Robert David Putnam (born 1941 in Port Clinton, Ohio) is a political scientist and professor at Harvard University. Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Political science is a branch of Social sciences that deals with the theory and practice of Politics and the description and analysis of Political systems He is also Visiting Professor and Director of the Manchester Graduate Summer Programme in Social Change, University of Manchester (UK). The University of Manchester is a " red brick " civic University located in Manchester, England. Putnam developed the influential two-level game theory that assumes international agreements will only be successfully brokered if they also result in domestic benefits. Two-level game theory is a political model of international conflict resolution between liberal democracies derived from Game theory and originally introduced A Treaty is an agreement under International law entered into by actors in international law namely States and International organizations. His most famous (and controversial) work, Bowling Alone, argues that the United States has undergone an unprecedented collapse in civic, social, associational, and political life (social capital) since the 1960s, with serious negative consequences. Bowling Alone America's Declining Social Capital (1995 is an essay by Robert D The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Social capital is a concept in business economics, Organizational behaviour, Political science, Public health, Sociology and natural The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969
Putnam graduated from Swarthmore College in 1963, won a Fulbright Fellowship to study at Balliol College, Oxford, and went on to earn master's and doctorate degrees from Yale University, the latter in 1970. Swarthmore College is a private, independent, liberal arts college in the United States with an enrollment of about 1500 students Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright-Hays Program, is a program of grants for international educational exchange for scholars educators graduate Balliol College (ˈbeɪlɪəl founded in 1263 is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the A doctorate is an Academic degree that indicates the highest level of academic achievement He taught at the University of Michigan until going to Harvard in 1979, where he has held a variety of positions, including Dean of the Kennedy School, and is currently the Malkin Professor of Public Policy. The University of Michigan Ann Arbor ( U of M, U-M, UM or simply Michigan) is a top-ranked Coeducational public research
His first work in the area of social capital was Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy, a comparative study of regional governments in Italy which drew great scholarly attention for its argument that the success of democracies depends in large part on the horizontal bonds that make up social capital. Making Democracy Work Civic Traditions in Modern Italy is a 1993 book written by Robert Putnam (with Robert Leonardi and Raffaella y
In 1995 he published "Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital" in the Journal of Democracy. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 The Journal of Democracy is an Academic journal founded in 1990 and an official publication of the National Endowment for Democracy. The article was widely read and garnered much attention for Putnam, including an invitation to meet with then-President Bill Clinton. William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States Some critics argued that Putnam was ignoring new organizations and forms of social capital; others argued that many of the included organizations were responsible for the suppression of civil rights movements and the reinforcement of anti-egalitarian social norms. Over the last decade and a half, the United States had seen an increase in bowlers but a decrease in bowling leagues. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
In 2000, he published Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community, a book-length expansion of the original argument, adding new evidence and answering many of his critics. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. Though he measured the decline of social capital with data of many varieties, his most striking point was that many traditional civic, social and fraternal organizations -- typified by bowling leagues -- had undergone a massive decline in membership while the number of people bowling had increased dramatically.
Putnam makes a distinction between two kinds of social capital: bonding capital and bridging capital. Bonding occurs when you are socializing with people who are like you: same age, same race, same religion, and so on. But in order to create peaceful societies in a diverse multi-ethnic country, one needs to have a second kind of social capital: bridging. Bridging is what you do when you make friends with people who are not like you, like supporters of another football team. Putnam argues that those two kinds of social capital, bonding and bridging, do strengthen each other. Consequently, with the decline of the bonding capital mentioned above inevitably comes the decline of the bridging capital leading to greater ethnic tensions.
Critics such as sociologist Claude Fischer argue that (a) Putnam concentrates on organizational forms of social capital, and pays much less attention to networks of interpersonal social capital; (b) neglects the emergence of new forms of supportive organizations on and off the Internet; and (c) the 1960s are a misleading baseline because the era had an unusually high number of traditional organizations. Claude Serge Fischer (born January 9, 1948) is an American Sociologist and Professor of Sociology at the University of California Berkeley
Since the publication of Bowling Alone, Putnam has worked on efforts to revive American social capital, notably through the Saguaro Seminar, a series of meetings among academics, civil society leaders, commentators, and politicians to discuss strategies to re-connect Americans with their communities. BetterTogetherCivic Engagement in America is both a book and website published as an initiative of the Saguaro Seminar conducted at Harvard University 's John F These resulted in the publication of the book and website, Better Together, which provides case studies of vibrant and new forms of social capital building in the United States
In recent years, Putnam has been engaged in a comprehensive study of the relationship between trust within communities and their ethnic diversity. His conclusion based on over 40 cases and 30 000 people within the United States is that, other things being equal, more diversity in a community has a correlation [expressed as a beta equal to 0. In Probability theory and Statistics, correlation, (often measured as a correlation coefficient) indicates the strength and direction of a linear 04 in a multiple regression analysis (see Putnam, 2007)], to less trust both between and within ethnic groups. Although only a single study, limited to American data, and the Census tract Herfindahl Index of Ethnic Homogeneity only explaining 0. 16 % of the variance in trust in neighbours in the regression model presented (Putnam, 2007) it claims to put into question both contact theory and conflict theory in inter-ethnic relations. For a position in the religion-science debate with a similar name see Conflict thesis Conflict theory emphasizes the role that a person's According to conflict theory, distrust between the ethnic groups will rise with diversity, but not within a group. According to contact theory, distrust will decline as members of different ethnic groups get to know and interact with each other. Putnam describes people of all races, sex and ages as "hunkering down" and going into their shells like a turtle. For example, he did not find any significant difference between 90 year olds and 30 year olds.
Low trust with high diversity not only affects ethnic groups, but is also associated with:
Putnam has been criticized for the lag between his initial study and his publication of his article. In 2006, Putnam was quoted in the Financial Times as saying he had delayed publishing the article until he could "develop proposals to compensate for the negative effects of diversity" (quote from John Lloyd of Financial Times) . In 2007, writing in City Journal, John Leo questioned whether this suppression of publication was ethical behavior for a scholar, noting that "Academics aren’t supposed to withhold negative data until they can suggest antidotes to their findings. "  On the other hand, Putnam did release the data in 2001 and publicized this fact . The proposals that the paper contains are located in a section called "Becoming Comfortable with Diversity" at the end of his article. This section has been criticized for lacking the rigor of the preceding sections. According to Ilana Mercer "Putnam concludes the gloomy facts with a stern pep talk"  .