|Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn|
Self portrait by Rembrandt, detail (1661).
|Birth name||Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn|
|Born||July 15, 1606|
|Died||October 4, 1669 (aged 63)|
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15, 1606 – October 4, 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final "Leyden" redirects here For other uses see Leyden (disambiguation. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Events 610 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas Amsterdam (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland in the west The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e Printmaking is the Process of making artworks by Printing, normally on Paper. Danaë is Rembrandt 's Painting from the collection of Pierre Crozat which from the 18th century resides in the Hermitage Museum, The Anatomy Lesson of Dr Nicolaes Tulp is a 1632 Oil painting by Rembrandt housed in the Mauritshuis museum in The Hague, the Belshazzar's Feast is a painting by Rembrandt created in about 1635 Night Watch or The Night Watch (De Nachtwacht is the common name of one of the most famous works by Dutch painter Rembrandt Harmenszoon Events 1099 - First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final Events 610 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e For other uses of etch or etching, see Etching (disambiguation, for the history of the method see Old master prints. He is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art history and the most important in Dutch history. Printmaking is the Process of making artworks by Printing, normally on Paper. Also see articles History of painting, Western painting Western Art' redirects here The historical period sets in with the Roman Empire, as the parts south of the Rhine were included in the province of Gallia Belgica, and later of  His contributions to art came in a period that historians call the Dutch Golden Age. This article focuses on social and cultural history For political events see History of the Netherlands and Dutch Revolt (1568–1648
Having achieved youthful success as a portrait painter, his later years were marked by personal tragedy and financial hardship. Yet his drawings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high and for twenty years he taught nearly every important Dutch painter.  Rembrandt's greatest creative triumphs are exemplified especially in his portraits of his contemporaries, self-portraits and illustrations of scenes from the Bible. See Portrait for more about the general topic of portraits Portrait painting is a genre in Painting, where the intent is to A Self-portrait is a representation of an artist drawn painted photographed or sculpted by the artist Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin The self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and with the utmost sincerity. 
In both painting and printmaking he exhibited a complete knowledge of classical iconography, which he molded to fit the requirements of his own experience; thus, the depiction of a biblical scene was informed by Rembrandt's knowledge of the specific text, his assimilation of classical composition, and his observations of the Jewish population of Amsterdam. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Amsterdam (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland in the west  Because of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called "one of the great prophets of civilization. "
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was born on July 15, 1606 in Leiden, the Netherlands. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final "Leyden" redirects here For other uses see Leyden (disambiguation. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands He was the ninth child born to Harmen Gerritszoon van Rijn and Neeltgen Willemsdochter van Zuytbrouck.  His family was quite well-to-do; his father was a miller and his mother was a baker's daughter. As a boy he attended Latin school and was enrolled at the University of Leiden, although according to a contemporary he had a greater inclination towards painting; he was soon apprenticed to a Leiden history painter, Jacob van Swanenburgh, with whom he spent three years. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Leiden University (Universiteit Leiden located in the city of Leiden, is the oldest University in The Netherlands. After a brief but important apprenticeship of six months with the famous painter Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam, Rembrandt opened a studio in Leiden in 1624 or 1625, which he shared with friend and colleague Jan Lievens. Pieter Lastman (1583 Amsterdam - buried 4 April 1633, Amsterdam was a Dutch painter. Amsterdam (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland in the west Jan Lievens ( October 24 1607, Leiden – buried June 8 1674, Amsterdam) was a Dutch painter and visual In 1627, Rembrandt began to accept students, among them Gerrit Dou. Gerard Dou, also known as Gerrit and Douw or Dow ( April 7, 1613 &ndash February 9, 1675) was a Dutch Golden 
In 1629 Rembrandt was discovered by the statesman Constantijn Huygens, the father of Christiaan Huygens (a famous Dutch mathematician and physicist), who procured for Rembrandt important commissions from the court of the Hague. Constantijn Huygens ( September 4 1596, The Hague - March 28 1687, The Hague was a Dutch Poet and Composer Christiaan Huygens (ˈhaɪgənz in English ˈhœyɣəns in Dutch) ( April 14, 1629 &ndash July 8, 1695) was a Dutch As a result of this connection, Prince Frederik Hendrik continued to purchase paintings from Rembrandt until 1646. Frederick Henry, or Frederik Hendrik in Dutch ( 29 January 1584 – 14 March 1647) was the Prince of Orange 
At the end of 1631, Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam, then rapidly expanding as the new business capital of the Netherlands, and began to practice as a professional portraitist for the first time, with great success. He initially stayed with an art dealer, Hendrick van Uylenburg, and in 1634, married Hendrick's cousin, Saskia van Uylenburg. Hendrick van Uylenburgh (c 1587 - 1661) was an influential Dutch Golden Age Art dealer who helped launch the careers of Rembrandt Saskia van Uylenburgh ( August 2, 1612 - June 14, 1642) was the daughter of a Frisian Mayor and became the wife of  Saskia came from a good family: her father had been lawyer and burgemeester (mayor) of Leeuwarden. Leeuwarden ( Stadsfries: Liwwadden, West Frisian: Ljouwert) is the Capital city of the Dutch province of Friesland When Saskia, as the youngest daughter, became an orphan, she lived with an older sister in Het Bildt. Het Bildt ( is a Municipality in the province of Friesland in the northern Netherlands; its capital is Sint Annaparochie. They were married in the local church of St. Annaparochie without the presence of his relatives. Sint Annaparochie is the principal and largest town of the municipality of Het Bildt in Friesland, the Netherlands In the same year, Rembrandt became a burgess of Amsterdam and a member of the local guild of painters. He also acquired a number of students, among them Ferdinand Bol and Govert Flinck. Ferdinand Bol ( June 24, 1616 &ndash August 24, 1680) was a Dutch Artist, Etcher, and draftsman Govert (or Govaert) Teuniszoon Flinck ( January 25, 1615, Cleves - February 2, 1660, Amsterdam 
In 1635 Rembrandt and Saskia moved into their own house, renting in fashionable Nieuwe Doelenstraat. In 1639, they moved to a prominent house (now the Rembrandt House Museum) in the Jodenbreestraat in what was becoming the Jewish quarter; the mortgage to finance the 13,000 guilder purchase would be a primary cause for later financial difficulties. The Rembrandt House Museum (Museum het Rembrandthuis is a house in Jodenbreestraat in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, where Rembrandt lived The Jodenbreestraat ("Jewish Broad Street" is a street in the centre of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Guilder is the English translation of the Dutch gulden — from Old Dutch for 'golden'  It was there that Rembrandt frequently sought his Jewish neighbors to model for his Old Testament scenes. In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon.  Although they were by now affluent, the couple suffered several personal setbacks; their son Rumbartus died two months after his birth in 1635 and their daughter Cornelia died at just 3 weeks of age in 1638. In 1640, they had a second daughter, also named Cornelia, who died after living barely over a month. Only their fourth child, Titus, who was born in 1641, survived into adulthood. Titus van Rijn (Amsterdam 22 September 1641 - 1668 was the fourth and only surviving child of Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn and Saskia van Uylenburgh. Saskia died in 1642 soon after Titus's birth, probably from tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or T u' b' erculosis Bacillus --> is a common Rembrandt's drawings of her on her sick and death bed are among his most moving works. 
During Saskia's illness, Geertje Dircx was hired as Titus' caretaker and nurse and probably also became Rembrandt's lover. Geertje Dircx (sometime between 1610 and 1615 in Edam - c 1656 was a model and lover of Rembrandt and the Wetnurse to his son Titus. She would later charge Rembrandt with breach of promise and was awarded alimony of 200 guilders a year.  Rembrandt worked to have her committed for twelve years to an asylum or poorhouse (called a "bridewell") at Gouda, after learning Geertje had pawned jewelry that had once belonged to Saskia, and which Rembrandt had given her.
In the late 1640s Rembrandt began a relationship with the much younger Hendrickje Stoffels, who had initially been his maid. Hendrickje Stoffels (1626 – July 1663 was a model and partner of Rembrandt. In 1654 they had a daughter, Cornelia, bringing Hendrickje a summons from the Reformed church to answer the charge "that she had committed the acts of a whore with Rembrandt the painter". Dutch Reformed Church (in Dutch: Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk or NHK was one of many branches of churches coming out of the Protestant Reformation in Europe She admitted this and was banned from receiving communion. Rembrandt was not summoned to appear for the Church council because he was not a member of the Reformed church.  The two were considered legally wed under common law, but Rembrandt had not married Henrickje, so as not to lose access to a trust set up for Titus in his mother's will. 
Rembrandt lived beyond his means, buying art (including bidding up his own work), prints (often used in his paintings) and rarities, which probably caused a court arrangement to avoid his bankruptcy in 1656, by selling most of his paintings and large collection of antiquities. Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their Creditors Creditors may file a bankruptcy petition against The sale list survives and gives us a good insight into his collections, which apart from Old Master paintings and drawings included busts of the Roman Emperors, suits of Japanese armour among many objects from Asia, and collections of natural history and minerals; the prices realized in the sales in 1657 and 1658 were disappointing. " Old Master " (or " old master " is a term for a European painter of skill who worked before about 1800, or a painting by such  He also had to sell his house and his printing-press and move to more modest accommodation on the Rozengracht in 1660.  The authorities and his creditors were generally accommodating to him, except for the Amsterdam painters' guild, who introduced a new rule that no one in Rembrandt's circumstances could trade as a painter. The Guild of Saint Luke was the most common name for a city Guild for painters and other artists in Early modern Europe, especially in the Low Countries To get round this, Hendrickje and Titus set up a business as art-dealers in 1660, with Rembrandt as an employee. 
In 1661 he (or rather the new business) was contracted to complete work for the newly built city hall, but only after Govert Flinck, the artist previously commissioned died without beginning to paint. Govert (or Govaert) Teuniszoon Flinck ( January 25, 1615, Cleves - February 2, 1660, Amsterdam The resulting work, The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis, was rejected and returned to the painter; the surviving fragment has been significantly cut down in size. The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis is a 1661-62 Oil painting by the Dutch painter Rembrandt, which was originally the largest he ever painted  It was around this time that Rembrandt took on his last apprentice, Aert de Gelder. Aert de Gelder ( Oct 26, 1645, Dordrecht – Aug 27, 1727, Dordrecht was one of Rembrandt ’s last pupils while in In 1662 he was still fulfilling major commissions for portraits and other works.  When Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany visited Amsterdam in 1667, he visited Rembrandt at his house. Cosimo III de' Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany (14 August 1642 &ndash 31 October 1723 was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1670 to 1723 and husband of Marguerite Louise d'Orléans 
Rembrandt outlived both Hendrickje, who died in 1663, and Titus, who died in 1668, leaving a baby daughter. Rembrandt died within a year of his son, on October 4, 1669 in Amsterdam, and was buried in an unmarked grave in the Westerkerk. Events 610 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas The Westerkerk ("western church" is a Protestant church in Amsterdam, built in 1620 - 1631 after a design by Hendrick de Keyser 
In a letter to Huyghens, Rembrandt offered the only surviving explanation of what he sought to achieve through his art: the greatest and most natural movement, translated from die meeste ende di naetuereelste beweechgelickheijt. The word "beweechgelickhijt" is also argued to mean "emotion" or "motive. " Whether this refers to objectives, material or otherwise is open to interpretation; either way, Rembrandt seamlessly melded the earthly and spiritual as has no other painter in Western art. 
Earlier 20th century connoisseurs claimed Rembrandt had produced over 600 paintings, nearly 400 etchings and 2,000 drawings. Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e For other uses of etch or etching, see Etching (disambiguation, for the history of the method see Old master prints.  More recent scholarship, from the 1960s to the present day (led by the Rembrandt Research Project), often controversially, have winnowed his oeuvre to nearer 300 paintings.  His prints, traditionally all called etchings, although many are produced in whole or part by engraving and sometimes drypoint, have a much more stable total of slightly under 300. An old master print is a work of art produced by a Printing process within the Western tradition (European or New World For other uses of etch or etching, see Etching (disambiguation, for the history of the method see Old master prints. Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it Drypoint is a Printmaking technique of the intaglio family in which an image is incised into a plate (or "matrix" with a hard-pointed "needle"  It is likely he made many more drawings in his lifetime than 2,000, but those extant are more rare than presumed. 
At one time about ninety paintings were counted as Rembrandt self-portraits, but it is now known that he had his students copy his own self-portraits as part of their training. Modern scholarship has reduced the autograph count to over forty paintings, as well as a few drawings and thirty-one etchings, which include many of the most remarkable images of the group. For other uses of etch or etching, see Etching (disambiguation, for the history of the method see Old master prints.  Many show him posing in quasi-historical fancy dress, or pulling faces at himself. His oil paintings trace the progress from an uncertain young man, through the dapper and very successful portrait-painter of the 1630s, to the troubled but massively powerful portraits of his old age. Together they give a remarkably clear picture of the man, his appearance and his psychological make-up, as revealed by his richly-weathered face. 
Among the more prominent characteristics of his work are his use of chiaroscuro, the theatrical employment of light and shadow derived from Caravaggio, or, more likely, from the Dutch Caravaggisti, but adapted for very personal means. Chiaroscuro ( Italian for light-dark) is a term in Art for a contrast between light and dark Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, usually just known as Caravaggio, (28 September 1571 – 18 July 1610 was an Italian Artist active in Rome Utrecht Caravaggism refers to those Baroque artists all distinctly influenced by the art of Caravaggio, who were active mostly in the Dutch city of  Also notable are his dramatic and lively presentation of subjects, devoid of the rigid formality that his contemporaries often displayed, and a deeply felt compassion for mankind, irrespective of wealth and age. His immediate family — his wife Saskia, his son Titus and his common-law wife Hendrickje — often figured prominently in his paintings, many of which had mythical, biblical or historical themes. The word mythology (from the Greek grc μυθολογία mythología, meaning "a story-telling a legendary lore" Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin
Throughout his career Rembrandt took as his primary subjects the themes of portraiture, landscape and narrative painting. For the last, he was especially praised by his contemporaries, who extolled him as a masterful interpreter of biblical stories for his skill in representing emotions and attention to detail.  Stylistically, his paintings progressed from the early 'smooth' manner, characterized by fine technique in the portrayal of illusionistic form, to the late 'rough' treatment of richly variegated paint surfaces, which allowed for an illusionism of form suggested by the tactile quality of the paint itself. 
A parallel development may be seen in his skill as a printmaker. In the etchings of his maturity, particularly from the late 1640s onward, the freedom and breadth of his drawings and paintings found expression in the print medium as well. The works encompass a wide range of subject matter and technique, sometimes leaving large areas of white paper to suggest space, at other times employing complex webs of line to produce rich dark tones. 
It was during Rembrandt's Leiden period (1625-1631) that Lastman's influence was most prominent. It is also likely that at this time Lievens had a strong impact on his work as well.  Paintings were rather small, but rich in details (for example, in costumes and jewelry). Religious and allegorical themes were favored, as were tronies, half-length figures not intended as specific portraits. An allegory (from αλλος allos "other" and el αγορευειν agoreuein "to speak in public" is a figurative mode of representation  In 1626 Rembrandt produced his first etchings, the wide dissemination of which would largely account for his international fame.  In 1629 he completed Judas Repentant, Returning the Pieces of Silver and The Artist in His Studio, works that evidence his interest in the handling of light and variety of paint application, and constitute the first major progress in his development as a painter. 
During his early years in Amsterdam (1632-1636), Rembrandt began to paint dramatic biblical and mythological scenes in high contrast and of large format (The Blinding of Samson, 1636, Belshazzar's Feast, c. Belshazzar's Feast is a painting by Rembrandt created in about 1635 1635), seeking to emulate the baroque style of Rubens.  With the occasional help of assistants in Uylenburgh's workshop, he painted numerous portrait commissions both small (Jacob de Gheyn III) and large (Portrait of the Shipbuilder Jan Rijcksen and his Wife, 1633, Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, 1632). The Anatomy Lesson of Dr Nicolaes Tulp is a 1632 Oil painting by Rembrandt housed in the Mauritshuis museum in The Hague, the 
By the late 1630s, Rembrandt had produced a few paintings and many etchings of landscapes. For the art of designing external spaces see Landscape architecture. Often these landscapes highlighted natural drama, featuring uprooted trees and ominous skies (Cottages before a Stormy Sky, c. 1641, The Three Trees, 1643). From 1640 his work became less exuberant and more sober in tone, possibly reflecting personal tragedy. Biblical scenes were now derived more often from the New Testament than the Old Testament, as had been the case before. In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. In 1642 he painted the The Night Watch, his largest work and the most notable of the important group portrait commissions which he received in this period, and through which he sought to find solutions to compositional and narrative problems that had been attempted in previous works. Night Watch or The Night Watch (De Nachtwacht is the common name of one of the most famous works by Dutch painter Rembrandt Harmenszoon 
In the decade following the Night Watch, Rembrandt's paintings varied greatly in size, subject, and style. The previous tendency to create dramatic effects primarily by strong contrasts of light and shadow gave way to the use of frontal lighting and larger and more saturated areas of color. Simultaneously, figures came to be placed parallel to the picture plane. These changes can be seen as a move toward a classical mode of composition and, considering the more expressive use of brushwork as well, may indicate a familiarity with Venetian art (Susanna and the Elders, 1637-47).  At the same time, there was a marked decrease in painted works in favor of etchings and drawings of landscapes.  In these graphic works natural drama eventually made way for quiet Dutch rural scenes.
In the 1650s, Rembrandt's style changed again. Paintings increased in size, colours became richer and brush strokes more pronounced. With these changes, Rembrandt distanced himself from earlier work and current fashion, which increasingly inclined toward fine, detailed works. His singular approach to paint application may have been suggested in part by familiarity with the work of Titian, and could be seen in the context of the then current discussion of 'finish' and surface quality of paintings. Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c 1485 &ndash August 27 1576 better known as Titian, was the leading painter of the 16th-century Venetian Contemporary accounts sometimes remark disapprovingly of the coarseness of Rembrandt's brushwork, and the artist himself was said to have dissuaded visitors from looking too closely at his paintings.  The tactile manipulation of paint may hearken to medieval procedures, when mimetic effects of rendering informed a painting's surface. The end result is a richly varied handling of paint, deeply layered and often apparently haphazard, which suggests form and space in both an illusionistic and highly individual manner. 
In later years, biblical themes were still depicted often, but emphasis shifted from dramatic group scenes to intimate portrait-like figures (James the Apostle, 1661). In his last years, Rembrandt painted his most deeply reflective self-portraits (from 1652 to 1669 he painted fifteen), and several moving images of both men and women (The Jewish Bride, ca. The Jewish Bride (Het Joodse bruidje is a Painting by Rembrandt, executed around 1667 1666)--- in love, in life, and before God . 
Rembrandt produced etchings for most of his career, from 1626 to 1660, when he was forced to sell his printing-press and virtually abandoned etching. Only the troubled year of 1649 produced no dated work.  He took easily to etching and, though he also learned to use a burin and partly engraved many plates, the freedom of etching technique was fundamental to his work. Burin from the French burin meaning "cold Chisel " has two specialised meanings for types of tools in English one meaning a Steel Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it He was very closely involved in the whole process of printmaking, and must have printed at least early examples of his etchings himself. At first he used a style based on drawing, but soon moved to one based on painting, using a mass of lines and numerous bitings with the acid to achieve different strengths of line. Towards the end of the 1630s, he reacted against this manner and moved to a simpler style, with fewer bitings.  He worked on the so-called Hundred Guilder Print in stages throughout the 1640s, and it was the "critical work in the middle of his career", from which his final etching style began to emerge.  Although the print only survives in two states, the first very rare, evidence of much reworking can be seen underneath the final print and many drawings survive for elements of it. A state, in Printmaking, is a different form of a print caused by a deliberate and permanent change to a matrix such as a copper plate (for Engravings etc or woodblock 
In the mature works of the 1650s, Rembrandt was more ready to improvise on the plate and large prints typically survive in several states, up to eleven, often radically changed. For other uses of etch or etching, see Etching (disambiguation, for the history of the method see Old master prints. A state, in Printmaking, is a different form of a print caused by a deliberate and permanent change to a matrix such as a copper plate (for Engravings etc or woodblock He now uses hatching to create his dark areas, which often take up much of the plate. Hatching ( hachure in French) and cross-hatching are artistic techniques used to create tonal or shading effects by drawing (or painting or scribing closely He also experimented with the effects of printing on different kinds of paper, including Japanese paper, which he used frequently, and on vellum. Vellum (from the Old French Vélin for "calfskin" is mammal skin prepared for writing or printing on single pages scrolls codices or books He began to use "surface tone," leaving a thin film of ink on parts of the plate instead of wiping it completely clean to print each impression. He made more use of drypoint, exploiting, especially in landscapes, the rich fuzzy burr that this technique gives to the first few impressions. Drypoint is a Printmaking technique of the intaglio family in which an image is incised into a plate (or "matrix" with a hard-pointed "needle" 
His prints have similar subjects to his paintings, although the twenty-seven self-portraits are relatively more common, and portraits of other people less so. There are forty-six landscapes, mostly small, which largely set the course for the graphic treatment of landscape until the end of the 19th century. One third of his etchings are of religious subjects, many treated with a homely simplicity, whilst others are his most monumental prints. A few erotic, or just obscene, compositions have no equivalent in his paintings.  He owned, until forced to sell it, a magnificent collection of prints by other artists, and many borrowings and influences in his work can be traced to artists as diverse as Mantegna, Raphael, Hercules Segers, and Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione. Andrea Mantegna (c 1431 &ndash September 13, 1506) was an Italian Renaissance artist a student of Roman Archeology, and son in law of Raphael Sanzio, usually known by his first name alone (in Italian Raffaello) (April 6 or March 28 1483 – April 6 1520 was an Italian painter and Hercules Pieterszoon Seghers or Segers (c 1589 – c 1638 was a Dutch painter and Printmaker of the Dutch Golden Age. Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione (baptized March 23, 1609 - 1664 was an Italian Baroque artist painter Printmaker and draftsman
In the Netherlands, the most notable collection of Rembrandt's work is at Amsterdam's Rijksmuseum, including De Nachtwacht (The Night Watch) and De Joodse bruid (The Jewish Bride). Rijksmuseum ( English: State Museum is the general name for a National museum in the Dutch language. Night Watch or The Night Watch (De Nachtwacht is the common name of one of the most famous works by Dutch painter Rembrandt Harmenszoon Many of his self-portraits are held in The Hague's Mauritshuis. The Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis ( English: "Maurice's House" is an Art museum in The Hague, the Netherlands. His home, preserved as the Rembrandt House Museum in Amsterdam, displays many examples of his etchings; all major print rooms have the majority of these, although a number exist in only a handful of impressions (copies). The Rembrandt House Museum (Museum het Rembrandthuis is a house in Jodenbreestraat in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, where Rembrandt lived For other uses of etch or etching, see Etching (disambiguation, for the history of the method see Old master prints. A print room is either a room or industrial building where Printing takes place or a room in an Art gallery, Museum or Archive, where a collection The best collections of his paintings in other countries can be found in the National Gallery, London, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Dresden, New York City, Washington, D.C., The Louvre and Kassel. The collection The Gemäldegalerie prides itself on its scientific methodology in collecting and displaying art The State Hermitage Museum (Государственный Эрмитаж Gosudarstvennyj Èrmitaž) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River The Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister (English Old Masters Picture Gallery) is an state Art museum located in the Semper wing of the Zwinger The City of New York Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre located in Paris is the world's most visited art museum a historic monument and a national museum of France Kassel (until 1926 officially Cassel) is a city situated along the Fulda River in northern Hessen, Germany, one of the two sources of the 
While Rembrandt was already famous during his life, his fame was greatly enhanced during the 19th century. The Netherlands looked for national heroes and symbols. The Belgians had Rubens, so the Dutch embraced Rembrandt. To French artists in this revolutionary century, Rembrandt embodied democracy and republican sentiment—the opposite of Rubens, the leader of the Flemish school, who had worked for royalty and aristocracy. This Rembrandt persona, McQueen says, conflated his biography and his art. He had lived for many years in the Jewish quarter of Amsterdam; he had depicted beggars and the urban poor, which was seen as evidence of his sympathy for different social groups. His bankruptcy led many people to feel empathy for him as an outsider. The critics “made more of Rembrandt as a social outcast, misunderstood in his own time. They held him up as an example to the French realists.  (McQueen, A. 2003 The Rise of the Cult of Rembrandt) Later (1890), Langbehn published "Rembrandt as Educator" [Rembrandt als Erzieher]. The book praised the Dutch artist Rembrandt as the quintessence of the “southern German race. ” During the second world war, the Nazis tried to exploit Rembrandt as a collective symbol, pointing to the Germanic roots. For example, the occupying Nazi regime organized a Rembrandt opera (1944) and a cultural week with Rembrandt in the spotlight. (e. g. http://geschiedenis.vpro.nl/artikelen/26839761/)
Rembrandt painted The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq between 1640 and 1642. This picture was called the Nacht Wacht by the Dutch and the Night Watch by Sir Joshua Reynolds because, upon its discovery, the picture was so dimmed and defaced by time that it was almost indistinguishable and it looked quite like a night scene. Sir Joshua Reynolds RA FRS FRSA (16 July 1723 &ndash 23 February 1792 was the most important and influential of 18th century English painters After it was cleaned, it was discovered to represent broad day — a party of musketeers stepping from a gloomy courtyard into the blinding sunlight. A musketeer (mousquetaire was an early modern type of Infantry Soldier equipped with a Musket.
The piece was commissioned for the new hall of the Kloveniersdoelen, the musketeer branch of the civic militia. Rembrandt departed from convention, which ordered that such genre pieces should be stately and formal, rather a line-up than an action scene. Instead he showed the militia readying themselves to embark on a mission (what kind of mission, an ordinary patrol or some special event, is a matter of debate). Contrary to years of speculation, the work was hailed as a success from the beginning. Parts of the canvas were cut off to make the painting fit on the designated wall when it was moved to Amsterdam town hall in 1715. The painting now hangs in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, where it occupies the entire rear wall of the largest gallery. The Rijksmuseum Amsterdam or Rijksmuseum ( English: State Museum is a Dutch National museum in Amsterdam, located on the Museumplein 
In 1968 the Rembrandt Research Project was started under the sponsorship of the Netherlands Organization for the Advancement of Scientific Research; it was initially expected to last a highly optimistic ten years. Kanclerz ( Polish for Chancellor, from Latin: cancellarius) was one of the highest Officials in the historic Poland. Marcjan Aleksander Ogiński (b 1632- d 5 January 1690 in, now Alytus district of Lithuania) was a nobleman a military commander and a statesman Art historians teamed up with experts from other fields to reassess the authenticity of works attributed to Rembrandt, using all methods available, including state-of-the-art technical diagnostics, and to compile a complete new catalogue raisonné of his paintings. A catalogue raisonné is a Monograph giving a comprehensive catalogue of artworks by an Artist. As a result of their findings, many paintings that were previously attributed to Rembrandt have been removed from their list, although others have been added back.  Many of those removed are now thought to be the work of his students.
One example of activity is The Polish Rider, in New York's Frick Collection. The Frick Collection is an art museum located in Manhattan, New York City, United States. Its authenticity had been questioned years before by several scholars, led by Julius Held. Many, including Dr. Josua Bruyn of the Foundation Rembrandt Research Project, attributed the painting to one of Rembrandt's closest and most talented pupils, Willem Drost, about whom little is known. Willem Drost (bapt Apr 19 1633, Amsterdam - buried Feb 25 1659, Venice) was a Dutch Baroque The Frick Museum itself never changed its own attribution, the label still reading "Rembrandt" and not "attributed to" or "school of". More recent opinion has shifted in favor of the Frick, with Simon Schama in his 1999 book 'Rembrandt's Eyes', and a Rembrandt Project scholar, Ernst van de Wetering (Melbourne Symposium, 1997) both arguing for attribution to the master. Simon Michael Schama, CBE (born 13 February 1945 is a British professor of history and art history at Columbia University. Many scholars feel that the execution is uneven, and favour different attributions for different parts of the work. 
Another painting, Pilate Washing His Hands, is also of questionable attribution. Critical opinion of this picture has varied since 1905, when Wilhelm von Bode described it as "a somewhat abnormal work" by Rembrandt. Scholars have since dated the painting to the 1660s and assigned it to an anonymous pupil, possibly Arent de Gelder. The composition bears superficial resemblance to mature works by Rembrandt but lacks the master's command of illumination and modeling. 
The attribution and re-attribution work is ongoing. In 2005 four oil paintings previously attributed to Rembrandt's students were reclassified as the work of Rembrandt himself: Study of an Old Man in Profile and Study of an Old Man with a Beard from a US private collection, Study of a Weeping Woman, owned by the Detroit Institute of Arts, and Portrait of an Elderly Woman in a White Bonnet, painted in 1640. The Detroit Institute of Arts ( DIA) originally named the Detroit Museum of Art, has one of the largest most significant art collections in the United States 
Rembrandt's own studio practice is a major factor in the difficulty of attribution, since, like many masters before him, he encouraged his students to copy his paintings, sometimes finishing or retouching them to be sold as originals, and sometimes selling them as authorized copies. Additionally, his style proved easy enough for his most talented students to emulate. Further complicating matters is the uneven quality of some of Rembrandt's own work, and his frequent stylistic evolutions and experiments.  As well, there were later imitations of his work, and restorations which so seriously damaged the original works that they are no longer recognizable.  It is highly likely that there will never be universal agreement as to what does and what does not constitute a genuine Rembrandt.
"Rembrandt" is a modification of the spelling of the artist's first name that he introduced in 1633. Amsterdam (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland in the west The Rembrandt House Museum (Museum het Rembrandthuis is a house in Jodenbreestraat in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, where Rembrandt lived Roughly speaking, his earliest signatures (ca. 1625) consisted of an initial "R", or the monogram "RH" (for Rembrant Harmenszoon; i. e. "son of Harmen"), and starting in 1629, "RHL" (the "L" stood, presumably, for Leiden). In 1632, he used this monogram early in the year, then added his patronymic to it, "RHL-van Rijn", but replaced this form in that same year and began using his first name alone with its original spelling, "Rembrant". In 1633 he added a "d", and maintained this form consistently from then on, proving that this minor change had a meaning for him (whatever it might have been). This change is purely visual; it does not change the way his name is pronounced. Curiously enough, despite the large number of paintings and etchings signed with this modified first name, most of their documents that mentioned him during his lifetime retained the original "Rembrant" spelling. (Note: the rough chronology of signature forms above applies to the paintings, and to a lesser degree to the etchings; from 1632, presumably, there is only one etching signed "RHL-v. Rijn," the large-format "Raising of Lazarus," B 73).  His practice of signing his work with his first name, later followed by Vincent van Gogh, was probably inspired by Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo who, then as now, were referred to by their first names alone. Raphael Sanzio, usually known by his first name alone (in Italian Raffaello) (April 6 or March 28 1483 – April 6 1520 was an Italian painter and Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all 
An article published in 2004, by Margaret S. Livingstone, professor of neurobiology at Harvard Medical School, suggests that Rembrandt, whose eyes failed to align correctly, suffered from stereo blindness. Neurobiology is the study of cells of the Nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior Harvard Medical School ( HMS) is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University and currently the #1 medical school in America as ranked by U Eyes are organs that detect Light, and send signals along the Optic nerve to the visual areas of the brain Stereoblindness (also stereo blindness) is the inability to see in 3D using Stereo vision, resulting in inability to perceive stereoscopic depth This conclusion was made after studying 36 of Rembrandt's self-portraits. Because he could not form a normal binocular vision, his brain automatically switched to one eye for many visual tasks. Binocular vision is vision in which both Eyes are used together The brain is the center of the Nervous system in animals All Vertebrates and the majority of Invertebrates have a brain This disability could have helped him to flatten images he saw, and then put it onto the two-dimensional canvas. In mathematics the dimension of a Space is roughly defined as the minimum number of Coordinates needed to specify every point within it Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty plain-woven fabric used for making Sails Tents Marquees Backpacks and other functions In Livingstone's words, this could have been a gift to a great painter like him, "Art teachers often instruct students to close one eye in order to flatten what they see. Therefore, stereo blindness might not be a handicap — and might even be an asset — for some artists. " However, among Rembrandt's greatest talents was an ability to create the illusion of full volume, the perception of which requires healthy stereoptic vision. Stereopsis (from stereo meaning solidity and opsis meaning vision or Sight) is the process in Visual perception leading to the sensation
Rembrandt in 1632, when he was enjoying great success as a fashionable portraitist in this style. Rijksmuseum ( English: State Museum is the general name for a National museum in the Dutch language.
Role-playing in Self-portrait as an oriental Potentate with a Kris, etching, 1634. The kris or keris is a distinctive asymmetrical dagger indigenous to Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Southern Thailand and
Self-portrait leaning on a Sill, etching, 1639
1640, wearing a costume in the style of over a century earlier. National Gallery
Vienna c. 1655, oil on walnut, cut down in size.
Rembrandt - Self Portrait, 1659?, Edinburgh, detail.
Dated 1669, the year he died, though he looks much older in other portraits. National Gallery
Artist in his studio, 1629
The Philosopher in Meditation
Bust of an old man with helmet, 1630
Portrait of Johannes Wtenbogaert, 1633 - a preacher, like many of the best portraits of the 1630s
Abraham and Isaac, 1634
Descent from the Cross. The Anatomy Lesson of Dr Nicolaes Tulp is a 1632 Oil painting by Rembrandt housed in the Mauritshuis museum in The Hague, the 1634. 1634
Saskia as "Flora", 1635
Rembrandt and Saskia pose as "The Prodigal Son in the Tavern" - a portrait historié, 1635
The Blinding of Samson, 1636, which Rembrandt gave to Huyghens
Belshassar's Feast, 1636-8
The Archangel leaving Tobias, 1637
The Risen Christ Appearing to Mary Magdalen, 1638
the Mill, 1648
Bathing woman, modelled by Hendrickje, 1654
Bathsheba in her bath, also modelled by Hendrickje, 1654
Portrait of Jan Six, 1654. The Book of Tobit (or Book of Tobias in older Catholic Bibles is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox Biblical canon According to the Hebrew Bible, Bathsheba (בת שבע Bat Sheva) was the wife of Uriah the Hittite and later of David, king of the Six was a wealthy friend of Rembrandt.
Christ presented to the People, drypoint, 1655, State I of VII. Drypoint is a Printmaking technique of the intaglio family in which an image is incised into a plate (or "matrix" with a hard-pointed "needle"
The Syndics of the Clothmakers' Guild, 1662
The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis (cut-down), 1661-62
The Return of the Prodigal Son, c. The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis is a 1661-62 Oil painting by the Dutch painter Rembrandt, which was originally the largest he ever painted 1669
Suzannah and the Elders, drawing, 1634
Christ and the woman taken in adultery, drawing
|NAME||van Rijn, Rembrandt Harmenszoon|
|DATE OF BIRTH||July 15, 1606|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Leiden, Netherlands|
|DATE OF DEATH||October 4, 1669|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Amsterdam, Netherlands|
Events 1099 - First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final "Leyden" redirects here For other uses see Leyden (disambiguation. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Events 610 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas Amsterdam (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland in the west The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands