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Republicanism in Australia is a movement to change Australia's status as a constitutional monarchy to a republican form of government. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Politics of Australia take place within the framework of parliamentary democracy. This article describes the federal government of Australia See Australian governments for other jurisdictions In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative in Australia of the monarch of Australia (currently Elizabeth II Queen of Australia) Major General Philip Michael Jeffery AC, CVO, MC (born 12 December[[ 937]] was the 24th Governor-General of Australia The Prime Minister of Australia is the Head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. Kevin Michael Rudd (born 21 September 1957 is the 26th and current Prime Minister of Australia and federal leader of the Centre-left Australian Labor The Cabinet of Australia is the council of senior ministers of the Crown, responsible to parliament. The Federal Executive Council is the formal body holding executive authority under the Constitution of Australia. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation The Parliament of Australia or Commonwealth Parliament is the legislative branch of government of Australia. The Senate is the upper of the two houses of the Parliament of Australia. The House of Representatives is one of the two houses (chambers of the Parliament of Australia; it is the Lower house, the Upper house being the Senate This is a List of Australian Leaders of the Opposition, who in Australian Federal Politics is a Member of Parliament in the Brendan John Nelson, MP (born 19 August 1958 is an Australian politician and former Leader of the Opposition in the Parliament of Australia, as leader See also Politics of Australia Australia elects a Legislature the Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia using various electoral systems see This article deals with elections to the Australian Parliament. The Australian House of Representatives is elected from 150 single-member districts called Divisions. Background Following the federation of 1856 - New South Wales, Tasmania and Victoria 1857 - South Australia Issues The 1972 Election was largely focused on domestic policy issues and the role of the federal government in resolving these issues Federal elections were held in Australia on 18 May 1974. All 127 seats in the House of Representatives, and all 60 seats in the Senate Federal elections were held in Australia on 13 December 1975 All 127 seats in the House of Representatives, and all 64 seats in the Senate were up for Background and Issues The election is remembered for the "fistful of dollars" advertisements run by the government offering tax cuts to voters Issues The mood in the electorate was moving against the Fraser Government by 1980 Background The coalition government led by Malcolm Fraser had to contend with a parlous economic situation with high inflation and high unemployment Federal elections were held in Australia on 11 July 1987 following the granting of a double dissolution on 5 June by the Governor-General Sir House of Reps preference flows The Democrats contested 138 electorates with preferences slightly favouring Labor (54 Results House of Representatives preference flows The Nationals had candidates in 13 seats where Three-cornered-contests existed Federal elections were held in Australia on 10 November, 2001. Federal elections were held in Australia on 9 October, 2004. All 150 seats in the House of Representatives and 40 seats in the 76-member Federal elections for the Parliament of Australia were held on Saturday 24 November 2007 after a 6-week campaign in which 13 The next Australian federal election will elect members of the 43rd Parliament of Australia and must be held on or before 16 April 2011 In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. There are two streams within the hierarchy of Australian Courts the federal stream and the state and territory stream The Constitution of Australia is the law under which the Australian Commonwealth Government operates The Commonwealth of Australia is made up of 8 states and territories controlled under a federal system of government In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. The Governors of the Australian states are the representatives in the six states of Australia of Australia's monarch Queen Elizabeth II. The Premiers of the Australian states are the de facto heads of the executive governments in the six states of the Commonwealth of Australia. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation The Parliaments of the Australian states and territories are legislative bodies within the federal framework of the Commonwealth of Australia. For elections to the Australian Parliament see the Australian electoral system. } The Australian Capital Territory (ACT is the Capital territory of the Commonwealth of Australia and its smallest self-governing internal territory The form of the Government of New South Wales is prescribed in its Constitution which dates from 1856 although it has been amended many times since then The Northern Territory of Australia is governed according to the principles of the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the The Government of Queensland is commonly known as the Queensland Government. The form of the Government of South Australia is prescribed in its Constitution which dates from 1856 although it has been amended many times since then The form of the Government of Tasmania is prescribed in its Constitution which dates from 1856 although it has been amended many times since then The Government of Victoria, under the Constitution of Australia, ceded certain legislative and judicial powers to The formation of the Government of Western Australia is prescribed in its Constitution which dates from 1890 although it has been amended many times since then Australia has two tiers of subnational government state (or territory government and local government. Political parties in Australia lists political parties in Australia. The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, is a Green Australian political party. The Country Liberal Party (CLP is a Northern Territory political party affiliated with both the Liberal and National parties The Family First Party is a socially conservative minor Political party in Australia. The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian political party. The National Party of Australia is an Australian political party. The foreign relations of Australia have spanned from the country's time as Dominion and later Realm of the British Empire to become steadfastly allied with Information on politics by country is available for every Country, including both De jure and De facto independent For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its Such sentiments have been expressed in Australia since pre-federation. Most modern arguments, however, focus on ending the Australian monarchy, along with the personal union relationship with the other Commonwealth realms, while maintaining a position in the Commonwealth of Nations. TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy A personal union is the combination by which two different States are governed by the same Monarch, while their boundaries their laws and their interests remain distinct A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch
A central argument made by Australian republicans is that, as Australia is an independent country, it is inappropriate for the same person to be both the head of state of more than one country, though republicans focus on the monarch's separate role as British monarch. TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The monarchy  They argue that a person who is resident primarily in another country cannot adequately represent Australia, neither to itself, nor to the rest of the world.   As Australian Republican Movement member, Frank Cassidy put it in a speech on the issue: In short, we want a resident for President. The Australian Republican Movement (ARM is a non-partisan lobby group advocating constitutional change in Australia to a Republican form of government from a constitutional 
Republicans argue that Australia has changed demographically and culturally, from being "British to our bootstraps", as prime minister Robert Menzies once put it, to being increasingly multicultural. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, KT, AK, CH, QC (20 December 1894 - 15 May 1978 Australian politician was the twelfth person to serve The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of racial, cultural and ethnic diversity within the Demographics of a specified  For Australians not of British ancestry, they argue, the idea of one person being both Monarch of Australia and Monarch of Britain is an anomaly. It is also claimed that Aborigines and Australians of Irish origin see the Australian Crown as a symbol of British imperialism. This is an article about a class of people as identified and defined within Australian law Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. 
However, monarchists argue that immigrants who left unstable republics and have arrived in Australia since 1945 welcomed the social and political stability that they found in Australia under a constitutional monarchy. Further, some Aborigines such as former Senator Neville Bonner, said a republican president would not "care one jot more for my people". The Senate is the upper of the two houses of the Parliament of Australia. Neville Thomas Bonner AO ( 28 March, 1922 - 5 February, 1999) was an Australian politician and the first indigenous 
It has also been claimed monarchism and republicanism in Australia delineate historical and persistent sectarian tensions with, broadly speaking, Catholics more likely to be republicans and Protestants more likely to be monarchists. Sectarianism is Bigotry, Discrimination, Prejudice or Hatred arising from attaching importance to perceived differences between subdivisions Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. This developed out of a historical cleavage in 19th- and 20th-century Australia, in which republicans were predominantly of Irish Catholic background and loyalists were predominantly of British Protestant background. Irish Australians are the third largest Ethnic group in Australia, after Australian and English Ulster loyalism is a militant unionist ideology held mostly by Protestants in Northern Ireland. Anglo-Celtic Australian is an Ethnic or cultural category used to describe Australians with British and/or Irish ancestral origins Whilst mass immigration since the Second World War has diluted this conflict  — according to 2001 census data, 886,914 Australians identified themselves specifically as Catholics of Irish ethnicity and a total of 1,919,727 stated Irish ancestry, not to mention a large number of the Australian ancestry category would be of old Irish colonial immigration. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including  — the Catholic-Protestant divide has been cited as a dynamic in the republic debate, particularly in relation to the referendum campaign in 1999. The 1999 Australian referendum was a two-question Referendum held on 6 November 1999. Nonetheless, others have stated that Catholic-Protestant tensions — at least in the sense of an Irish-British conflict — are at least forty years dead, or simply "not there any more," having been replaced with a general conflict between secular and religious Australians. 
It has also been claimed, however, that the Catholic-Protestant divide is intermingled with class issues.  Certainly, republicanism in Australia has traditionally been supported most strongly by urban working class of Irish Catholic background, whereas monarchism is a core value associated with urban and rural inhabitants of British Protestant heritage and the middle class, to the extent that there were calls in 1999 for 300,000 exceptionally enfranchised British subjects who were not Australian citizens to be barred from voting on the grounds that they would vote as a loyalist bloc in a tight referendum. 
It has been argued that several characteristics of the monarchy are in conflict with modern Australian values.  The hereditary nature of the monarchy is said to conflict with egalitarianism and dislike of inherited privilege. Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals and have The laws of succession are held by some to be sexist and the links between the monarchy and the Church of England inconsistent with Australia's secular character. Sexism is the belief or attitude that one Gender or Sex is inferior to or less valuable than the other and can also refer to a Hatred or distrust towards The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Secularism is generally the assertion that governmental practices or institutions should exist separately from Religion or religious beliefs  Under the Act of Settlement, passed by the British Parliament in 1701, the monarch is prohibited from either being Catholic, or from marrying a Catholic. This law is in conflict with Australian anti-discrimination laws which prohibit arrangements under which males have precedence over females, or under which becoming or marrying a Catholic invalidates any legal rights. Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete".
Monarchists claim that the succession of an apolitical head of state provides a far more stable constitutional system compared to one involving appointing or electing a president who is likely to have a political agenda. Also, laws surrounding the line of succession, those that stipulate the eldest male is first in line, etc. , can be altered without removing the Australian monarchy (although, in practice, such laws would require consent from the Parliaments of all the other Commonwealth Realms).
A typical proposal for an Australian republic provides for the Queen and Governor General to be replaced by a president. There is much debate on the appointment or election process that would be used and what role such an office would have.
From its foundation until the 1999 referendum, the Australian Republican Movement (ARM) supported the bi-partisan appointment model, which would result in a President elected by the Parliament of Australia, with the powers currently held by the Queen and the Governor-General. The 1999 Australian referendum was a two-question Referendum held on 6 November 1999. The Australian Republican Movement (ARM is a non-partisan lobby group advocating constitutional change in Australia to a Republican form of government from a constitutional The Bi-partisan appointment republican model is a proposal for Australian constitutional reform The Parliament of Australia or Commonwealth Parliament is the legislative branch of government of Australia. It is argued that the requirement of a two-thirds majority in a vote of both houses of parliament would result in a bi-partisan appointment, preventing a party politician from becoming president. 
An alternative minimalist approach to change provides for the replacement of the Queen alone and retaining the Governor-General. The most notable model of this type is the McGarvie Model, while Copernican Models replace the Queen with a directly-elected figurehead. The McGarvie Model is a proposition for change to the Australian Constitution to remove references to the Monarchy and establish a republic Copernican paradigm is an analysis of Australian constitutional structures in order to develop models establishing Australia as a Republic with a directly-elected  If this were to happen, it would be a first, as all other former Commonwealth Realms have created presidencies upon becoming republics. A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch
Some republicans propose an executive presidency, a semi-presidential system or other constitutional reforms, such as citizen-initiated referenda. An executive president is a President who exercises active executive power in a certain systems of government. The semi-presidential system is a System of government in which a prime minister and a President are both active participants in the day-to-day administration A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita Alternatively it has been proposed to abolish the roles of the Governor-General and the monarchy and have their functions exercised by other constitutional officers such as the Speaker. The Speaker of the House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the House of Representatives the lower house of the Parliament of Australia. 
Australians for Constitutional Monarchy and the Australian Monarchist League, who reject republicanism, argue that no model is better than the present system and argue that the risk and difficulty of changing the constitution is best demonstrated by inability of republicans to back a definitive design. Australians for Constitutional Monarchy ( ACM) is a group that aims to preserve Australia's current Constitutional monarchy, with Elizabeth II as The Australian Monarchist League is a Non-profit organisation, headquartered in Sydney, Australia promoting the Monarchy of Australia.
The Liberal party, a conservative party, has both republicans and supporters of the status quo in its ranks but historically it has always upheld monarchism and links with Britain. The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian political party. Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined Status quo is a Latin term meaning the present existing state of affairs or "the state in which" Historically it was the party of British imperialism in Australia (see the comment by Liberal Prime Minister Menzies above). The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power.
The National party has few republicans. The National Party of Australia is an Australian political party. A conservative party with a rural base, its core constituency has always been strongly loyalist. As such, it remains against change as official policy.
Under former Prime Minister Howard, a monarchist, the government initiated a process to settle the republican debate, involving a constitutional convention and a referendum. See also Howard Government John Winston Howard AC (born 26 July 1939 was the 25th Prime Minister of Australia from 11 March A Process Model is a proposal to assist the Parliament of Australia make decisions concerning Constitutional reform Howard, who supports the status quo, says the matter was resolved by the failure of the referendum.
Labor, which came to power near the end of 2007, has supported constitutional change to become a republic since 1991 and has incorporated republicanism into its platform. Labor currently proposes a series of plebiscites to restart the republican process. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita A Process Model is a proposal to assist the Parliament of Australia make decisions concerning Constitutional reform Labor spokesperson (now federal health minister) Nicola Roxon has previously said that reform will "always fail if we seek to inflict a certain option on the public without their involvement. Nicola Louise Roxon (born 1 April 1967) is an Australian politician and is the Minister for Health and Ageing. This time round, the people must shape the debate". 
The Australian Democrats and Australian Greens all support a move towards a republic. The Australian Democrats is an Australian Political party espousing a centrist or Social liberal ideology The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, is a Green Australian political party. The Family First party does not have an official stance on the creation of an Australian republic.
The founding of the British penal colony at Sydney Cove in 1788 was in the geopolitical context of the revolution in the American colonies in 1776 and a year before the French revolution of 1789. Sydney Cove is a small bay on the southern shore of Port Jackson (commonly but incorrectly called Sydney Harbour) on the coast of the state of New South In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" Year 1776 ( MDCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Year 1789 ( MDCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Anti-Transportation League, a group founded in 1849 which was opposed to the transportation of convicts to Australia, argued that such a "Fenian" colony could separate from the British Empire, due to its then largely Irish Catholic make up. Fianna Éireann The Fenians, both the Fenian Brotherhood and Irish Republican Brotherhood, were fraternal organisations dedicated to the establishment of an independent The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power.
John Dunmore Lang, a Presbyterian cleric and politician, published The Coming Event! Or, the United Provinces of Australia in 1850 and Freedom and Independence for the Golden Lands of Australia in 1852. The initial Human migration to the continent now called Australia is estimated to have begun around 50000 years ago when the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived John Dunmore Lang ( 25 August 1799 &ndash 8 August 1878) Australian Presbyterian clergyman writer politician and activist was the Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity A cleric ( Ancient Greek κληρικός - klērikos clergyman (pl For the game see 1850 (board game. 1850 ( MDCCCL) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link Year 1852 ( MDCCCLII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year
The revolt at the Eureka Stockade in 1854, was not fought to establish a republic. The Eureka Stockade was the setting of a gold miners' Revolt in 1854 near Ballarat, Victoria, Australia against the officials supervising the Year 1854 ( MDCCCLIV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year The writings of Raffaello Carboni, who was present at the Stockade, disputes the accusations "that have branded the miners of Ballaarat as disloyal to their QUEEN" (emphasis as in the original) . However, the incident has been used to encourage republicanism in subsequent years. The Eureka Flag appears in connection with some republican groups 
A scheme proposed at the Imperial Conference of 1887 would have seen colonies taxed for the protection of the Royal Navy. The Eureka Flag was the battle flag used at the Eureka Stockade, a gold miners' Revolt in 1854 in Ballarat, Victoria, Australia Imperial Conferences ( Colonial Conferences before 1911 were gatherings of British Empire government leaders in London in 1887, 1897 Year 1887 ( MDCCCLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) The Australian delegates were highly critical of the proposal, echoing the rallying cry of the American revolution "No taxation without representation"
The Australian Republican Association (ARA) was founded in response, advocating the abolition of Governors, and their titles; the revision of the penal code; payment of members of Parliament; nationalisation of land; and an independent federal Australian republic outside of the Empire. " No taxation without representation " began as a Slogan in the period 1763–1776 that summarized a primary grievance of the British Colonists The League held a number of public meetings. At the same time a movement emerged in favour of a "White Australia" policy; however British authorities in Whitehall were opposed to segregational laws. The White Australia policy is a term used to describe a collection of historical policies that intentionally restricted non-white Immigration to Australia from Whitehall is a road in Westminster in London, England. It is the main artery running north from Parliament Square, towards traditional To circumvent Westminster, those in favour of the discriminatory policies backed the proposed secession from the Empire as a republic; a move advertised and advocated by the journal The Bulletin. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. The Bulletin is a discontinued Australian weekly Magazine that was published in Sydney from 1880 until January 2008  One attendee of the ARA meetings was the Australian-born poet, Henry Lawson. Henry Lawson (17 June 1867 – 2 September 1922 was an Australian writer and poet Lawson wrote his first poem, entitled A Song of the Republic in The Republican journal. 
|“||Banish from under your bonny skies|
Those old-world errors and wrongs and lies
— Henry Lawson, A Song of the Republic
At the Australian Federation Convention which produced the first draft that was to become the Australian Constitution in Sydney in 1891, a former Premier of New South Wales George Dibbs described as the "inevitable destiny of the people of this great country" the establishment of "the Republic of Australia". Henry Lawson (17 June 1867 – 2 September 1922 was an Australian writer and poet Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 Year 1888 ( MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Sir George Richard Dibbs KCMG ( October 12 1834 – August 5 1904) was an Australian politician who was Premier of New
However, the fervour of republicanism tailed off in the 1890s as the labour movement became concerned with the Federation of Australia, and which became the focus following federation in 1901. The federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South
The election of a Labor Government in 1972 marked the end of a period where Australians saw themselves principally as part of the Commonwealth of Nations (formerly the British Empire). Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Prime Minister Gough Whitlam instituted a number of changes, including removing reference to the United Kingdom in Queen Elizabeth's Australian title on 19 October 1973, when she signed her assent to the Royal Style and Titles Act, and creating a domestic system of conferring civil and military honours. Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916 known as Gough Whitlam (ˈɡɒf goff is an Australian former politician and 21st For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II Events 202 BCE - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal. Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. The Commonwealth of Australia until 1975 used the Imperial or British honours system. It was also during this time that Australia's preferred economic status with Britain was dropped in favour of Britain joining the European Economic Community. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The European Community (EC is one of the Three pillars of the European Union (EU created under the Maastricht Treaty (1992
The Whitlam Government ended in 1975 with a dramatic constitutional crisis in which the Queen's representative, the Governor General, dismissed Whitlam and his entire ministry, appointing Opposition Leader Malcolm Fraser in his place. Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative in Australia of the monarch of Australia (currently Elizabeth II Queen of Australia) John Malcolm Fraser, AC, CH (born 21 May 1930 is an Australian Liberal politician who was the 22nd Prime Minister of Australia. This particular incident raised questions about the value of maintaining a supposedly "symbolic" office that still possessed many key, and potentially dangerous, political powers. It is notable however, that the monarch herself was not consulted in the decision to use the reserve powers and pointedly refused to intervene, claiming that she lacked authority to do so under the Australian constitution.
In 1986, the Australia Act was enacted with the United Kingdom to eliminate the remaining, mainly theoretical, ties between the legislature and judiciary of the two countries. Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) The Australia Act 1986 is the name given to a pair of two separate but related pieces of legislation one an Act of the Parliament of Australia (No The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located It was later determined by the High Court in Sue v Hill that this legislation established Britain and Australia as independent nations sharing the same person as their relevant Sovereign. The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. Sue v Hill was an Australian court case decided in the High Court of Australia on 23 June 1999.
At broadly the same time, references to the monarchy were being removed from various institutions. For example, in 1993, references to the Queen were removed from the Oath of Citizenship sworn by naturalised Australians, who would now swear allegiance to Australia and its people whose democratic beliefs I share and whose laws I will uphold and obey. Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) An Oath of Citizenship is an Oath taken by Immigrants that officially naturalizes immigrants into Citizens It is often the final step in this The state of Queensland deleted all references to the monarchy from its legislation, with new laws being enacted by its Parliament, not the Queen, and 'binding on the State of Queensland', not the Crown. Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern corner of the mainland continent Barristers in New South Wales were no longer appointed 'Queen's Counsel' (QC), but 'Senior Counsel' (SC), as in republics like Ireland and South Africa. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Institutions in Australia could no longer apply to have 'Royal' in their title, and British citizens residing in Australia could no longer enroll to vote in state or federal elections.
Nevertheless, all Australian Senators and Members of the House of Representatives swear to be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty before taking their seats in Parliament. Should a change to the allegiance of Senators and members of parliament be desired, it could only be approved by a referendum as the oaths are part of the Constitution.
Many monarchists condemned these changes as moves to a "republic by stealth".
The Australian Labor Party first made republicanism its official policy in 1991, with then Prime Minister Bob Hawke describing a republic as inevitable. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. The Prime Minister of Australia is the Head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. Robert James Lee (Bob Hawke, AC (born 9 December 1929 was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia and longest serving Australian Labor Party Prime Minister His successor Paul Keating actively pursued the republican agenda and established the Republic Advisory Committee to produce an options paper on issues relating to the possible transition to a republic to take effect on the centenary of federation: January 1, 2001. Paul John Keating (born 18 January 1944 was the 24th Prime Minister of Australia, from 1991 to 1996 The Republic Advisory Committee was a committee established by the then Australian Prime Minister Paul Keating in May 1993 New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. The Committee produced its report in 1993, and argued that "a republic is achievable without threatening Australia’s cherished democratic institutions. "
In response to the report, the Prime Minister proposed a referendum on the establishment of a republic, replacing the Governor-General with a President, and removing references to the Queen. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita The term governor general or governor-general refers to a vice-regal representative of a Monarch in an independent realm or a major colonial circonscription President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy The President was to be nominated by the Prime Minister and appointed by a two-thirds majority in a joint sitting of the Senate and House of Representatives. The Prime Minister of Australia is the Head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. The Senate is the upper of the two houses of the Parliament of Australia. The House of Representatives is one of the two houses (chambers of the Parliament of Australia; it is the Lower house, the Upper house being the Senate
Main Article: Constitutional Convention (Australia)
With change in government in 1996, Prime Minister John Howard proceeded with an alternative policy of holding a constitutional convention. In Australian history the term Constitutional Convention refers to four distinct gatherings Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) See also Howard Government John Winston Howard AC (born 26 July 1939 was the 25th Prime Minister of Australia from 11 March This was held over two weeks in February 1998 at Old Parliament House. Half of the 152 delegates were elected and half were appointed by Federal and state governments. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) Old Parliament House, formerly known as the Provisional Parliament House, was the seat of the Parliament of Australia from 1927 to 1988 A number of convention delegates appointed by then Prime Minister, John Howard, were accused of having fixed views on retaining the monarchy. See also Howard Government John Winston Howard AC (born 26 July 1939 was the 25th Prime Minister of Australia from 11 March For example, in the ACT, Sir David Smith KCVO and Heidi Zwar where appointed to represent the people of Canberra. } The Australian Capital Territory (ACT is the Capital territory of the Commonwealth of Australia and its smallest self-governing internal territory Sir David Iser Smith KCVO AO (born 9 August 1933 is a retired Australian public servant. Both these delegates where on the public record of holding unswerving support for the monarchy despite being appointed to articulate the views of one of Australia's most pro-republican territories. The presence of a number of such appointed delegates acted to elevate voting opposition to a republican consensus. Prime Minister Howard was able to point to their intransigent opposition as evidence of broad community concern over a move toward a republican constitution. Convention delegates were asked whether or not Australia should become a republic and which model for a republic is preferred. At the opening of the Convention, John Howard stated that if the Convention could not decide on a model to be put to a referendum, then plebiscites would be held on the model preferred by the Australian public.
At the Convention, a republic gained majority support (89 votes to 52 with 11 abstentions), but the question of what model for a republic should be put to the people at a referendum produced deep divisions among republicans. The 1999 Australian referendum was a two-question Referendum held on 6 November 1999. Four republican models were debated: two involving direct election of the head of state; one involving appointment on the advice of the Prime Minister (the McGarvie Model); and one involving appointment by a two-thirds majority of Parliament (the bi-partisan appointment model). A direct election republican model is a proposal for Australian constitutional reform The Prime Minister of Australia is the Head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. The McGarvie Model is a proposition for change to the Australian Constitution to remove references to the Monarchy and establish a republic The Parliament of Australia or Commonwealth Parliament is the legislative branch of government of Australia. The Bi-partisan appointment republican model is a proposal for Australian constitutional reform
The bi-partisan appointment model was eventually successful at the Convention, even though it only obtained a majority because of 22 abstentions in the final vote (57 against delegates voted against the model and 73 voted for, three votes short of an actual majority of delegates) It was put to referendum the following year. The 1999 Australian referendum was a two-question Referendum held on 6 November 1999. The Convention also made recommendations about a preamble to the Constitution, and a proposed preamble was also put to referendum. A preamble is an introductory statement in a document that explains the document's purpose and underlying philosophy The Constitution of Australia is the law under which the Australian Commonwealth Government operates
According to critics, the two-week timeline and quasi-democratic composition of the convention is evidence of an attempt by John Howard to frustrate the republican cause. Although he admits to being an "unashamed royalist", the claim is one he adamantly rejects.
The 1999 Australian republic referendum was a two question referendum held in 1999. The 1999 Australian referendum was a two-question Referendum held on 6 November 1999. The 1999 Australian referendum was a two-question Referendum held on 6 November 1999. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) The first question asked whether Australia should become a republic with a President appointed by Parliament, a model that had previously been decided at a Constitutional Convention in February 1998. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. The Parliament of Australia or Commonwealth Parliament is the legislative branch of government of Australia. In Australian history the term Constitutional Convention refers to four distinct gatherings The second question, generally deemed to be far less important politically, asked whether Australia should alter the constitution to insert a preamble. The Constitution of Australia is the law under which the Australian Commonwealth Government operates The 1999 Australian referendum was a two-question Referendum held on 6 November 1999. Neither of the amendments passed, with 55% of all electors voting 'no' to the republican model presented.
Under the referendum proposal, the Governor General and Queen would be replaced by one office, the President of the Commonwealth of Australia. The President could be appointed by the Australian Parliament to a fixed term. The existing powers of the Governor General were to be transferred to the President by reference, meaning that they would continue to be unwritten.
Supporters of the republican model claimed that, contrary to monarchist views, the stability of Australia's liberal democracy would not be imperilled and would in fact be enhanced by such a change, because the Prime Minister, whilst retaining the ability to sack the (effective) head of State, could not alone choose their replacement and would thus have no incentive to do so. The Bi-partisan appointment republican model is a proposal for Australian constitutional reform The term "liberal" in "liberal democracy" does not imply that the government of such a democracy must follow the political ideology of Additionally, wider involvement in the choice would ensure that the backgrounds of the appointees would be more thoroughly scrutinised.
The referendum was held on 6 November 1999, after a national advertising campaign and the distribution of 12. Events 355 - Roman Emperor Constantius II promotes his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him with Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) 9 million Yes/No case pamphlets. The question on a republic was defeated. It was not carried in any state and attracted 45 per cent of the total national vote. The preamble referendum question was also defeated, with a Yes vote of only 39 per cent.
Many opinions were put forward for the defeat, some relating to perceived difficulties with the model, others relating to the lack of public engagement. A substantial number of republic supporters voted against the referendum because they disliked the model provided, preferring a directly-elected president.  Referenda are notoriously difficult to pass in Australia.
On 26 June 2003, the Senate referred an Inquiry into an Australian Republic to the Senate Legal and Constitutional References Committee. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. The Senate is the upper of the two houses of the Parliament of Australia. During 2004, the committee reviewed 730 submissions and conducted hearings in all state capitals. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " In law a hearing is a Proceeding before a Court or other decision-making body or officer The Committee tabled its report called Road to a Republic on 31 August 2004. Events 1056 - Byzantine Empress Theodora becomes ill dying suddenly a few days later without children to succeed the Throne "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again "
The report examined the contest between minimalist and direct-election models and gave attention to hybrid models such as the Electoral College Model, the Constitutional Council Model and models having both an elected President and a Governor-General. A direct election republican model is a proposal for Australian constitutional reform
The bi-partisan recommendations of committee supported educational initiatives and holding a series of plebiscites to allow the public to choose which model they preferred, prior to a final draft and referendum, along the lines of plebiscites proposed by John Howard at the 1998 Constitutional Convention. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita
Issues related to republicanism were raised by the March 2006 visit to Australia by Queen Elizabeth II. Stories without links will be removed. News stories must be in English For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II Then Prime Minister John Howard was questioned at the time by British journalists about the future of the monarchy in Australia, and there was debate about playing God save the Queen during the opening of the Commonwealth Games . The Prime Minister of Australia is the Head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. See also Howard Government John Winston Howard AC (born 26 July 1939 was the 25th Prime Minister of Australia from 11 March "God Save the Queen", or "God Save the King", is an anthem used in a number of Commonwealth realms It is the National The 2006 Commonwealth Games were held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia between 15 March and 26 March 2006 A poll taken later that year for The West Australian by Paterson Market Research found that support for a republic amongst Australians 18 to 30 years of age was at 38%. The West Australian (often simply called The West) is the only locally-edited daily newspaper published in Perth Western Australia, and is owned by By 2007 comments in the media questioned the public interest in the subject; writing in The Australian Financial Review, Lenore Taylor stated that republicanism in Australia was "on life support. The Australian Financial Review is the leading Business Newspaper in Australia which is published daily from Monday to Saturday in a Tabloid "
Before becoming Prime Minister in 2007, Kevin Rudd opined that becoming a republic was an important part of the nation's future, but also that it would not be a priority and doubted there would be any action on the matter during his first term in government. Kevin Michael Rudd (born 21 September 1957 is the 26th and current Prime Minister of Australia and federal leader of the Centre-left Australian Labor   In the meantime, both the Australian Republican Movement and opponent monarchist groups, such as Australians for Constitutional Monarchy remain active. The Australian Republican Movement (ARM is a non-partisan lobby group advocating constitutional change in Australia to a Republican form of government from a constitutional Australians for Constitutional Monarchy ( ACM) is a group that aims to preserve Australia's current Constitutional monarchy, with Elizabeth II as In January, 2007, The Australian published the results of polling with 45% of Australians favour or partly favour Australia becoming a republic, with 36% opposed and 19% uncommitted. An opinion poll is a survey of Public opinion from a particular sample. 
Some republicans argue that Australians will not vote for a republic while Queen Elizabeth II reigns.  Some have countered the idea of holding plebiscites. Monarchist David Flint described this process as "inviting a vote of no confidence in one of the most successful constitutions in the world" . Professor David Flint, AM, is an Australian legal academic known for his leadership of Australians for Constitutional Monarchy, and for his controversial Minimalist republican Greg Craven states "a multi-option plebiscite inevitably will produce a direct election model, precisely for the reason that such a process favours models with shallow surface appeal and multiple flaws. Professor Gregory Craven (5/3/1958 BA LLB LLM is the Vice-Chancellor at the Australian Catholic University. Equally inevitably, such a model would be doomed at referendum. "