Roller skating is the travelling on smooth terrain with roller skates. Travel is the change in location of people on a trip through the means of Transport from one location to another It is a form of recreation as well as a sport, and can also be a form of transportation. Recreation or fun is the expenditure of time in a manner designed for therapeutic refreshment of one's Body or Mind. Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another Skates generally come in two basic varieties: roller skates and inline skates or blades, though some have experimented with a single-wheeled "quintessence skate" or other variations on the basic skate design. Roller skates are devices worn on the Feet to enable the wearer to glide along on Wheels History The first Patented roller skate was introduced Inline skates (often called by the trade name Rollerblade) are a type of roller skate used for Inline skating.
The first recorded use of roller skates was in a London stage performance in 1743. Year 1743 ( MDCCXLIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The inventor of this skate is lost to history. The first recorded skate inventor was John-Joseph Merlin, who demonstrated a primitive inline skate with metal wheels in 1760. Year 1760 ( MDCCLX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap The first patented roller skate design was patented in France by M. Petitbled, in 1819. Year 1819 ( MDCCCXIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar in the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year These early skates were similar to today's inline skates, but they were not very maneuverable; it was very difficult with these skates to do anything but move in a straight line and perhaps make wide sweeping turns. During the rest of the 19th century, inventors continued to work on improving skate design. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar
The four-wheeled turning roller skate, or quad skate, with four wheels set in two side-by-side pairs, was first designed in 1863 in New York City by James Leonard Plimpton in an attempt to improve upon previous designs, The skate contained a pivoting action using a rubber cushion that allowed the skater to skate a curve just by leaning to one side. A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis facilitating movement or transportation whilst supporting a load ( Mass) or performing labour in machines Year 1863 ( MDCCCLXIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The City of New York James Leonard Plimpton (1828 Medfield Massachusetts - 1911 was an American Inventor who is known for changing the skating world with his patented It was a huge success, so much that the first public skating rink was opened in 1866 in Newport, Rhode Island with the support of Plimpton. Year 1866 ( MDCCCLXVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about 30 miles (48 km south of Providence The design of the quad skate allowed easier turns and maneuverability, and the quad skate came to dominate the industry for more than a century.
Arguably, the most important advance in the realistic use of roller skates as a pleasurable pastime took place in Birmingham, England in 1876 when William Bown patented a design for the wheels of roller skates. Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um Year 1876 ( MDCCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Bown's design embodied his effort to keep the two bearing surfaces of an axle, fixed and moving, apart. An axle is a central shaft for a rotating Wheel or Gear. In some cases the axle may be fixed in position with a bearing or Bushing Bown worked closely with Joseph Henry Hughes, who drew up the patent for a ball or roller bearing race for bicycle and carriage wheels in 1877. A rolling-element bearing is a bearing which carries a load by placing round elements between the two pieces The bicycle, cycle, or bike is a pedal-driven, human-powered vehicle with two wheels attached to a frame, one behind A carriage is a wheeled vehicle for people usually horse-drawn Year 1877 ( MDCCCLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Hughes' patent included all the elements of an adjustable system. These two men are thus responsible for modern day roller skate and skateboard wheels, as well as the ball bearing race inclusion in velocipedes -- later to become motorbikes and automobiles. The velocipede was a series of Human-powered vehicles created in the Victorian age. MotorCycle is the title of a 1993 album by Rock band Daniel Amos, released on BAI Records.
Another improvement came in 1876, when the toe stop was first patented. Year 1876 ( MDCCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year This provided skaters with the ability to stop promptly upon tipping the skate onto the toe. Toe stops are still used today on most quad skates and on some types of inline skates.
Roller skates were being mass produced in America as early as the 1880s, the sport's first of several boom periods. Events and Trends Technology Development and commercial production of Electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered Micajah C. Henley of Richmond, Indiana produced thousands of skates every week during peak sales. Richmond (ˈrɪtʃmənd is a city in Wayne Township, Wayne County, in east central Indiana, which borders Ohio. Henley skates were the first skate with adjustable tension via a screw, the ancestor of the kingbolt mechanism on modern quad skates.
In 1884 Levant M. Year 1884 ( MDCCCLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Richardson received a patent for the use of steel ball bearings in skate wheels to reduce friction, allowing skaters to increase speed with minimum effort. A ball bearing is an engineering term referring to a type of Rolling-element bearing which uses Balls to maintain the separation between the moving parts In 1898, Richardson started the Richardson Ball Bearing and Skate Company, which provided skates to most professional skate racers of the time, including Harley Davidson (no relation to the Harley-Davidson motorcycle brand). Harley-Davidson Motor Company ( formerly HDI is an American manufacturer of Motorcycles based in Milwaukee Wisconsin. (Turner and Zaidman, 1997).
The design of the quad skate has remained essentially unchanged since then, and remained as the dominant roller skate design until nearly the end of the 20th century. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on The quad skate has begun to make a comeback recently due to the popularity of roller derby and jam skating. Roller derby is an American -invented contact Sport —and historically a form of Sports entertainment —based on formation Roller skating Jamskating is a combination of dance and sporting disciplines performed on roller skates
In 1979 Scott Olson and Brennan Olson of Minneapolis, Minnesota came across a pair of inline skates created in the 1960s by the Chicago Roller Skate Company and, seeing the potential for off-ice hockey training, set about redesigning the skates using modern materials and attaching ice hockey boots. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) Scott Olson is a guitarist bassist and recording engineer He currently is working with Seattle's legendary London Bridge Studios, best known for their work on Pearl The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 Ice hockey, often referred to simply as hockey, is a team Sport played on Ice. A few years later Scott Olson began heavily promoting the skates and launched the company Rollerblade, Inc.. Rollerblade is a type of Inline skate. The name is a Registered trademark owned by Nordica, part of the Tecnica Group of Trevignano, During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Rollerblade-branded skates became so successful that they inspired many other companies to create similar inline skates, and the inline design became more popular than the traditional quads. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 The Rollerblade skates became synonymous in the minds of many with "inline skates" and skating, so much so that many people came to call any form of skating "Rollerblading," thus becoming a genericized trademark. A genericized trademark (also known as a generic trademark or proprietary eponym) is a Trademark or Brand name that has become the colloquial
For much of the 1980s and into the 1990s, inline skate models typically sold for general public use employed a hard plastic boot, similar to ski boots. Ski boots are specialized Footwear that are used in skiing to provide a way to attach the skier to Skis using Ski bindings This ski-boot-binding combination In or about 1995, "soft boot" designs were introduced to the market, primarily by the sporting goods firm K2 Inc., and promoted for use as fitness skates. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 Sports equipment is a general term for any object used for Sport or Exercise. K2 Inc ( was founded in 1961 by brothers Bill and Don Kirschner in Vashon Island, near Seattle, Washington. Other companies quickly followed, and by the early 2000s the use of hard shell skates became primarily limited to the aggressive skating discipline.
The single-wheel "quintessence skate"  was made in 1988 by Miyshael F. Gailson of Caples Lake Resort, California, for the purpose of cross-country ski skating and telemark skiing training. Telemark skiing is a term used for skiing using the Telemark turn, which is a technique invented by Norwegian Sondre Norheim. Other skate designs have been experimented with over the years, including two wheeled (heel and toe) inline skates, but the vast majority of skates on the market today are either quad or standard inline design.
Artistic roller skating is a sport which consists of a number of events. Artistic roller skating is a group of Roller skating events similar to Figure skating on ice These are usually accomplished on quad skates, but inline skates may be used for some events. Various flights of events are organized by age and ability/experience. Local competitions lead to 9 regional competitions which lead to the National Championships and World Championships.
2008 National Championships will be in Lincoln, NE. 2008 World Championships will be held in China
See  for more information.
Skaters skate around a series of circles to show control and accuracy.
Skaters, either Solo or a Team of two, dance with standardized choreography to music. They are judged on their adherence to the choreography, skill and style.
An individual event where creativity is emphasized. This event does not include jumps.
A team of skaters (usually counted in multiples of 4) creates various patterns and movements to music. Often used elements include skating in a line, skating in a box, 'splicing' (subgroups skating towards each other such that they do not contact each other), and skating in a circle. The team is judged on its choreography and the ability to skate together precisely.
A single skater or a pair of skaters present routines to music. They are judged on skating ability and creativity. Jumps are expected in these events.
Inline skates usually have 4 or 5 wheels, arranged in a single line. A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis facilitating movement or transportation whilst supporting a load ( Mass) or performing labour in machines Most commonly, if they have a stop, it is a heel stop. Inline skating is often done on the road, sidewalk, various street furnishings like fences and steps, and on special tracks and areas. A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places. A sidewalk (chiefly North American English) pavement ( British English and Philadelphia dialect) footpath ( Australian English Some inline skaters compete in artistic skating events, though quads are still more typical for that use. Inline skates for artistic use tend to be designed more as an analog of the ice skate or artistic quad skate design, with a toe stop and rockered wheels.
In addition to speed, fitness, artistic, or recreational skating, some skaters prefer aggressive skating. Aggressive skating is a form of Roller skating on specially designed skates which usually have 2 or 4 53mm to 60mm Urethane Wheels and 40mm to 50mm Aggressive skating is also often referred to by participants as rollerblading, blading or rolling and includes a variety of grinds, airs, slides and other advanced skating maneuvers. It also includes "vert", "park" and "street skating" which refer to tricks performed on almost any obstacle. Street skating specifically refers to tricks performed on non-allocated obstacles (i. e. not skate parks). There are three major types of aggressive inline skates: hard boots, soft boots, and skeletal skates (e. g Xsjado, pronounced "shadow"). Hard boots are very rigid and often heavy compared to speed skates and recreational skates. Soft boots offer more flexibility than hard boots, but are normally just as heavy.
Aggressive inline skates could also be fitted with small hard rubber or plastic wheels, used in place of the two middle wheels. Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products These small wheels or "anti-rockers" are used to help lock onto a ledge or rail when performing. Anti rockers enable the skater attempting the trick to stay on a rail for a longer time without the frames of the skates slipping off the ledge.
Aggressive inline saw a sharp decline in the late 90's, but during 2000-2003 found a major resurgence for the sport when street skating became increasingly popular. At this time professional skaters including Brian Shima, Jeff Stockwell, Chris Haffey, Aaron Feinberg, and Alex Broskow among others were pushing unseen boundaries in performing seemingly impossible and dangerous stunts in mostly street settings. In addition, the IMYTA (I Match Your Trick Association) provided a venue for skaters to demonstrate these tricks. The IMYTA held contests at a street location and the skaters would have to match each trick in the first round of skating or be eliminated. The progression continued with the pool of skaters dwindling and more dangerous and difficult tricks would then be performed and a winner declared. Competitions such as the IMYTA encouraged skaters from many different countries to set up their own local real street competitions.
See Tricktionary of Inline Roller Skating Tricks
A skating category that lies somewhere between aggressive and recreational skating, free skating, also known as urban skating or free riding, includes many tricks such as jumps, slides, and grinds. The emphasis of free skating is getting from A-to-B by the fastest possible route, by skating quickly through city streets and negotiating all obstacles. The boots on skates suitable for free skating tend to be more rigid for better leg support, like the aggressive skate, whilst the wheels tend to be rather big, like those found on recreational skates, and the frames short, like those found on hockey skates. Popular brands of freeskate include Salomon's FSK series (no longer produced) and Seba (new French trademark) (http://www.sebaskates.co.uk/index.php skates) .
There are two types of freestyle slalom skating, freestyle slalom and speed slalom, both of which involve navigating a series of cones placed on the ground. Freestyle slalom skating is a highly technical field of skating that involves performing tricks around a straight line of equally spaced cones
This is a skating category where skaters do "slides". "Sliding" is often done on smooth flat surfaces. It involves placing one or both feet in perpendicular direction to which they are currently moving. E. g. skater is moving North, however, one or both of his feet may be facing East or West, taking reference from the direction from which the heel to the toes face for the feet direction. Consequently, the skater slows down. However, the rate at which he or she slows down largely depends on how much pressure is being applied to the foot/feet that are "sliding". It is a form of stylistic skating where attention is paid to the footwork. There are fewer slides than tricks in "sliding" compared to aggressive skating but they often share the same names as they are done similarly to grinds in aggressive skating.
Among skaters not committed to a particular discipline, a popular social activity is the group skate or street skate, in which large groups of skaters regularly meet to skate together, usually on city streets. Road skating is the Sport of Skating ( Inline skating or Roller skating) on Roads much like Road cycling. Although such touring existed among quad roller skate clubs in the 1970s and 1980s, it made the jump to inline skates in 1990 with groups in large cities throughout the United States. In some cases, hundreds of skaters would regularly participate, resembling a rolling party. In the late 1990s, the group skate phenomenon spread to Europe and east Asia. The weekly Friday night skate in Paris, France (called Pari Roller) is believed to be one of the largest repeating group skates in the world. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city At times, it has had as many as 35,000 skaters participating on a single night. The Sunday Skate Night in Berlin also attracts over 10,000 skaters during the summer, and Munich, Frankfurt, Amsterdam, Buenos Aires, London, New York and Tokyo host other popular events. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. Amsterdam (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland in the west Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. Charity skates in Paris have attracted 50,000 participants (the yearly Paris-Versailles skate).
In the United States, the controlling organization is USA Roller Sports, headquartered in Lincoln, Nebraska, also home of the National Roller Skating Museum. USA Roller Sports (USARS formerly the United States Amateur Confederation of Roller Skating is the national governing body of competitive roller sports The City of Lincoln ( Umóⁿhoⁿ: Nískithe Tʰóⁿwoⁿgthoⁿ ˈnĩskiˡðe ˌtʰãwãŋgˡðã meaning "Salt Village" for Salt Creek which was the Nationals are held each summer with skaters required to qualify through regional competitions.
Other groups include:
A skating category that lies somewhere between aggressive and recreational skating, free skating, also known as urban skating or free riding, includes many tricks such as jumps, slides, and grinds. The emphasis of free skating is getting from A-to-B by the fastest possible route, by skating quickly through city streets and negotiating all obstacles. The boots on skates suitable for free skating tend to be more rigid for better leg support, like the aggressive skate, whilst the wheels tend to be rather big, like those found on recreational skates, and the frames short, like those found on hockey skates. Popular brands of freeskate include Salomon's FSK series (no longer produced) and Seba (new French trademark) (http://www.sebaskates/index.php skates)