A well preserved Riparian strip on a tributary to Lake Erie
. Lake Erie (ˈɪəriː is the fourth largest Lake (by surface area of the five Great Lakes, and the tenth largest globally
- "Riparian" redirects here. For the legal doctrine, see "riparian water rights. Riparian Water rights (or simply riparian rights) is a system of allocating water among those who possess land about its source "
A riparian zone is the interface between land and a flowing surface water body. Plant communities along the river margins are called riparian vegetation, characterized by hydrophilic plants. Hydrophile, from the Greek (hydros "water" and φιλια (philia "friendship" refers to a physical property of a Molecule Riparian zones are significant in ecology, environmental management, and civil engineering due to their role in soil conservation, their biodiversity, and the influence they have on aquatic ecosystems. Ecology (from Greek grc οἶκος oikos, "house(hold" and grc -λογία -logia) is the scientific study of Environmental Management is not as the phrase could suggest the management of the environment as such but rather the management of interaction by the modern human societies Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally built Soil conservation is set of management strategies for prevention of Soil being eroded from the earth’s surface or becoming chemically altered by overuse Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. An aquatic ecosystem is an Ecosystem located in water bodies. Riparian zones occur in many forms including grassland, woodland, wetland or even non-vegetative. A wetland is an area of Land consisting of Soil that is Saturated with Moisture, such as a Swamp, Marsh, or Bog In some regions the terms riparian woodland, riparian forest, riparian buffer zone or riparian strip are used to characterize a riparian zone. The word "riparian" is derived from Latin ripa, meaning river bank. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
Riparian zones may be natural or engineered for soil stabilization or restoration. Land rehabilitation is the process of returning the land in a given area to some degree of its former state after some process ( Industry, Natural disasters etc These zones are important natural biofilters, protecting aquatic environments from excessive sedimentation, polluted surface runoff and erosion. Biofiltration is a Pollution control technique using living material to capture and biologically degrade process pollutants Sediment is any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of Surface runoff is a term used to describe when soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess Water, from Rain, Snowmelt, or other sources flows Erosion is the carrying away or displacement of solids ( Sediment, Soil, rock and other particles usually by the agents of currents such as wind They supply shelter and food for many aquatic animals and shade that is an important part of stream temperature regulation. When riparian zones are damaged by construction, agriculture or silviculture, biological restoration can take place, usually by human intervention in erosion control and revegetation. In the fields of Architecture and Civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the Building or assembling of Infrastructure Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Silviculture is the art and science of controlling the establishment growth composition health and quality of Forests to meet diverse needs and values of the many landowners If the area adjacent to a watercourse has standing water or saturated soil for as long as a season, it is normally termed a wetland due to its hydric soil characteristics. A wetland is an area of Land consisting of Soil that is Saturated with Moisture, such as a Swamp, Marsh, or Bog A hydric soil is a soil that formed under conditions of saturation flooding or ponding long enough during the growing season to develop anaerobic conditions in the upper part Because of their prominent role in supporting a diversity of species, riparian zones are often the subject of national protection in a Biodiversity Action Plan. Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. This article is about a conservation biology topic For other uses of BAP see BAP (disambiguation.
Research shows riparian zones are instrumental in water quality improvement for both surface runoff and water flowing into streams through subsurface or groundwater flow. Water quality is the physical chemical and biological characteristics of Water in relationship to a set of standards Surface runoff is a term used to describe when soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess Water, from Rain, Snowmelt, or other sources flows Groundwater is Water located beneath the Ground surface in Soil pore spaces and in the Fractures of lithologic formations Particularly the attenuation of nitrate or denitrification of the nitrates from fertilizer in this buffer zone is important. In Inorganic chemistry, a nitrate is a salt of Nitric acid with an Ion composed of one Nitrogen and three Oxygen atoms Denitrification is a microbially facilitated process of dissimilatory nitrate reduction that may ultimately produce molecular Nitrogen (N2 through a series of intermediate Fertilizers ( also spelt fertiliser are chemical compounds given to Plants to promote growth they are usually applied either through the soil for uptake by plant Riparian zones can play a role in lowering nitrate contamination in surface runoff from agricultural fields, which runoff would otherwise damage ecosystems and human health. Surface runoff is a term used to describe when soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess Water, from Rain, Snowmelt, or other sources flows Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( The use of wetland riparian zones shows a particularly high rate of removal of nitrate entering a stream and thus has a place in agricultural management. A wetland is an area of Land consisting of Soil that is Saturated with Moisture, such as a Swamp, Marsh, or Bog
Roles and functions
A riparian zone schematic from the Everglades
. Everglades is also the name of a city in Collier County Florida
Some of the important functions of riparian zones are:
- Dissipate stream energy: Meandering curves of a river, combined with vegetation and root systems dissipate stream energy, resulting in less soil erosion and a reduction in flood damage. A stream is a body of Water with a current, confined within a bed and stream-banks "Riverine" redirects here For the use of that term in Maritime geography, see there
- Trap sediment: Reduce suspended sediments to create less turbid water, replenish soils, and build stream banks. Sediment is any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of Sediment is any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by individual particles ( suspended solids) that are generally invisible to the Naked eye
- Filter pollutants from surface runoff and enhance water quality via biofiltration. Surface runoff is a term used to describe when soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess Water, from Rain, Snowmelt, or other sources flows Water quality is the physical chemical and biological characteristics of Water in relationship to a set of standards Biofiltration is a Pollution control technique using living material to capture and biologically degrade process pollutants
- Provide wildlife habitat, increase biodiversity and forage for wildlife and livestock
- Provide wildlife corridors: enable aquatic and riparian organisms to move along river systems avoiding isolated communities. A habitat (which is Latin for "it inhabits" is an Ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular Species. Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. In Agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any Foodstuff that is used specifically to feed Domesticated Livestock, such as Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants animals and other organisms
- Provide native landscape irrigation by extending seasonal or perennial flows of water. Landscape comprises the visible features of an area of land including physical elements such as Landforms living elements of flora and fauna abstract elements such as lighting
- Contribute nutrients from terrestrial vegetation (e. g. leaf litter and insect drop) to aquatic food webs
- Shading water to mitigate water temperature changes
- Contribute wood debris to streams which is important to maintaining geomorphology
- Contribute to nearby property values through amenity and views. Thermal pollution is a Temperature change in natural bodies of water caused by human influence Geomorphology (from Greek: γη ge, "earth" μορφή morfé, "form" and λόγος Logos, "knowledge"
- Improve enjoyment for footpaths and bikeways through supporting foreshoreway networks. A Foreshoreway is a public Right of way along the edge of a Waterbody.
- Provide space for riparian sports including fishing, swimming and launching for vessels and paddlecraft.
- Act as a sacrificial erosion buffer to absorb impacts of factors including climate change, increased runoff from urbanisation and increased boatwake without damaging structures located behind a setback zone. Climate change is any long-term significant change in the “average weather” that a given region experiences RUNOFF was the first Computer Text formatting program to see significant use Urbanizationn (also spelled urbanisation) is the physical growth of Urban areas into rural or natural land as a result of population in-migration to an existing A boat is a Watercraft of modest size designed to float or plane on water and provide transport over it
Role in logging
The protection of riparian zones is often a consideration in logging operations. Logging is the process in which Trees are cut down for Forest management and Timber. The undisturbed soil, soil cover, and vegetation provide shade, leaf litter, woody material, and reduce the delivery of soil eroded from the harvested area. Erosion is the carrying away or displacement of solids ( Sediment, Soil, rock and other particles usually by the agents of currents such as wind Factors such as soil types and root structures, climatic conditions and above ground vegetative cover impact the effectiveness of riparian buffering. ROOT is an object-oriented program and library developed by CERN. Climate encompasses the temperatures humidity rainfall atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorogical factors in a given region over long periods of
The assortment of riparian zone trees varies from those of wetlands and typically consists of plants that either are emergent aquatic plants, or herbs, trees and shrubs that thrive in proximity to water. A(n herb (ˈhɝb or /ˈɝb/ see pronunciation differences) is a plant that is valued for qualities such as medicinal properties flavor scent or the like A tree is a perennial Woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or A shrub or Bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of Woody plant, distinguished from a Tree Typical riparian zone trees in the eastern United States include:
- Cottonwood, Populus deltoides
- Silver maple, Acer saccharinum
- Boxelder, Acer negundo
- American elm, Ulmus americana
- American sycamore, Platanus occidentalis
- Butternut, Juglans cinerea
- Black walnut, Juglans nigra
- Black willow, Salix nigra
- River birch, Betula nigra
- Green ash, Fraxinus pensylvanica
- Honey locust, Gleditsia triacanthos
- Basswood, Tilia americana
In the western United States riparian vegetation may include red willow, juncus, grasses, sedges and wingstem. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The cottonwoods are three species of Poplars in the section Aegiros of the genus Populus, native to North America, Europe and western Acer saccharinum, known as the silver maple (also occasionally the creek maple, river maple, silverleaf maple, soft maple Acer negundo is a species of Maple native to North America. Box Elder, Boxelder Maple, and Maple Ash are its most Ulmus americana, generally known as the American Elm or less commonly as the White Elm or Water Elm, is a species native to eastern Juglans cinerea, commonly known as Butternut or White Walnut, is a species of Walnut native to the eastern United States and Juglans nigra, commonly known as black walnut or American walnut, is a tree Species native to eastern North America. Salix nigra ( Black Willow) is a species of Willow native to eastern North America, from New Brunswick and southern Ontario Betula nigra ( River Birch; also occasionally called Water Birch) is a species of Birch native to the eastern United States Fraxinus pennsylvanica ( Green Ash or Red Ash) is a species of ash native to eastern and central North America, from Nova The Honey locust ( Gleditsia triacanthos) is a Deciduous Tree native to eastern North America and can also be found in central and southern Tilia is a Genus of about 30 species of Trees native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere, in Asia (where the greatest Willows, sallows and osiers form the Genus Salix, around 400 species of Deciduous Trees and Shrubs found primarily Juncus is a genus in the plant family Juncaceae. It consists of 225 to 300 species of grassy plants commonly called rushes. Poaceae or Gramineae is a family in the Class Liliopsida of the flowering plants. The family Cyperaceae, or the sedges, is a taxon of monocot Flowering plants that superficially resemble grasses or rushes In Asia there are different types of riparian vegetation, but the interactions between hydrology and ecology are similar1.
Typical riparian vegetation in New South Wales, Australia include:
- Blackwood, Acacia melanoxylon
- Ovens Wattle, Acacia pravissima
- Red Stem Wattle, Acacia rubida
- Blackthorn, Bursaria lasiophylla
- Crimson Bottlebrush, Callistemon citrinus
- River Bottlebrush, Callistemon sieberi syn. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Acacia is a Genus of Shrubs and Trees belonging to the Subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, first Acacia is a Genus of Shrubs and Trees belonging to the Subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, first Blackthorn redirects here for other uses see Blackthorn (disambiguation Prunus spinosa ( Blackthorn or Sloe paludosa
- River She-Oak, Casuarina cunninghamiana
- Apple Box, Eucalyptus bridgesiana
- River Red Gum, Eucalyptus camaldulensis
- Yellow Box, Eucalyptus melliodora
- Ribbon/Manna Gum, Eucalyptus viminalis
- Burgan, Kunzea erocoides
- River Tea-Tree, Leptospernum obovatum
- Swamp Paperbark, Melaleuca ericifolia
Typical riparian zone trees in Central Europe include:
- Field Maple, Acer campestre
- Sycamore Maple, Acer pseudoplatanus
- Black Alder, Alnus glutinosa
- European Hornbeam, Carpinus betulus
- European Ash, Fraxinus excelsior
- Persian Walnut, Juglans regia
- European Wild Apple, Malus sylvestris
- White Poplar, Populus alba
- Black Poplar, Populus nigra
- Pedunculate Oak, Quercus robur
- White Willow, Salix alba
- Crack Willow, Salix fragilis
- Small-leaved Lime, Tilia cordata
- European White Elm, Ulmus laevis
- Field Elm, Ulmus minor
- Nakasone, H. Apple Boxes are wooden boxes of varying sizes with holes on each end used chiefly in Film production. The River Red Gum ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis) is a tree of the genus Eucalyptus. Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Acer campestre, Common name Field Maple, is a Maple native to much of Europe, north to southern England (where it Acer pseudoplatanus ( Sycamore or Sycamore Maple to distinguish it from other plants called Sycamore) is a species of Maple native Carpinus betulus ( European or common hornbeam) is a Hornbeam native to western central and southern Europe, extending eastward Fraxinus excelsior ( Ash; also European Ash or Common Ash on occasion to distinguish it from other ash species is a species of Juglans regia (the Common walnut, Persian walnut, or English walnut) is the original Walnut tree of the Old World Malus sylvestris is a species of Malus (crabapple native to Europe from Spain, Italy and Greece to southern Populus alba ( White Poplar) is a species of Poplar, most closely related to the Aspens ( Populus sect Black poplar ( Populus nigra) is a Species of Poplar in the Cottonwood ( Aegiros) section of the genus Populus, native Quercus robur (sometimes considered Q pedunculata) is commonly known as the pedunculate oak or English oak. White Willow redirects here See White Willow (band for the Norwegian band Salix fragilis ( Crack Willow) is a species of Willow native to Europe and western Asia, usually growing beside rivers Tilia cordata ( Small-leaved Lime, occasionally Small-leaved Linden is a species of Tilia native to much of Europe and western Ulmus laevis Pall the European White Elm, yclept Fluttering Elm Spreading Elm and in the USA, Russian Elm, is a Accropode blocks are man-made unreinforced Concrete objects designed to resist the action of waves on Breakwaters and coastal structures Bioswales are landscape elements designed to remove Silt and Pollution from Surface runoff water Erosion control is the practice of preventing or controlling wind or water Erosion in Agriculture, Land development and Construction. Riprap — also known as rip rap, rubble, shot rock or rock armour — is rock or other material used to armor A wetland is an area of Land consisting of Soil that is Saturated with Moisture, such as a Swamp, Marsh, or Bog A constructed wetland or wetpark is an artificial Marsh or Swamp, created for anthropogenic discharge such as Wastewater, Stormwater ||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||}A floodplain, or flood plain, is flat or nearly flat land adjacent to a Stream or River that experiences occasional or periodic For the formally planted grove of trees in gardening see Bosquet. Surface runoff is a term used to describe when soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess Water, from Rain, Snowmelt, or other sources flows A green belt or greenbelt is a policy or land use designation used in Land use planning to retain areas of largely undeveloped wild or agricultural land , Kuroda, H. , Kato, T. and Tabuchi, T. (2003). Nitrogen removal from water containing high nitrate nitrogen in a paddy field (wetland). Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Water Science and Technology, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 209-216.
- Mengis, M. , Schiff, S. L. , Harris, M. , English, M. C. , Aravena, R. , Elgood, R. J. , and MacLean, A. (1999). Multiple geochemical and isotopic approaches for assessing ground water NO3 elimination in a riparian zone. The field of geochemistry involves study of the chemical composition of the Earth and other Planets chemical processes and reactions that govern the composition Ground Water, 37, 448-457.
- Parkyn, Stephanie. (2004). Review of Riparian Buffer Zone Effectiveness. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (New Zealand), www. maf. govt. nz/publications.
- Tang, Changyuan; Azuma, Kazuaki; Iwami, Yoshifumi; Ohji, Baku; Sakura, Yasuo. (2004). Nitrate behaviour in the groundwater of a headwater wetland, Chiba, Japan. Hydrological Processes, vol. 18, no. 16, pp. 3159-3168.
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