Repressed memory is a significant memory, usually of a traumatic nature, that has become unavailable for recall. In Psychology, memory is an organism's ability to store retain and subsequently retrieve information Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the psyche that occurs as a result of a traumatic event. The term is used to describe memories that have been dissociated from awareness as well as those that have been repressed without dissociation. Psychological repression, or simply repression, is the psychological act of excluding desires and Impulses (wishes Fantasies or feelings Although much debate exists in the media and public arena on the topic of repressed memories, studies consistently demonstrate that amnesia can occur in survivors of trauma.  Repressed memories may sometimes be recovered years or decades after the event, most often spontaneously, triggered by a particular smell, taste, or other identifier related to the lost memory, or via suggestion during psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is an Interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living 
The concept was originated by Sigmund Freud in his 1896 essay Zur Ätiologie der Hysterie ("On the etiology of hysteria"), however Freud abandoned his theory between 1897 and 1905, replacing it during 1920-1923 with his impulse-based concept of Id, Super-ego, and Ego. Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded Id, ego, and super-ego are the three parts of the " Psychic apparatus " defined in Sigmund Freud 's structural model of Id, ego, and super-ego are the three parts of the " Psychic apparatus " defined in Sigmund Freud 's structural model of Id, ego, and super-ego are the three parts of the " Psychic apparatus " defined in Sigmund Freud 's structural model of Friedrich Nietzsche was the first to suggest an active, conscious thought management method in the second essay of his On the Genealogy of Morals as a necessary fundament of efficiency, responsibility, and maturity. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15 1844 August 25 1900 ( was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and classical philologist On the Genealogy of Morality, or On the Genealogy of Morals (German Zur Genealogie der Moral) subtitled "A Polemic " ( Eine Streitschrift Also called motivated forgetting in which a subject blocks out painful or traumatic times in one's life.
Repressed memory syndrome, the clinical entity used to describe repressed memories, is often compared to psychogenic amnesia, and some sources compare the two as equivalent. Psychogenic amnesia, also known as functional or dissociative amnesia, is a disorder characterized by abnormal memory functioning in the absence of structural  Some research indicates that memories of child sexual abuse and other traumatic incidents can be forgotten and that any study that has looked for evidence of traumatic or dissociative amnesia after child sexual abuse has found it. Child sexual abuse is a form of Child abuse in which a child is abused for the sexual gratification of an adult or older adolescent  Evidence of the spontaneous recovery of traumatic memories has been shown, and recovered memories of traumatic childhood abuse have been corroborated.  Although the science of repressed memory is limited, studies suggest that memories of trauma that are forgotten and later recalled have a similar accuracy rate as trauma memories that had not been forgotten.  It has been speculated that repression may be one method used by individuals to cope with traumatic memories, by pushing them out of awareness (perhaps as an adaptation via psychogenic amnesia) to allow a child to maintain attachment to a person on whom they are dependent for survival. Psychogenic amnesia, also known as functional or dissociative amnesia, is a disorder characterized by abnormal memory functioning in the absence of structural Attachment theory, originating in the work of John Bowlby, is a Psychological, evolutionary and ethological theory that provides a descriptive  Researchers have proposed that repression can operate on a social level as well. 
The existence of repressed memories has not been completely accepted by mainstream psychology, nor unequivocally proven to exist. One research report states that a distinction should be made between spontaneously recovered memories and memories recovered during suggestions in therapy. 
van der Kolk and Fisler's research shows that traumatic memories are retrieved, at least at first, in the form of mental imprints that are dissociated. These imprints are of the affective and sensory elements of the traumatic experience. Clients have reported the slow emergence of a personal narrative that can be considered explicit (conscious) memory. The level of emotional significance of a memory correlates directly with the memory's veracity. Studies of subjective reports of memory show that memories of highly significant events are unusually accurate and stable over time. The imprints of traumatic experiences appear to be qualitatively different from those of nontraumatic events. Traumatic memories may be coded differently than ordinary event memories, possibly because of alterations in attentional focusing or the fact that extreme emotional arousal interferes with the memory functions of the hippocampus. 
In a 1996 ruling, a US District Court allowed repressed memories entered into evidence in court cases.  Jennifer Freyd writes that Ross Cheit’s case of suddenly remembered sexual abuse is one of the most well-documented cases available for the public to see. Cheit prevailed in two lawsuits, located five additional victims and tape-recorded a confession. 
Recovered memory therapy
Recovered memory therapy (RMT) is a term coined by affiliates of the False Memory Syndrome Foundation referring to what they described as a range of psychotherapy methods based on recalling memories of abuse that had previously been forgotten by the patient. Recovered memory therapy (RMT is a term coined by affiliates of the False Memory Syndrome Foundation (FMSF in the early 1990s to refer what they described as a range The False Memory Syndrome Foundation (FMSF is an organization that advocates on behalf of individuals who claim they have been falsely accused of perpetrating Child sexual abuse Psychotherapy is an Interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living  The term is not listed in DSM-IV or used by mainstream formal psychotherapy modality. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' ( DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association Psychotherapy is an Interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living  The idea that therapy can create false memories has also not been proven though there is evidence that the use of extreme therapy techniques can create false memories. Confabulation, also known as false memory is the confusion of Imagination with Memory, and/or the confusion of true memories with false memories  Even when patients who decide their recovered memories are false and retract their claims, they can suffer posttraumatic stress disorder due to the trauma of illusory memories. Post traumatic stress disorder It is a severe and ongoing emotional reaction to  The number of reported retractions is small when compared to the large number of actual child sexual abuse cases.  Some have suggested that a child may retract their story of abuse due to guilt, a feeling of obligation to protect their family or may be reacting to the familial stress brought on by their allegations. 
Repressed memories in popular culture
Repressed memories were a frequent topic among talk-show hosts in the 1990s and have frequently been portrayed in popular entertainment, especially as a plot device. A plot device is an element introduced into a story solely to advance or resolve the plot of the story
- The film Tommy: the title character is coerced into forgetting that he has witnessed the killing of his father. Tommy is a 1975 Musical film, based on The Who's 1969 "rock opera" album musical Tommy.
- The film The Machinist: Christian Bale's character represses the memory of killing a child in a hit-and-run car accident. The Machinist (also known as El Maquinista) is an English-language Spanish Psychological thriller film directed by Christian Charles Philip Bale (born 30 January 1974 is a British
- The film Nurse Betty: Betty also witnesses a murder and as a result of the trauma forgets her entire reality for a time, deluded into being a character in her favourite soap opera. Nurse Betty ( 2000) is an American Black comedy Film, directed by Neil LaBute and starring Renée Zellweger
- The film The Butterfly Effect: Evan has blackouts throughout his childhood when in traumatic situations. The Butterfly Effect is a 2004 American Fantasy / Drama movie starring Ashton Kutcher, Amy Smart As a college student, he attempts to recover these memories and finds that he can change the past.
- The film Spellbound: a horrible childhood memory has been suppressed and causes nightmares for years afterwards. Spellbound ( 1945) is a psychological mystery thriller directed by Alfred Hitchcock.
- The film Mysterious Skin: two teenage boys repress memories of sexual abuse by their Little League coach. Mysterious Skin is a 2004 film directed by California Filmmaker Gregg Araki.
- The video game Final Fantasy VII: the protagonist Cloud Strife carries false memories of his service in SOLDIER, the real memories suppressed after his Mako treatment. is a Console role-playing game developed by Square (now Square Enix) and published by Sony Computer Entertainment as the seventh installment in the is the main Protagonist in Square 's (now Square Enix 's role-playing game Final Fantasy VII and several of its sequels and spin-offs Gaia is the fictional world in the 1997 Console role-playing game Final Fantasy VII.
- The anime/manga Elfen Lied: one of the main characters, Kouta, suppressed the majority of his childhood after seeing his father and his little sister being murdered. is a Japanese Manga series created by manga author Lynn Okamoto.
- The anime/manga Fruits Basket: the supporting character, Hatori Sohma had to suppress the memories of his love, Kana, after Akito Sohma blinded Hatori's left eye by throwing a vase at him and blamed Hatori's injury on Kana. sometimes abbreviated, is a Japanese Manga series by Natsuki Takaya. This is a list of the major characters from the Manga and Anime series Fruits Basket by Natsuki Takaya. is a character in the Manga and Anime series Fruits Basket. Akito is the head of the Sohma clan and is shrouded in mystery and although frail with poor The guilt from the accident drove her into madness and Hatori was forced to suppress her memories so that she could once again smile. Hatori has also had to suppress the memories of Yuki Sohma's friends, and Momiji Sohma's mother. is a Fictional character in the Anime and Manga series Fruits Basket by Natsuki Takaya, and is one of the three Protagonists This is a list of the major characters from the Manga and Anime series Fruits Basket by Natsuki Takaya.
- The anime/manga His and Her Circumstances: When Arima visits his girlfriend, Yukino's house for the first time he realizes he doesn't have a deep bond with his adoptive parents and is confronted with repressed memories of abuse and abandonment from his real parents. commonly abbreviated, is a Manga series by Masami Tsuda. It was published by Hakusensha in LaLa from 1995 to 2005 and collected in 21
- The novel The Perks of Being a Wallflower: Charlie is confronted with repressed memories of being sexually abused by his aunt in the end of the novel after being upset and confused by sexual contact with his crush/friend, Sam. The Perks of Being a Wallflower is an Epistolary novel written in the 1990s by American novelist Stephen Chbosky.
- The protagonist of the video game Silent Hill 2, James Sunderland, repressed his memory of murdering his wife prior to the game's events. Silent Hill 2 is the second installment in the Silent Hill Survival horror series. James Sunderland is the protagonist in the Konami video game Silent Hill 2.
- In the movie Total Recall, set in the year 2084, a man travels to Mars for a virtual vacation that implants memories of the trip in his mind, to recall those memories in exact detail. Total Recall is a 1990 Academy Award -winning American Science fiction film. During his trip he recalls the truth about himself.
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