|Negative & positive|
Reproductive rights are rights relating to reproduction and reproductive health. A right is a legal or moral Entitlement or Permission. Rights are of vital importance in theories of Justice and deontological ethics "Animal liberation" redirects here for other uses see Animal liberation (disambiguation. Children's rights are the Human rights of Children with particular attention to the rights of special protection and care afforded to the young including their Social equality is a social state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same status in a certain respect The Fathers' rights movement has been characterized as a Civil rights movement whose members are primarily interested in issues affecting fathers and children related to Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender social movements share related goals of social acceptance of Homosexuality, Bisexuality and Transgenderism Lesbian Group rights are the Rights held by a Group rather than by its members severally or rights held only by individuals within the specified group contrast with Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled Individual rights refer to the Rights of Individuals in contrast with Group rights. Men’s rights are the freedoms inherently possessed by men and boys of all ages which may be institutionalized ignored or suppressed by law custom and behavior in a particular Some philosophers and political scientists make a distinction between negative and positive Rights, not to be confused with the similar but different distinction between The right of self-defense (also called alter ego defense, defense of others, defense of a third person) is the right for civilians acting on their The term "social rights" is sometimes used to distinguished those rights arising from the Social contract, akin to Natural rights arising from nature but before The division of Human rights into three generations was initially proposed in 1979 by the Czech jurist Karel Vasak at the International Institute of Labor rights or workers' rights are a group of Legal rights and claimed Human rights having to do with Labor relations between Workers Youth rights refers to a set of philosophies intended to enhance Civil rights for young people. A right is a legal or moral Entitlement or Permission. Rights are of vital importance in theories of Justice and deontological ethics Human reproduction is the Reproduction of Humans. It is a form of Sexual reproduction, by Sexual intercourse between human Males and Within the framework of WHO 's definition of Health as a state of complete physical mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity reproductive  Various reproductive rights have been claimed as human rights in international human rights documents, particularly with the ratification of the Convention to End Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), and the adoption of the the Cairo Programme and the Beijing Platform. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women ( CEDAW) is an international The United Nations convened the Fourth World Conference on Women on September 4 - 15, 1995 in Beijing, China.  Reproductive rights are often held to include the right to legal abortion, the right to control one's reproductive functions, the right to access quality reproductive healthcare, and the right to education and access in order to make reproductive choices free from coercion, discrimination, and violence. An Birth control, sometimes synonymous with contraception, is a regimen of one or more actions devices or Medications followed in order to deliberately prevent Within the framework of WHO 's definition of Health as a state of complete physical mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity reproductive Family planning is frequently used to mean that people plan when to have children using Birth control, preconceptional counseling. Coercion (co-er-shion is the practice of compelling a person or manipulating them to behave in an involuntary way (whether through action or inaction by use of threats Unlike most discrimination policies discrimination between, which is the discernment of qualities and recognition of the differences focused here discrimination against is Violence is the exertion of force so as to injure or abuse The word is used broadly to describe the destructive action of natural phenomena like Storms and Earthquakes 
While the term is often associated with the pro-choice position, which states that abortion should be a legal option for any pregnant woman, reproductive rights encompass more than the abortion issue. Overview See also Ethical aspects of abortion Pro-choice advocates emphasize their beliefs that having a child is a personal choice that affects a woman's body and Reproductive rights were first discussed as a subset of human rights at the United Nation's 1968 International Conference on Human Rights. The sixteenth article of the Proclamation of Teheran states, "Parents have a basic human right to determine freely and responsibly the number and the spacing of their children. " Reproductive rights advocates work to secure affordable access to abortion, contraception, as well as education about contraception and sexually transmitted infections, and freedom from coerced sterilization and contraception, for both men and women. Sex education is a broad term used to describe Education about human sexual anatomy, Sexual reproduction, Sexual intercourse, Reproductive Birth control, sometimes synonymous with contraception, is a regimen of one or more actions devices or Medications followed in order to deliberately prevent A sexually transmitted disease ( STD) or venereal disease ( VD) is an illness that has a significant probability of transmission between Humans Compulsory sterilization programs are government policies which attempt to force people to undergo surgical sterilization. In addition, reproductive rights advocates endeavor to protect all women from harmful gender-based practices. Examples include cultural practices such as female genital cutting, or FGC, as well as state, customary and religious laws that contribute to women's political and economic disenfranchisment. Female genital cutting (FGC also known as female genital mutilation (FGM female circumcision or female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C refers to 
In 1945, the UN Charter included the obligation "to promote. The United Nations Charter is the Treaty that forms and establishes the International organization called the United Nations. . . universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without discrimination as to race, sex, language, or religion". However, the Charter did not define these rights. Three years later, the UN adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the first international legal document to delineate human rights. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly ( 10 December 1948 at Palais It did not mention reproductive rights. The first international document to mention reproductive rights as a subset of human rights was the Teheran Declaration, the Final Act of the UN's international rights conference. The Proclamation states: "Parents have a basic right to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children and a right to adequate education and information in this respect". This right was adopted by the UN General Assembly in the Declaration on Social Progress and Development, by the World Food Conference in Rome (1974), as well as parlimentarian conferences internationally. The first World Food Conference was held in Rome in 1974 by the United Nations under the auspices of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization  The 1975 UN International Women's Year Conference echoed the Proclamation Teheran Declaration.
Women's reproductive health is often compromised by infringements on women's human rights. In 1994 the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics' World Report on Women's Health concluded that state action was required to address injustices relating to women's health. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, usually just FIGO as the acronym of its French name Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique That same year, the UN held the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo. The United Nations coordinated an International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, Egypt from 5 - 13 September Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. The Programme of Action (Cairo Programme) emphasized the importance of protecting women's human rights, particularly those relating to reproductive health. Expanding on the World Health Organization's definition of health, the Programme defined reproductive health as:
a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and. . . not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes. Reproductive health therefore implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. Implicit in this last condition are the right of men and women to be informed [about] and to have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of family planning of their choice, as well as other methods for regulation of fertility which are not against the law, and the right of access to appropriate health-care services that will enable women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth and provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant [para. 72]. 
The Cairo Programme of Action was adopted by 184 UN member states.
The late American ecologist Garrett Hardin questioned the validity of a right to breed excessively, pointing to limited resources. Garrett James Hardin ( April 21, 1915 &ndash September 14, 2003) was a leading and controversial Ecologist from Dallas He wrote, "The only way we can preserve and nurture other and more precious freedoms is by relinquishing the freedom to breed, and that very soon. "
The 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing and its Declaration and Platform for Action supported the Cairo Programme's definition of reproductive health, but established a broader context of reproductive rights:
The human rights of women include their right to have control over and decide freely and responsibly on matters related to their sexuality, including sexual and reproductive health, free of coercion, discrimination and violence. The United Nations convened the Fourth World Conference on Women on September 4 - 15, 1995 in Beijing, China. Equal relationships between women and men in matters of sexual relations and reproduction, including full respect for the integrity of the person, require mutual respect for the integrity of the person, require mutual respect, consent and shared responsibility for sexual behavior and its consequences [para. 96]. 
The Beijing Platform demarcated twelve interrelated critical areas of the human rights of women that require advocacy. The Platform framed women's reproductive rights as "indivisible, universal and inalienable human rights. "
Organizations such as the Center for Reproductive Rights, the United Nations Population Fund, the World Health Organization and the National Organization for Women pursue reproductive rights with a primary emphasis on women's rights. The abortion debate refers to discussion and controversy surrounding the moral and legal status of Abortion. An Overview See also Ethical aspects of abortion Pro-choice advocates emphasize their beliefs that having a child is a personal choice that affects a woman's body and Overview See also Ethical aspects of abortion Pro-life individuals generally believe that human life should be valued either from conception or Implantation The abortion-breast cancer (ABC hypothesis (supporters call it the abortion-breast cancer link posits that induced Abortion increases the risk of developing Breast cancer Crisis pregnancy centers (CPCs also known as pregnancy resource centers are Non-profit organizations established by Pro-life supporters that work to persuade The legalized abortion and crime effect is the controversial Theory that legal Abortion reduces Crime. The ethical aspects of Abortion are much discussed in all major philosophies and Religions in the world particularly (but not exclusively in the Christian Fetal pain, its existence and its implications are part of a larger debate about Abortion. The term fetal rights can refer either to legal rights accorded to Fetuses or to ethical rights of fetuses The genetics and abortion issue is an extension of the Abortion debate and the Disability rights movement Late-term abortions are Abortions which are performed during a later stage of Pregnancy. Libertarians promote individual liberty and seek to minimize the role of the state The relationship between induced Abortion and Mental health is an area of controversy Many jurisdictions have laws applying to minors and abortion. The paternal rights and abortion issue is an extension of both the Abortion debate and the Fathers' rights movement The philosophical aspects of the abortion debate are presented in the form of a number of Logical arguments which can be made in support of or opposition to Abortion Societal attitudes towards abortion have varied throughout different historal periods and Cultures One manner of assessing such attitudes in the modern era has been Many religious traditions have taken a stance on Abortion, and these stances span a broad spectrum from acceptance to rejection A self-induced abortion is an Abortion performed outside the recognized medical system Sex-selective abortion is the targeted Abortion of a Fetus based upon its Sex. According to the World Health Organization (WHO an unsafe abortion is the termination of an unintended pregnancy either by persons lacking the necessary skills or in an Abortion-related violence, or anti-abortion violence, is criminal violence committed against individuals and organizations that provide Abortion. The United Nations Population Fund ( UNFPA) began operations in 1969 as the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (the name was changed in 1987 The National Organization for Women ( NOW) is the largest American Feminist organization While much attention has been paid to abortion rights as one aspect of reproductive rights, groups focus on a range of issues from access to family planning services, sex education, menopause, and the reduction of obstetric fistula, to the relationship between reproductive health and economic status. Family planning is frequently used to mean that people plan when to have children using Birth control, preconceptional counseling. Menopause is the permanent shutting down of the female Reproductive system, a considerable length of time before the end of the lifespan Obstetric fistula (or vaginal fistula) is a severe medical condition in which a Fistula (hole develops between either the Rectum and Vagina
The group Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN) spoke for a variety of women when it stated:
Control over reproduction is a basic need and a basic right for all women. Linked as it is to women's health and social status, as well as the powerful social structures of religion, state control and administrative inertia, and private profit, it is from the perspective of poor women that this right can best be understood and affirmed. Women know that childbearing is a social, not a purely personal, phenomenon; nor do we deny that world population trends are likely to exert considerable pressure on resources and institutions by the end of this century. But our bodies have become a pawn in the struggles among states, religions, male heads of households, and private corporations. Programs that do not take the interests of women into account are unlikely to succeed. . . 
There has also been an attempt to look at the socioeconomic conditions that affect a woman's access to reproductive health care. The term reproductive justice has been used to describe these broader social and economic issues. Reproductive justice is a concept linking Reproductive health with Social justice. Proponents of reproductive justice argue that while the right to legalized abortion and contraception applies to everyone, these choices are only meaningful to those with resources, and that there is a growing gap between access and affordability (Kirk, Okazawa-Rey 2004). Abortion law is legislation which pertains to the provision of Abortion.
Men's reproductive rights have been claimed by various organizations, both for issues of reproductive health, and other rights related to sexual reproduction.
Three international issues in men's reproductive health are disease, cancer and exposure to toxins. One of the major issues concerning men's fertility is the transmission and effects of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Fertility is the natural capability of giving life As a measure "Fertility Rate" is the number of children born per couple person or population STDs can reduce men's fertility: infections can cause epididymitis, the inflammation of the tubes from the testes to the vas deferens. Epididymitis is a medical condition in which there is Inflammation of the Epididymis (a curved structure at the back of the Testicle in which The testicle (from Latin testiculus, diminutive of testis, meaning "witness" virility plural testes) is the male The vas deferens (plural vasa deferentia also called ductus deferens, ( Latin: "carrying-away vessel" is part of the Male Anatomy Epididymitis in men under the age of 35 is most often caused by sexually transmitted organisms, Neisseria gonorrheae or Chlamydia trachomatis, in particular. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as Gonococci (plural or Gonococcus (singular is a species of Gram-negative kidney bean-shaped Diplococci Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular human pathogen is one of three bacterial species in the genus Chlamydia, family Chlamydiaceae 
One group, The National Center for Men (NCM), has claimed certain reproductive rights of men are not legally recognized. Men’s rights are the freedoms inherently possessed by men and boys of all ages which may be institutionalized ignored or suppressed by law custom and behavior in a particular  On their website, the NCM claim to have brought a case to the United States sixth circuit Court of Appeals, which they label "Roe vs. Wade For Men. "
In the United States, the public debate surrounding reproduction rights is often about abortion rights. The abortion debate refers to discussion and controversy surrounding the moral and legal status of Abortion. Reproductive rights advocates support a woman's right to abortion and contraception from within the context of the right to privacy, or freedom from governmental interference, supporting legalized contraception and abortion. Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively
In the United States Constitution, the right to privacy has been interpreted to include reproductive rights, as seen in numerous Supreme Court cases. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. Three important cases are Griswold v. Connecticut (1965), Eisenstadt v. Baird (1972), and Roe v. Wade (1973). Griswold v Connecticut, 381 US 479 ( 1965) was a Landmark case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. Eisenstadt v Baird,, was an important United States Supreme Court case that established the right of unmarried people to possess contraception on the same basis Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Roe v Wade, 410 US 113 (1973 is a controversial United States Supreme Court case that resulted in a Landmark decision regarding Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. In Griswold v. Connecticut, the Supreme court overturned a state law prohibiting the use of contraceptives, which established a constitutional right to privacy and legalized contraception for married people. Eisenstadt v. Baird extended the right to use contraceptives to unmarried people. Roe v. Wade legalized abortion on a federal level.
The term procreative liberty was coined by John A. Robertson, a professor of law and bioethics at the University of Texas School of Law. John A Robertson holds the Vinson and Elkins Chair at The University of Texas School of Law. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society Bioethics is the philosophical study of the ethical controversies brought about by advances in Biology and Medicine. The University of Texas School of Law is an ABA -certified American Law school located on The University of Texas at Austin campus