navis actuaria, with 30 oars (15 on each bank), a ship primarily used for transport in coastal and fluvial operations, for which its shallow draught and flat keel were ideal. In late Antiquity, it was succeeded in this role by the navis lusoria ("playful ship"), which was extensively used for patrols and raids by the legionary flotillas in the Rhine and Danube frontiers.
Roman ships were commonly named after gods (Mars, Iuppiter, Minerva, Isis), mythological heroes (Hercules), and concepts such as Harmony, Loyalty, Victory (Concordia, Fides, Victoria). The MInisterial NEtwoRk for Valorising Activities in digitisation, or MINERVA, is a European Union organization concerned with the digitisation of cultural and Isis is a goddess in Ancient Egyptian religious beliefs and is celebrated in their mythology as the ideal mother and wife patron of nature and magic friend of slaves sinners Hercules is the Roman name for the Mythical Greek hero Heracles, son of Zeus and the mortal Alcmena. They were distinguished by their figurehead (insigne or parasemum), and, during the Civil Wars at least, by the paint schemes on their turrets, which varied according to each fleet. In politics a figurehead, by Metaphor with the carved figurehead at the prow of a sailing ship is a person who holds an important title or office yet executes little 
In Classical Antiquity, a ship's main weapon was the ram (rostra, hence the name navis rostrata for a warship), which was used to sink or immobilize an enemy ship by holing its hull. A naval ram was a weapon carried by varied types of ships dating back to antiquity Its use however required a skilled and experienced crew and a fast and agile ship like a trireme or quinquireme. In the Hellenistic period, the larger navies came instead to rely on greater vessels. This had several advantages: the heavier and sturdier construction lessened the effects of ramming, the greater space and stability of the vessels allowed the transport not only of more marines, but also the placement of deck-mounted ballistae and catapults. The ballista ( Latin, from Greek βαλλίστρα - ballistra, from - βάλλω ballō, "to throw" plural ballistae A catapult is any one of a number of non-handheld mechanical devices used to throw a Projectile a great distance without the aid of an explosive substance—particularly various  Although the ram continued to be a standard feature of all warships and ramming the standard mode of attack, these developments transformed the role of a warship: from the old "manned missile", designed to sink enemy ships, they became mobile artillery platforms, which engaged in missile exchange and boarding actions. Boarding, in its simplest sense refers to the insertion onto a ship's deck of people Especially the Romans, initially inexperienced at sea combat, relied upon boarding actions through the use of the corvus. Although it brought them some decisive victories, it was discontinued because it tended to unbalance the quinqueremes in high seas; two Roman fleets are recorded to have been lost during storms in the First Punic War. The First Punic War ( 264 to 241 BC) was the first of three major wars fought between Carthage and the Roman Republic. 
During the Civil Wars, a number of technical innovations, which are attributed to Agrippa, took place: the harpago, a catapult-fired grappling hook, which was used to clamp onto an enemy ship, reel it in and board it, in a much more efficient way than with the old corvus, and the use of collapsible fighting towers placed one apiece bow and stern, which were used to give supporting fire. In Grappling or Wrestling the term hook refers to an arm or leg position designed to help control an opponent 
After the end of the civil wars, Augustus reduced and reorganized the Roman armed forces, including the navy. A large part of the fleet of Mark Antony was burned, and the rest was withdrawn to a new base at Forum Iulii (modern Fréjus), which remained operative until the reign of Claudius. Fréjus can also refer to the Fréjus Road Tunnel and the Fréjus Rail Tunnel in the Alps  However, the bulk of the fleet was subdivided into two praetorian fleets at Misenum and Ravenna, supplemented by a growing number of minor ones in the provinces, which were often created on an ad hoc basis for specific campaigns. Misenum is the site of an ancient port in Campania, in southern Italy. Ravenna is a City and Comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. This organizational structure was maintained almost unchanged until the 4th century.
The two major fleets were stationed in Italy and acted as a central naval reserve, directly available to the Emperor (hence the designation "praetorian"). In the absence of any naval threat, their duties mostly involved patrolling and transport duties. These were:
The various provincial fleets were smaller than the praetorian fleets and composed mostly of lighter vessels. Nevertheless, it was these fleets that saw action, in full campaigns or raids on the periphery of the Empire. The provincial fleets were:
In addition, there is significant archaeological evidence for naval activity by certain legions, which in all likelihood operated their own squadrons, by legio XXII Primigenia in the Upper Rhine and Main rivers, of legio X Fretensis in the Jordan River and the Sea of Galilee, and of several legionary squadrons in the Danube frontier
As the Empire faced increasing threats, a number of smaller squadrons were created during the 3rd century from the larger provincial fleets. Legio XXII Primigenia (devoted to goddess Fortuna) was a Roman legion levied by Roman Emperor Caligula in 39, for his campaigns The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge The Main (maɪn is a River in Germany, 524 km (329 miles long (including White Main 574 km (357 mi and it is one of the more significant tributaries Legio X Fretensis (Latin "Tenth legion of the sea strait " was a Roman legion levied by Augustus in 41 / 40 BC This article is about the Jordan River and its valley in western Asia The Sea of Galilee, also Sea of Genneseret, Lake Kinneret or Lake Tiberias (Hebrew ים כנרת) (Arabic بحيرة طبريا) Most of these were principally fluvial in nature, and set up to counter raids. Among these were:
Major Roman ports were: