Robert Schumann, sometimes given as Robert Alexander Schumann, (June 8, 1810 – July 29, 1856) was a German composer, aesthete and influential music critic. Events 68 - The Roman Senate accepts emperor Galba. 536 - St Silverius becomes Pope (probable Year 1810 ( MDCCCX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat Year 1856 ( MDCCCLVI) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. A composer (literally meaning 'one who puts together' is a person who creates Music, usually in the medium of notation, for Interpretation and Performance This article is about aestheticism a term with a root meaning of sensuous Not to be confused with the religious practice of Asceticism: an abstinence from the sensual A music critic is someone who reviews Music (including printed music performances and recorded music and publishes writing on them in books or journals (or on the internet He is one of the most famous Romantic composers of the 19th century. Romantic Music is a Musicological term referring to a particular period theory compositional practice and canon in European music history from about 1815 to 1910
He had hoped to pursue a career as a virtuoso pianist, having been assured by his teacher Friedrich Wieck that he could become the finest pianist in Europe after only a few years of study with him. A virtuoso (from Italian virtuoso, late Latin virtuosus, Latin virtus meaning skill manliness excellence is an individual Johann Gottlob Friedrich Wieck ( August 18 1785 &ndash October 6 1873) was a noted German Piano and voice teacher and However, a hand injury prevented those hopes from being realized, and he decided to focus his musical energies on composition. Schumann's published compositions were, until 1840, all for the piano; he later composed works for piano and orchestra, many lieder (songs for voice and piano), four symphonies, an opera, and other orchestral, choral and chamber works. de Lied (plural de Lieder) (liːt plural) is a German word meaning literally " Song " among English speakers however the word A symphony is a Musical composition, often extended and usually for Orchestra. Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string brass woodwind sections and possibly a percussion section as well For the musical composition see Chorale. A choir, chorale, or chorus is a Musical ensemble of Singers Chamber music is a form of Classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber His writings about music appeared mostly in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik ("The New Journal for Music"), a Leipzig-based publication that he jointly founded. Die Neue Zeitschrift für Musik (English - New Journal of Music was a music magazine published in Leipzig, founded by Robert Schumann.
In 1840, after a long and acrimonious legal battle with his piano instructor Friedrich Wieck, he married pianist Clara Wieck, a considerable figure of the Romantic period in her own right. Johann Gottlob Friedrich Wieck ( August 18 1785 &ndash October 6 1873) was a noted German Piano and voice teacher and Clara Josephine Wieck Schumann (September 13 1819 &ndash May 20 1896 was a German musician one of the most distinguished Pianists of the Romantic era, as Friedrich Wieck was Clara Wieck's father. Johann Gottlob Friedrich Wieck ( August 18 1785 &ndash October 6 1873) was a noted German Piano and voice teacher and Clara Josephine Wieck Schumann (September 13 1819 &ndash May 20 1896 was a German musician one of the most distinguished Pianists of the Romantic era, as Clara Wieck showcased many works by her husband as well. Clara Josephine Wieck Schumann (September 13 1819 &ndash May 20 1896 was a German musician one of the most distinguished Pianists of the Romantic era, as For the last two years of his life, after an attempted suicide, Schumann was confined to a mental institution.
Schumann was born in Zwickau, Saxony the fifth and last child of the family. Zwickau (ˈtsvɪkaʊ̯ Cvikov is a city in Germany, in the Bundesland Sachsen (Saxony situated in a valley at the foot of the Erzgebirge The Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen lasting between 1806 and 1918 was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic  His father was a bookseller, and his boyhood was spent in the cultivation of literature quite as much as it was spent in music. Schumann himself said that he had begun to compose before the age of seven.
At the age of 14, he wrote an essay on the aesthetics of music and also contributed to a volume, edited by his father, titled "Portraits of Famous Men". While still at school in Zwickau he read the works of the German poet-philosophers Friedrich Schiller and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, as well as Byron and the Greek tragedians. Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller krɪstɔf friːtʁɪç fɔn ʃɪləʁ/ʃɪlɐ (10 November 1759 9 May 1805 was a German Poet, Philosopher ˈjoːhan ˈvɔlfgaŋ fɔn ˈgøːtə (in English generally ˈgɝːtə 28 August 1749 22 March 1832 was a German writer His most powerful and permanent literary inspiration was Jean Paul, whose influence is seen in Schumann's youthful novels Juniusabende, completed in 1826, and Selene. Jean Paul ( 21 March, 1763 &mdash 14 November, 1825) born Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, was a German Writer, In Greek mythology, Selene (Σελήνη " Moon " English sɛˈliːniː was an archaic Lunar deity and the daughter of the Titans
Schumann's interest in music was piqued as a child by the performance of Ignaz Moscheles playing at Carlsbad, and he developed an interest in the works of Beethoven, Franz Schubert and Felix Mendelssohn later. (Isaac Ignaz Moscheles ( May 23, 1794 &ndash March 10, 1870) was a Bohemian Composer and Piano Virtuoso Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist. Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3 1809 &ndash November 4 1847 was a German Composer His father, however, who had encouraged the boy's musical aspirations, died in 1826, and neither his mother nor his guardian would encourage a career for him in music. In 1828 he left school, and after a tour, during which he met Heinrich Heine in Munich, he went to Leipzig to study law. Christian Johann Heinrich Heine ( December 13, 1797 – February 17, 1856) was a Journalist, Essayist and one of the Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. This sort of fix restores section edit linkpoints to where they belong In 1829 his law studies continued in Heidelberg. Heidelberg is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. As of 2006 over 140000 people live within the city's area
During Easter, 1830 he heard Niccolò Paganini play in Frankfurt. Niccolò Paganini ( October 27, 1782 &ndash In July he wrote to his mother, "My whole life has been a struggle between Poetry and Prose, or call it Music and Law. " By Christmas he was back in Leipzig, taking piano lessons from his old master, Friedrich Wieck who assured him that he would be a successful concert pianist. Johann Gottlob Friedrich Wieck ( August 18 1785 &ndash October 6 1873) was a noted German Piano and voice teacher and
During his studies with Wieck, Schumann permanently injured his right hand. One suggested cause of this injury is that he damaged his finger by the use of a mechanical device designed to strengthen the weakest fingers, which held back one finger while he exercised the others. Others have suggested that the injury was a side-effect of syphilis medication. A more dramatic idea is that in an attempt to increase the independence of his fourth finger, he may have carried out a surgical procedure to separate the tendons of the fourth finger from those of the third. Whatever the cause of the injury, Schumann abandoned ideas of a concert career and devoted himself instead to composition. To this end he began a course of theory under Heinrich Dorn, the conductor of the Leipzig opera. This sort of fix restores section edit linkpoints to where they belong About this time he considered composing an opera on the subject of Hamlet. Hamlet is a Tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1599 and 1601
The fusion of the literary idea with its musical illustration, which may be said to have first taken shape in Papillons (op. Papillons, Op 2 is a suite of piano pieces written in 1831 by Robert Schumann. 2), is foreshadowed to some extent in the first criticism by Schumann, an essay on Frédéric Chopin's variations on a theme from Mozart's Don Giovanni, which appeared in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung in 1831. Don Giovanni ( K527; complete title Il dissoluto punito ossia il Don Giovanni, literally "The Rake Punish'd or Don Giovanni Here the work is discussed by the imaginary characters Florestan (the embodiment of Schumann's passionate, voluble side) and Eusebius (his dreamy, introspective side) – the counterparts of Vult and Walt in Jean Paul's novel Flegeljahre. Jean Paul ( 21 March, 1763 &mdash 14 November, 1825) born Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, was a German Writer, A third, Meister Raro, is called upon for his opinion. Raro may represent either the composer himself, Wieck's daughter Clara, or the combination of the two (Clara + Robert).
However, by the time Schumann had written Papillons in 1831 he went a step further. The scenes and characters of his favorite novel had now passed definitely and consciously into the written music, and in a letter from Leipzig (April 1832) he bids his brothers "read the last scene in Jean Paul's Flegeljahre as soon as possible, because the Papillons are intended as a musical representation of that masquerade. "
In the winter of 1832 Schumann visited his relations at Zwickau and Schneeberg, where he performed the first movement of his Symphony in G minor. Zwickau (ˈtsvɪkaʊ̯ Cvikov is a city in Germany, in the Bundesland Sachsen (Saxony situated in a valley at the foot of the Erzgebirge Schneeberg is a town in Saxony ’s district of Erzgebirgskreis. In Zwickau, the music was played at a concert given by Wieck's daughter Clara, who was only thirteen then. The death of his brother Julius as well as that of his sister-in-law Rosalie in 1833 seems to have affected Schumann with a profound melancholy, leading to his first apparent attempt at suicide.
By the spring of 1834, Schumann had sufficiently recovered to inaugurate Die Neue Zeitschrift für Musik ("New Journal in Music"), first published on 3 April 1834. Die Neue Zeitschrift für Musik (English - New Journal of Music was a music magazine published in Leipzig, founded by Robert Schumann. Schumann published most of his critical writings in the Journal, and often lambasted the popular taste for flashy technical displays from figures Schumann perceived as inferior composers. Schumann campaigned to revive interest in major composers of the past, including Mozart, Beethoven and Weber, while he also promoted the work of some contemporary composers, including Chopin and Berlioz, whom he praised for creating music of substance. Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist. Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber ( 18 December 1786 in Eutin, Holstein, Germany - 5 June 1826 in London On the other hand, Schumann disparaged the school of Liszt and Wagner. Amongst his associates were the composers Ludwig Schunke, the dedicatee of Schumann's Toccata in C, and Norbert Burgmüller. Norbert Burgmüller ( Düsseldorf, February 8, 1810 &ndash Aachen, May 7, 1836) was a German Composer
Schumann's editorial duties, which kept him occupied during the summer of 1834, were interrupted by his relations with Ernestine von Fricken, a girl of 16, to whom he became engaged. She was the adopted daughter of a rich Bohemian, from whose variations on a theme Schumann constructed his own Symphonic Etudes. The engagement was broken off by Schumann, due to the burgeoning of his love for the 15-year-old Clara Wieck. Clara Josephine Wieck Schumann (September 13 1819 &ndash May 20 1896 was a German musician one of the most distinguished Pianists of the Romantic era, as Flirtatious exchanges in the spring of 1835 led to their first kiss on the steps outside Wieck’s house in November and mutual declarations of love the next month in Zwickau, where Clara appeared in concert. Having learned in August that Ernestine von Fricken’s was of illegitimate birth, which meant that she would have no dowry, and fearful that her limited means would force him to earn his living like a ‘day-labourer’, Schumann engineered a complete break towards the end of the year. But his idyll with Clara was soon brought to an unceremonious end. When her father became aware of their nocturnal trysts during the Christmas holidays, he summarily forbade them further meetings.
Carnaval (op. Carnaval is a work by Robert Schumann for piano solo his op 9 written in 1834-1835 9, 1834) is one of Schumann's most genial and most characteristic piano works. Schumann begins nearly every section of Carnaval with the musical notes signified in German by the letters that spell Asch (A, E-flat, C, and B, or alternatively A-flat, C, and B; in German these are A, Es, C and H, and As C and H respectively), the town (then in Bohemia, now in the Czech Republic) in which Ernestine was born, and the notes are also the musical letters in Schumann's own name. Aš (aʃ Asch is a town in the Karlovy Vary Region of the Czech Republic. Bohemia (Čechy; Bohemia Czechy is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands, currently the The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, Schumann named sections for both Ernestine von Fricken ("Estrella") and Clara Wieck ("Chiarina"). Eusebius and Florestan, the imaginary figures appearing so often in his critical writings, also appear, alongside brilliant imitations of Chopin and Paganini. Niccolò Paganini ( October 27, 1782 &ndash The work comes to a close with a march of the Davidsbündler — the league of the men of David against the Philistines in which may be heard the clear accents of truth in contest with the dull clamour of falsehood embodied in a quotation from the seventeenth century Grandfather's Dance. David, Arabic: داوود or داود dawud, "beloved" was the second king of the united Kingdom of Israel according to the Hebrew Bible The Philistines ( Hebrew פלשתים plishtim) (see "other uses" below were a people who inhabited the southern coast of Canaan, In Carnaval, Schumann went further than in Papillons, for in it he himself conceived the story for which it was the musical illustration.
On October 3, 1835, Schumann met Mendelssohn at Wieck's house in Leipzig, and his appreciation of his great contemporary was shown with the same generous freedom that distinguished him in all his relations to other musicians, and which later enabled him to recognize the genius of Johannes Brahms, whom he first met in 1853 before he had established a reputation. Events 42 BC - First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's Year 1835 ( MDCCCXXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Johannes Brahms ( pronounced ˈbʁaːms (May 7 1833 &ndash April 3 1897 was a German Composer
In 1836 Schumann's acquaintance with Clara Wieck, already famous as a pianist, ripened into love. A year later he asked her father's consent to their marriage, but was refused.
In the series Fantasiestücke for the piano (op. Robert Schumann 's Fantasiestücke, Op 12 are eight pieces for piano written in 1837. 12) he once more gives a sublime illustration of the fusion of literary and musical ideas as embodied conceptions in such pieces as Warum and In der Nacht. After he had written the latter of these two he detected in the music the fanciful suggestion of a series of episodes from the story of Hero and Leander. Hero and Leander is a Greek myth, relating the story of Hero, a priestess of Aphrodite who dwelt in a tower in Sestos, at the edge of the The collection begins (in Des Abends) with a notable example of Schumann's predeliction for rhythmic ambiguity, as unrelieved syncopation plays heavily against the time signature just as in the first movement of Faschingsschwank aus Wien. Faschingsschwank aus Wien ("Carnival Scenes from Vienna" or "Carnival Jest from Vienna" is a solo piano work by Robert Schumann, his op After a nicely told fable, and the appropriately titled "Whirring Dreams," the whole collection ends on an introspective note in the manner of Eusebius.
The Kinderszenen, completed in 1838, a favourite of Schumann's piano works, is playful and childlike, and in a wonderfully fresh way captures the innocence of childhood. Kinderszenen ("Scenes From Childhood" Opus 15 by Robert Schumann, is a set of thirteen pieces of music for piano written in 1838 The Träumerei is one of the most famous piano pieces ever written, and exists in myriad forms and transcriptions, and has been the favourite encore of several artists, including Vladimir Horowitz. Vladimir Samoylovich Horowitz (ולדימיר הורוביץ Владимир Самойлович Горовиц Vladimir Samojlovič Gorovits; Володимир Самійлович Although deceptively simple, Alban Berg, in reply to charges that modern music was overly complex, pointed out that this piece is in no way as simple as it appears in its harmonic structure. Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9 1885 &ndash December 24 1935 was an Austrian Composer. The whole collection is deceptive in its simplicity, yet genuinely touching and refreshing.
The Kreisleriana, which is considered one of his greatest works, was also written in 1838, and in this the composer's fantasy and emotional range is again carried a step further. Kreisleriana, an early work of Robert Schumann, is an eight- movement piece for solo Piano, entitled Phantasien für das Pianoforte Johannes Kreisler, the romantic poet brought into contact with the real world, was a character drawn from life: the poet E. T. A. Hoffmann (q. Johannes Kreisler is the name of a character in three novels by E Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann ( January 24, 1776 &ndash June 25, 1822) better known by his Pen name E v. ), and Schumann utilized him as an imaginary mouthpiece for the sonic expression of emotional states, in music that is "fantastic and mad".
The Fantasia in C (Op. 17), written in the summer of 1836, is a work of passion and deep pathos, imbued with the spirit of late Beethoven. This is no doubt deliberate, since the proceeds from sales of the work were initially intended to be contributed towards the construction of a monument to Beethoven. According to Liszt, (Strelezki: Personal Recollections of Chats with Liszt) who played the work to the composer, and to whom the work was dedicated, the Fantasy was apt to be played too heavily, and should have a dreamier (träumerisch) character than vigorous German pianists tended to labour. He also said, "It is a noble work, worthy of Beethoven, whose career, by the way, it is supposed to represent. "
After a visit to Vienna during which he discovered Schubert's previously unknown Symphony No. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. 9 in C, in 1839 Schumann wrote the Faschingsschwank aus Wien, i. e. the Carnival Prank from Vienna. Most of the joke is in the central section of the first movement, into which a thinly veiled reference to the “Marseillaise”—then banned in Vienna—is squeezed. " La Marseillaise " (la maʁsɛˡjɛz in English The Song of Marseille) is the National anthem of France. The festive mood does not preclude moments of melancholic introspection in the Intermezzo.
In 1840, after a long and acrimonious legal battle with her father, Schumann married Clara Wieck on September 12, 1840, at Schönefeld. Clara Josephine Wieck Schumann (September 13 1819 &ndash May 20 1896 was a German musician one of the most distinguished Pianists of the Romantic era, as Events 1213 - Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the
Before 1840, Schumann had written almost exclusively for the piano, but in this one year he wrote 168 songs. Schumann's biographers have attributed the sweetness, the doubt and the despair of these songs to the varying emotions aroused by his love for Clara. This view is treated with skepticism by some modern scholars, especially since Dichterliebe, with its themes of rejection and acceptance, was written when his marriage was no longer in doubt. Robert and Clara were to have seven children.
His chief song-cycles of this period were his settings of the Liederkreis of J. von Eichendorff (op. Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff ( March 10, 1788 – November 26, 1857) was a German Poet and Novelist 39), the Frauenliebe und -leben of Chamisso (op. Frauenliebe und -leben ( A Woman's Love and Life) is a cycle of poems by Adelbert von Chamisso, written in 1830 42), the Dichterliebe of Heine (op. Dichterliebe, 'The Poet's Love' (composed 1840 is the best-known Song cycle of Robert Schumann (Op 48) and Myrthen, a collection of songs, including poems by Goethe, Rückert, Heine, Byron, Burns and Moore. The songs Belsatzar (op. 57) and Die beiden Grenadiere (op. 49), each to Heine's words, show Schumann at his best as a ballad writer, though the dramatic ballad is less congenial to him than the introspective lyric. The opus 35 (to words of Justinus Kerner) and opus 40 sets, although less well known, also contain songs of lyric and dramatic quality. Justinus Andreas Christian Kerner ( September 18, 1786 &ndash February 21, 1862) was a German Poet and medical writer
As Grillparzer said, "He has made himself a new ideal world in which he moves almost as he wills". Franz Seraphicus Grillparzer ( January 15, 1791 – January 21, 1872) an Austrian dramatic Poet, was born in
Despite his achievements, Schumann received few tokens of honour; he was awarded a doctoral degree by the University of Jena in 1840, and in 1843 a professorship in the Conservatorium of Leipzig, which had been founded that year by Felix Mendelssohn. On one occasion, accompanying his wife on a concert tour in Russia, Schumann was asked whether 'he too was a musician'. He was to remain sensitive to his wife's greater international acclaim as a pianist.
In 1841 he wrote two of his four symphonies. The year 1842 he devoted to the composition of chamber music, which included the piano quintet (op. 44), now one of his best known and most admired works. The Piano Quintet in E flat major, Op 44 by Robert Schumann was written in 1842 In 1843 he wrote Paradise and the Peri, his first essay at concerted vocal music. Paradise and the Peri (German title Das Paradies und die Peri) is an Oratorio for soloists chorus, and Orchestra by Robert Schumann After this, his compositions were not confined during any particular period to any one form.
The stage in his life when he was deeply engaged in his music to Goethe's Faust (1844–53) was a critical one for his health. Faust or Faustus ( Latin for "auspicious" or "lucky" is the protagonist of a classic German Legend in which he makes The first half of the year 1844 had been spent with his wife in Russia. On returning to Germany he had abandoned his editorial work, and left Leipzig for Dresden, where he suffered from what was referred to as persistent “nervous prostration”. Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Drježdźany is the Capital city of the German As soon as he began to work he was seized with fits of shivering and an apprehension of death, which was exhibited in an abhorrence for high places, for all metal instruments (even keys), and for drugs. Schumann's diaries also state that he suffered perpetually from imagining that he had the note A sounding in his ears. In 1846 he had recovered and in the winter revisited Vienna, traveling to Prague and Berlin in the spring of 1847 and in the summer to Zwickau, where he was received with enthusiasm--gratifying because Dresden and Leipzig were the only large cities in which his fame was at this time appreciated. Prague (ˈprɑːg Praha (ˈpraɦa see also other names) is the Capital and Largest city of the Czech Republic. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany.
To 1848 belongs his only opera, Genoveva (op. Genoveva (Op 81 is an Opera in four acts by Robert Schumann in the genre of German Romanticism with a libretto by the composer 81), a work containing much beautiful music, but lacking dramatic force. It is interesting for its attempt to abolish the recitative, which Schumann regarded as an interruption to the musical flow. Recitative /rɛsɪtə'tiv/ (also known by its Italian name "recitativo" (/retʃita'tivo/ is a style of delivery (much used in Operas Oratorios The subject of Genoveva, based on Johann Ludwig Tieck and Hebbel, was in itself not a particularly happy choice; but it is worth remembering that as early as 1842 the possibilities of German opera had been keenly realized by Schumann, who wrote, "Do you know my prayer as an artist, night and morning? It is called 'German Opera'. Johann Ludwig Tieck ( May 31, 1773 &ndash April 28, 1853) was a German Poet, Translator, editor Here is a real field for enterprise [. . . ] something simple, profound, German". And in his notebook of suggestions for the text of operas are found amongst others: Nibelungen, Lohengrin and Til Eulenspiegel. Schumann's consistently flowing melody in this work can be seen as a forerunner to Wagner's Melos.
The music to Byron's Manfred is preeminent in a year (1849) in which he wrote more than in any other. Manfred is a Dramatic poem written in 1816 – 1817 by Lord Byron. The insurrection of Dresden caused Schumann to move to Kreischa, a little village a few miles outside the city. Kreischa is a municipality in the Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge district Saxony, Germany. In August of this year, on the occasion of the hundredth anniversary of Goethe's birth, such scenes of Schumann's Faust as were already completed were performed in Dresden, Leipzig and Weimar, Liszt, as always giving unwearied assistance and encouragement. Weimar (ˈvaɪmaʁ is a City in Germany. It is located in the Bundesland of Thuringia (Thüringen north of the Thüringer Wald, The rest of the work was written in the latter part of the year, and the overture in 1853. This overture Schumann described as "one of the sturdiest of my creations".
From 1850 to 1854, the nature of Schumann's works is extremely varied. The popular belief that the quality of his music quickly decayed has been questioned: the changes in style may be explained by lucid experimentation. 
In 1850 Schumann succeeded Ferdinand Hiller as musical director at Düsseldorf; Schumann was a poor conductor and quickly aroused the opposition of the musicians, leading eventually to the termination of his contract. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Ferdinand (von Hiller ( 24 October 1811 &ndash Düsseldorf (ˈdʏsəldɔɐf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. From 1851 to 1853 he visited Switzerland and Belgium as well as Leipzig. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those In 1851 he completed his Rhenish Symphony, and he revised what would be published as his fourth symphony. Symphony No 3 in E-flat major " Rhenish ", opus 97 was written by Robert Schumann in late 1850 The Symphony No 4 in D Minor op 120 composed by Robert Schumann, was completed in 1841 (first version On September 30, 1853, the 20-year-old Brahms knocked unannounced on the door of the Schumanns carrying a letter of introduction from the violinist Joseph Joachim; he amazed both Clara and Robert with his music, stayed with them for several weeks and became a close family friend. Joseph Joachim (June 28 1831 &ndash August 15 1907 (ˈjoʊɑːxɪːm was a Hungarian Violinist, conductor, Composer and teacher During this time Schumann, Brahms and Schumann's pupil Albert Dietrich collaborated on the composition of the 'F-A-E' Sonata for the violinist Joseph Joachim; Schumann also published an article, “Neue Bahnen” (New Paths) hailing the unknown young composer from Hamburg, who had published nothing, as “the Chosen One” who would “give ideal expression to the Age. Albert Hermann Dietrich ( 28 August 1829 – 20 November 1908) was a German Composer and conductor, remembered Joseph Joachim (June 28 1831 &ndash August 15 1907 (ˈjoʊɑːxɪːm was a Hungarian Violinist, conductor, Composer and teacher ” It was an extraordinary way for Brahms to be presented to the musical world, setting up enormous expectations of him which he did not fulfill for many years. In January 1854, Schumann went to Hanover, where he heard a performance of his Paradise and the Peri organized by Joachim and Brahms. Hanover (i ( haˈnoːfɐ on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony ( Niedersachsen
Soon after his return to Düsseldorf, where he was engaged in editing his complete works and making an anthology on the subject of music, a renewal of the symptoms that had threatened him earlier showed itself. Besides the single note, he now imagined that voices sounded in his ear and he heard angelic music. One night he suddenly left his bed, telling Clara that Schubert and Mendelssohn had sent him a theme — in truth, he was merely recalling his own violin concerto — which he must write down, and on this theme he wrote five variations for the piano, his last work. Robert Schumann ’s Violin Concerto in D minor, WoO 23 was his only violin concerto and one of his last significant compositions and one that remained unknown to Brahms published the theme in a supplementary volume to the complete edition of Schumann's piano music, and in 1861 himself wrote a substantial set of variations upon it for piano duet, his op. 23.
In late February Schumann's symptoms increased, the angelic visions sometimes being replaced by demonic visions. He warned Clara that he feared he might do her harm. On February 27, 1854, he attempted suicide by throwing himself from a bridge into the Rhine. Events 1560 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation Year 1854 ( MDCCCLIV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year Rescued by boatmen and taken home, he asked to be taken to an asylum for the insane. He entered Dr. Franz Richarz's sanitarium in Endenich, a quarter of Bonn, and remained there for more than two years, until his death. Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia
Given his reported symptoms, one modern view is that his death was a result of syphilis, which he may have contracted during his student days, and which would have remained latent during most of his marriage. Syphilis is a Sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal Bacterium Treponema pallidum pallidum.  According to studies by the musicologist and literary scholar Eric Sams, Schumann's symptoms during his terminal illness and death appear consistent with those of mercury poisoning, mercury being a common treatment for syphilis and other conditions. Eric Sams ( May 3, 1926 &mdash Sept 13, 2004 was a British musicologist and Shakespeare scholar Mercury poisoning (also known as mercurialism, hydrargyria, Hunter-Russell syndrome, or acrodynia when affecting children is a Disease Schumann died on July 29, 1856, and was buried at the Zentral Friedhof, Bonn. Events 1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat Year 1856 ( MDCCCLVI) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year In 1880, a statue by Adolf von Donndorf was erected on his tomb. Adolf von Donndorf ( 16 February 1835 - 20 December 1916) was a German Sculptor.
From the time of her husband's death, Clara devoted herself principally to the interpretation of her husband's works. In 1856, she first visited England, but the critics received Schumann's music coolly, with some critics such as Henry Fothergill Chorley particularly harsh in their disapproval. Henry Fothergill Chorley (15 December 1808 &ndash 16 February 1872 was an English literary art and Music critic and editor She returned to London in 1865 and made regular appearances there in subsequent years. She became the authoritative editor of her husband's works for Breitkopf und Härtel. Breitkopf & Härtel is the world's oldest music publishing house It was rumored that she and Brahms destroyed many of Schumann's later works that they thought to be tainted by his madness. However, only the Five Pieces for Cello and Piano are known to have been destroyed. Most of Schumann's late works, particularly the violin concerto, the Fantasy for Violin and Orchestra and the third violin sonata, all from 1853, have entered the repertoire. Robert Schumann ’s Violin Concerto in D minor, WoO 23 was his only violin concerto and one of his last significant compositions and one that remained unknown to
Schumann exerted considerable influence in the nineteenth century and beyond, despite his adoption of more conservative modes of composition after his marriage. He left an array of acclaimed music in virtually all the forms then known. Partly through his protégé Brahms, Schumann's ideals and musical vocabulary became widely disseminated. Elgar called Schumann "my ideal".
Schumann has sometimes been confused with the Austrian composer Franz Schubert. One well-known example occurred in 1956, when East Germany issued a pair of stamps featuring Schumann's picture and Schubert's music. The German Democratic Republic ( GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik DDR; commonly known in English as East Germany) was a Socialist state The stamps were soon replaced by a pair featuring music written by Schumann.
Media files for the Kinderszenen can be found with the article on them. This list of compositions by Robert Schumann is classified into piano vocal choral and orchestral works Kinderszenen ("Scenes From Childhood" Opus 15 by Robert Schumann, is a set of thirteen pieces of music for piano written in 1838
|Fantasie C major op. 17 - Sempre Fantasticamente ed Appassionatamente|
|Fantasie C major op. 17 - Moderato, Sempre energico|
|Fantasie C major op. 17 - Lento sostenuto Sempre piano|
|Schumann - Nänie|
|(2. 4 Mb)|
|Andante and Variations - Introduction, Theme and Variations 1-5|
|Performed by Neal and Nancy O'Doan (pianos), Carter Enyeart and Toby Saks (cellos) and Christopher Leuba (horn)|
|Andante and Variations - Variations 6-10|
|Performed by Neal and Nancy O'Doan (pianos), Carter Enyeart and Toby Saks (cellos) and Christopher Leuba (horn)|
|Andante and Variations - Variations 11-15|
|Performed by Neal and Nancy O'Doan (pianos), Carter Enyeart and Toby Saks (cellos) and Christopher Leuba (horn)|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Composer, pianist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||June 8, 1810|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Zwickau, Germany|
|DATE OF DEATH||July 29, 1856|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Endenich, Germany|