Richard Price (February 23, 1723 – April 19, 1791), was a Welsh moral and political philosopher. Events 1455 - Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western Book printed from Movable Year 1723 ( MDCCXXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer Year 1791 ( MDCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
He was born at Tynton, Glamorgan, the son of a dissenting minister. Glamorgan or Glamorganshire (Morgannwg is one of the thirteen historic counties and a former administrative county of Wales. Educated privately and at a dissenting academy in London, he became chaplain and companion to a Mr Streatfield at Stoke Newington. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Note For an area with a similar name see Newington, in the London Borough of Southwark. Streatfield's death and that of an uncle in 1756 improved his circumstances, and on June 16, 1757 he married Sarah Blundell, originally of Belgrave in Leicestershire. Events 1487 - Battle of Stoke Field, the last dying breath of the Wars of the Roses. Year 1757 ( MDCCLVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leicestershire (ˈlɛstəʃə(r or ˈlɛstəʃɪə(r abbreviation Leics
In 1744 Price published a volume of sermons, which gained him the acquaintance of Lord Shelburne; this raised his reputation and helped determine the direction of his career. It was, however, as a writer on financial and political questions that Price became widely known. In 1769, in a letter to Benjamin Franklin, he wrote some observations on the expectation of lives, the increase of mankind, and the population of London, which were published in the Philosophical Transactions of that year; in May 1770 he presented to the Royal Society a paper on the proper method of calculating the values of contingent reversions. Benjamin Franklin ( April 17 1790 was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, or Phil Trans The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 The publication of these papers is said to have helped draw attention to the inadequate calculations on which many insurance and benefit societies had recently been formed. In 1769 Price received the honorary degree of D.D. from the University of Glasgow. The University of Glasgow (Oilthigh Ghlaschu was founded in 1451 in Glasgow, Scotland and along with its contemporary institutions the University of St Andrews In 1771 he published his Appeal to the Public on the Subject of the National Debt (ed. Year 1771 ( MDCCLXXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a 1772 and 1774). This pamphlet excited considerable controversy, and is supposed to have influenced William Pitt the Younger in re-establishing the sinking fund for the extinction of the national debt, created by Robert Walpole in 1716 and abolished in 1733. William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 &ndash 23 January 1806 was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Robert Walpole 1st Earl of Orford, KG, KB, PC (26 August 1676 &ndash 18 March 1745 known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a The means proposed for the extinction of the debt are described by Lord Overstone as "a sort of hocus-pocus machinery," supposed to work "without loss to any one," and consequently unsound. Samuel Jones-Loyd 1st Baron Overstone ( 25 September 1796 - 1883 was a British banker and politician
Price then turned his attention to the question of the American colonies. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the He had from the first been strongly opposed to the war, and in 1776 he published a pamphlet entitled Observations on Civil Liberty and the Justice and Policy of the War with America. Several thousand copies of this work were sold within a few days; a cheap edition was soon issued; the pamphlet was extolled by one set of politicians and abused by another; amongst its critics were Dr Markham, archbishop of York, John Wesley, and Edmund Burke; and Price rapidly became one of the best known men in England. William Markham may refer to William Markham (Archbishop, English scholar and religious figure William Markham (Governor, first acting John Wesley (ˈwɛslɪ ( – March 2, 1791) was an Anglican cleric and Christian theologian who was the founder of the (Evangelical Edmund Burke ( 12 January, 1729 9 July, 1797) was an Irish statesman author orator Political theorist, and He was presented with the freedom of the city of London, and it is said that his pamphlet had no inconsiderable share in determining the Americans to declare their independence. The United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4 1776 announcing that the thirteen American colonies then A second pamphlet on the war with America, the debts of Great Britain, and kindred topics followed in the spring of 1777. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands His name thus became identified with the cause of American independence. He was the intimate friend of Franklin; he corresponded with Turgot; and in the winter of 1778 he was invited by Congress to go to America and assist in the financial administration of the states. Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot Baron de Laune, often referred to as Turgot ( 10 May 1727 &ndash 18 March 1781) was a French This offer he refused from unwillingness to quit his own country and his family connexions. In 1781 he, solely with George Washington, received the degree of Doctor of Laws from Yale College.
One of Price's most intimate friends was Joseph Priestley, despite their taking the most opposite views on morals and metaphysics. Joseph Priestley (13 March 1733 ( Old Metaphysics is the branch of Philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science In 1778 appeared a published correspondence between these two liberal theologians on the subjects of materialism and necessity, wherein Price maintains, in opposition to Priestley, the free agency of man and the unity and immateriality of the human soul. Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective The Philosophy of materialism holds that the only thing that can be truly proven to exist is Matter, and is considered a form of Physicalism. Both Price and Priestley were what would now vaguely be called "Unitarians," though they occupied respectively the extreme right and the extreme left position of that school. Indeed, Price's opinions would seem to have been rather Arian than Socinian. Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. Socinianism is a form of Antitrinitarianism, named for Laelius Socinus (died 1562 in Zürich) and of his nephew Faustus Socinus
The pamphlets on the American War made Price famous. He preached to crowded congregations, and, when Lord Shelburne acceded to power, not only was he offered the post of private secretary to the premier, but it is said that one of the paragraphs in the king's speech was suggested by him and even inserted in his words. In 1786 Mrs Price died. There were no children by the marriage, his own health was failing, and the remainder of his life appears to have been clouded by solitude and dejection. The progress of the French Revolution alone cheered him. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an On the 19 April 1791 he died, worn out with suffering and disease. Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer Year 1791 ( MDCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
Much of Price's most important philosophical work was in the region of ethics. The Review of the Principal Questions in Morals (1757, 3rd ed. revised 1787) contains his whole theory. It is divided into ten chapters, the first of which, though a small part of the whole, completes his demonstration of ethical theory. The remaining chapters investigate details of minor importance, and are especially interesting as showing his relation to Butler and Kant (ch. Immanuel Kant (ɪmanuəl kant 22 April 1724 12 February 1804 was an 18th-century German Philosopher from the Prussian city of Königsberg iii. and ch. vii. ). The work is professedly a refutation of Francis Hutcheson, but is rather constructive than polemical. Francis Hutcheson was the name of a famous father and son Francis Hutcheson (philosopher (1694-1746 Francis Hutcheson (songwriter (c The theory he propounds is closely allied to that of Cudworth, but is interesting mainly in comparison with the subsequent theories of Kant.
Right and wrong belong to actions in themselves. By this he means, not that the ethical value of actions is independent of their motive and end (see ch. vi), but rather that it is unaffected by consequences, and that it is more or less invariable for intelligent beings. II. This ethical value is perceived by reason or understanding (which, unlike Kant, he does not distinguish), which intuitively recognizes fitness or congruity between actions, agents and total circumstances. Arguing that ethical judgment is an act of discrimination, he endeavours to invalidate the doctrine of the moral sense. Yet, in denying the importance of the emotions in moral judgment, he is driven back to the admission that right actions must be "grateful" to us; that, in fact, moral approbation includes both an act of the understanding and an emotion of the heart. Still it remains true that reason alone, in its highest development, would be a sufficient guide. In this conclusion he is in close agreement with Kant; reason is the arbiter, and right is (1) not a matter of the emotions and (2) no relative to imperfect human nature. Reason involves the ability to think understand and draw Conclusions in an Abstract way as in Human thinking Price's main point of difference with Cudworth is that while Cudworth regards the moral criterion as a vanua or modification of the mind, existing in gere and developed by circumstances, Price regards it as acquired from the contemplation of actions, but acquired necessarily, immediately intuitively. Ralph Cudworth (1617&ndash June 26, 1688) was an English Philosopher, the leader of the Cambridge Platonists. In his view of disinterested action (ch. iii. ) he adds nothing to Butler. Happiness he regards as the only end, conceivable by us, of divine Providence, but it is a happiness wholly dependent upon rectitude. Virtue tends always to happiness, and in the end must prodtice it in its perfect form.
Price was also friends with the mathematician and clergyman Thomas Bayes. Thomas Bayes (c 1702 &ndash 17 April 1761) was a British Mathematician and Presbyterian minister known for having formulated He edited Bayes' most famous work "Essay towards solving a problem in the doctrine of chances" which contains Bayes' Theorem, one of the most fundamental theorems of probability theory. In Probability theory, Bayes' theorem (often called Bayes' law after Thomas Bayes) relates the conditional and marginal probabilities of two Price wrote an introduction to Bayes' paper which provides some of the philosophical basis of Bayesian statistics. Bayesian inference is Statistical inference in which evidence or observations are used to update or to newly infer the Probability that a hypothesis may be true
Besides the above-mentioned, Price wrote an Essay on the Population of England (2nd ed. , 1780) which directly influenced Thomas Robert Malthus; two Fast-day Sermons, published respectively in 1779 and 1781 ; and Observations on the importance of the American Revolution and the means of rendering it a benefit to the World (1784). Thomas Robert Malthus FRS (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834 was an English political economist and demographer who expressed views A complete list of his works is given as an appendix to Dr Priestley's Funeral Sermon. His views on the French Revolution are denounced by Burke in his Reflections on the Revolution in France. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Notices of Price's ethical system occur in James Mackintosh's Progress of Ethical Philosophy, Jouffroy's Introduction to Ethics, William Whewell's History of Moral Philosophy in England; Alexander Bain's Mental and Moral Sciences. Sir James Mackintosh ( October 24, 1765 - May 30, 1832) was a Scottish jurist politician and historian Théodore Simon Jouffroy ( July 6, 1796 - February 4, 1842) was a French Philosopher. William Whewell ( May 24, 1794 &ndash March 6, 1866) was an English Polymath, Scientist, Anglican Priest A different Alexander Bain invented the electric clock Facsimile machine and Earth battery. See also T Fowler's monograph on Shaftesbury and Hutcheson. For Price's life see memoir by his nephew, William Morgan.