A relay transmitter, broadcast translator, repeater or rebroadcaster is a radio or television broadcast transmitter which relays or repeats the signal of another transmitter to an area not covered by the originating signal. Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic They may serve, for example, to expand the broadcast area of a television or radio station beyond the primary signal's coverage area, or to improve service in a part of the main coverage area which receives a poor signal due to geographic constraints.
Translators which broadcast within or very near the parent station's coverage area (a "fill-in") on the same channel or frequency are called booster stations. However, this can be tricky because it is possible to have both stations interfering with each other unless they are carefully designed. Interference can also be avoided by using exact atomic time obtained from GPS satellites to perfectly synchronise co-channel stations, as in a single-frequency network (SFN). International Atomic Time ( TAI, from the French name Temps Atomique International) is a high-precision atomic Time standard that tracks Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth This article is about artificial satellites For natural satellites also known as moons see Natural satellite. A single-frequency network or SFN is a Broadcast network where several Transmitters simultaneously send the same signal over the same Frequency
Analog TV stations cannot have same-channel boosters unless opposite (perpendicular) polarisation is used, due to video synchronization issues such as ghosting. A television station is a type of broadcast station that broadcasts both audio and Video to Television receivers in a particular area In Geometry, two lines or planes (or a line and a plane are considered perpendicular (or orthogonal) to each other if they form congruent Polarization ( ''Brit'' polarisation) is a property of Waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations Video is the technology of electronically capturing, Recording, processing storing transmitting and reconstructing a sequence of Still images Digital TV stations can share a channel, however this is more difficult with the 8VSB modulation and invariable guard interval used in the ATSC standard, than with COFDM used in the worldwide DVB-T standard. Digital television (DTV is the sending and receiving of moving images and sound by discrete ( digital) signals in contrast to the analog signals used by 8VSB is the 8-level Vestigial sideband modulation method adopted for terrestrial broadcast of the ATSC digital television standard in the United States, In Telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying a periodic Waveform, i In Telecommunications, guard intervals are used to ensure that distinct transmissions do not interfere with one another Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing ( OFDM) — essentially identical to Coded OFDM ( COFDM) and Discrete multi-tone modulation ( DVB-T is an abbreviation for Digital Video Broadcasting – Terrestrial; it is the DVB European-based consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of In North America, AM broadcasting stations do not have translators or boosters; though an SFN is actually easier to create in their frequency band, it is largely unnecessary as the longer wavelengths of these signals are more able to provide adequate coverage over longer distances despite a lack of line-of-sight transmission conditions.
Distributed transmission (DTx) is the use of several medium-power stations (usually digital) to cover a broadcast area, rather than one high-power and several low-power stations. A single-frequency network or SFN is a Broadcast network where several Transmitters simultaneously send the same signal over the same Frequency Experiments have shown that this can be done even with ATSC. In scientific inquiry an experiment ( Latin: Ex- periri, "to try out" is a method of investigating particular types of research questions or The use of virtual channels is another alternative, though this may cause the same channel to appear multiple times on a receiver (once for each relay station), and requires the user to tune manually to the best one (which changes due to radio propagation conditions like weather). In Telecommunications, a logical channel number (LCN also known as virtual channel in North America, is a channel designation which differs Radio propagation is a term used to explain how Radio waves behave when they are Transmitted, or are propagated from one point on the Earth The weather is a set of all the phenomena occurring in a given Atmosphere at a given Time. Use of boosters or DTx instead causes all relay stations to ideally appear as a single signal, but requires significant broadcast engineering to work properly and not cause destructive interference to each other's signals. Broadcast engineering is the field of Electrical engineering, and now to some extent Computer engineering, which deals with Radio and Television In physics interference is the addition ( superposition) of two or more Waves that result in a new wave pattern
A television rebroadcaster often sells local or regional advertising for broadcast only on the local transmitter, and may also air a very limited amount of distinct programming from their parent station. Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand Some such "semi-satellites" broadcast their own local newscasts, or separate news segments during part of the newscast. For example, CHEX-TV-2 in Oshawa, Ontario airs separate daily late afternoon-early evening news and community broadcasts from its parent station, CHEX-TV in Peterborough, Ontario. CHEX-TV-2, branded as Channel 12 Durham (for its cable position its broadcast channel is 22 is a CBC -affiliated Television station in Oshawa CHEX-TV is a Television station in Peterborough Ontario, Canada, and an affiliate of the CBC Television network Peterborough is a City on the Otonabee River in central-eastern Ontario, Canada, 125 kilometres
In Canada, rebroadcaster or rebroadcasting transmitter are the terms most commonly used by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page CRTC may also stand for Cathode Ray Tube Controller. Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission ( CRTC, in French Conseil
A television rebroadcaster may be permitted to sell local or regional advertising for broadcast only on the local transmitter. Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand On rarer occasions, they may also air a very limited amount of distinct programming from their parent station. Some such "semi-satellites" broadcast their own local newscasts, or separate news segments during part of the newscast.
There is no strict rule for the call sign of a television rebroadcaster. In Broadcasting and Radio communications a call sign (also known as a callsign or call letters, or abbreviated as a call, or otherwise Some transmitters have distinct call signs from the parent station (for example, CFGC in Sudbury is a rebroadcaster of CIII), while others use the call sign of the originating station followed by a number (e. CIII-TV is a Television station owned by Canwest that serves much of the population of the Canadian province of Ontario, featuring content Greater Sudbury (2006 Census population 157857 is a city in Northern Ontario, Canada. CIII-TV is a Television station owned by Canwest that serves much of the population of the Canadian province of Ontario, featuring content g. , CBLFT-17 in Sarnia). CBLFT is the Radio-Canada television station serving Franco-Ontarians in Toronto and most of Ontario, including the Western, Sarnia is a City in Southwestern Ontario, Canada (city population 71419 census area population Officially, the latter type includes the television station's TV suffix between the call sign and the number, although in media directories this is often left out for convenience.
In the latter case, the numbers are usually applied sequentially, starting from one and denoting the chronological order in which the station's rebroadcast transmitters began operation. Some broadcasters may, at their discretion, use a system in which the number denotes the actual broadcast channel of the transmitter (e. g. , CJOH-47 in Pembroke). CJOH-TV (on-air identity is CTV, verbally referred to as CTV Ottawa before regional programming only is a Television station serving Ottawa, Pembroke ( 2006 population 13930 CA population 23195 is a City at the confluence of the Muskrat A broadcaster cannot, however, mix the two numbering systems under a single call sign — the transmitters are either all numbered sequentially or all numbered by their channel position. On the rare occasion that the sequential numbering reaches 99 (e. g. , TVOntario's broadcast transmitters), rather than being numbered as 100 the next transmitter is assigned a new call sign and numbered as one. TVOntario, often referred to only as TVO, ( Call signs CICA, CICE, CICO) is a publicly-funded educational English language This is the same case for translators that share the same frequency (such as CBLT's repeaters CBLET, CBLHT, CBLAT-2 and CH4113, all on channel 12), the stations are granted a new call-sign. CBLT is the Television call sign for the CBC 's Television station in Toronto, Ontario.
Low-power rebroadcasters may also have a call sign which consists of the letters CH followed by four numbers. Low-power broadcasting is the concept of Broadcasting at very low power and low cost to a small community area For example, CH2649 in Valemount is a rebroadcaster of Vancouver's CHAN. BCTV redirects here For the former Boston Catholic Television see CatholicTV. Valemount is a Village of 1018 people in east central British Columbia, Canada. Vancouver (vænˈkuːvɚ is a coastal BCTV redirects here For the former Boston Catholic Television see CatholicTV. Rebroadcasters of this type are numbered strictly sequentially to the order in which they were licensed by the CRTC, and their call signs have no inherent relationship to those of the parent stations or of other rebroadcasters. Although the next number in the sequence, CH2650 in Anzac, is also a rebroadcaster of CHAN, this is simply because CH2649 and CH2650 happened to be licensed simultaneously — the following number, CH2651, is a rebroadcaster (also in Anzac) of Edmonton's CITV. Anzac is a community in the Canadian province of Alberta, located within the Regional municipality of Wood Buffalo. Edmonton (ˈɛdmɨntɨn is the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta. CITV-TV is a Television station in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. A single station's rebroadcasters are not necessarily all named in the same manner. CBLT, for example, has some retransmitters which have their own call signs, some which use CBLT followed by a number and some transmitters with CH numbers. CBLT is the Television call sign for the CBC 's Television station in Toronto, Ontario.
As in television, a radio rebroadcaster may have either a distinct call sign or the call sign of the originating station followed by a numeric suffix. In the case of radio, however, the numeric suffix is always sequential.
For a rebroadcaster of an FM station, the numeric suffix is appended to the FM suffix. See also Frequency modulation, FM band FM broadcasting is a broadcast Technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that For example, rebroadcasters of CJBC-FM in Toronto are numbered CJBC-FM-1, CJBC-FM-2, etc. CJBC-FM is a Canadian radio station broadcasting at 903 FM in Toronto, Ontario. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Where an AM station has a rebroadcaster operating on the FM band, the numeric suffix instead falls between the CXXX call sign and the FM suffix — for example, CKSB-1-FM is an FM rebroadcaster of the AM station CKSB. CKSB is a Canadian radio station broadcasting at 1050 AM in Winnipeg Manitoba. CKSB is a Canadian radio station broadcasting at 1050 AM in Winnipeg Manitoba.
Low-power radio rebroadcasters may also have a call sign which consists of the letters VF followed by four numbers. Some stations licensed under the CRTC's experimental broadcasting guidelines, a special class of short-term license sometimes granted to newer campus and community radio operations, may have another distinct class of call sign which consists of three letters from anywhere within Canada's ITU prefix range followed by three digits — e. Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of Radio station that is run by the students of a college Community radio is a type of Radio service that caters to the interests of a certain area broadcasting material that is popular to a local audience but is overlooked by more g. CFU758 or VEK565. 907 RAV FM is a Canadian radio station owned and operated by Vaughan Secondary School. Ridge Radio is a Canadian internet radio station From the summer of 2002 to 2006 it also broadcast at 90 Some other stations within this license class, however, have been assigned conventional CXXX call signs.
Occasionally, former rebroadcasters have been converted to originating stations in their own right but have retained their former call sign instead of being reassigned a new call sign of their own. Such stations include CITE-FM-1 in Sherbrooke, CBF-FM-8 in Trois-Rivières and CBAF-FM-15 in Charlottetown. CITE-FM-1 is a French-language Canadian Radio station located in Sherbrooke, Quebec. CBF-FM-8 is a French-language Canadian Radio station located in Trois-Rivières, Quebec. Trois-Rivières is a City in the Mauricie region of Quebec, Canada, located along the densely populated Quebec City-Windsor Corridor CBAF-FM-15 is a French-language Canadian Radio station located in Charlottetown Prince Edward Island. Charlottetown (ˈʃɑrlɪtaʊn (2006 population 32174 is a Canadian city and the provincial capital of Prince Edward Island, making it the seat
In Mexico, all translator and booster stations are given the callsign of the parent station plus a sequential number, such as XHABC and XHABC1, XHABC2. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America.
Commercial stations may not own their translators (except for boosters), or be translated outside of the parent station's area (they can only fill in where terrain blocks the signal). Terrain, or relief, is the third or vertical dimension of land surface. Thus, they operate by picking up the signal of the main station off the air with a directional antenna and sensitive receiver, and directly retransmitting the signal. They also may not transmit in the FM "reserved band" from 88 to 92 MHz, where only noncommercial stations are allowed. The hertz (symbol Hz) is a measure of Frequency, informally defined as the number of events occurring per Second. The term non-commercial educational ( NCE) applies to a Radio station or TV station that does not accept or air Advertisements ( TV ads Noncommercial stations may broadcast in the commercial band, however. Unlike commercial stations, they can also relay programming to translators via satellite, so long as those translators are in the reserved band. This article is about artificial satellites For natural satellites also known as moons see Natural satellite. All stations may use any means to feed boosters.
All U. S. translator and booster stations are low-power and have a class D license, making them secondary to other stations (including the parent). This is a list of broadcast station classes applicable in much of North America under international agreements between the United States, Canada and They must accept any interference from full-power (100-watt or more on FM) stations, while not causing any of their own. In physics interference is the addition ( superposition) of two or more Waves that result in a new wave pattern Boosters must not interfere with the parent station within the community of license. A city of license or community of license, in American and Canadian broadcasting is the community that a Radio station or Television station Licenses are automatically renewed with that of the parent station and do not require separate applications, though each may still be challenged with a petition to deny.
FM booster stations are given the full callsign (always including an -FM suffix, even if there is none assigned) of the parent station, plus a serial number, such as WXYZ-FM1, WXYZ-FM2, etc. In Grammar, a suffix (also postfix, ending) is an Affix which is placed at the end of a word A serial number is a unique Number assigned for Identification which varies from its Successor or Predecessor by a fixed discrete Integer
Unlike FM, LPTV stations may operate as either translators or originate their own programming. Low-power broadcasting is the concept of Broadcasting at very low power and low cost to a small community area
Translator stations in the U. S. are given callsigns which begin with a W or K (respectively east or west of the Mississippi River, as with regular stations), followed by a channel number, and two serial letters for each channel. In Broadcasting and Radio communications a call sign (also known as a callsign or call letters, or abbreviated as a call, or otherwise The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to A serial number is a unique Number assigned for Identification which varies from its Successor or Predecessor by a fixed discrete Integer (The first stations on that channel are AA, AB, AC, and so on. ) Television channels are always two-digit, from 02 to 83; while FM radio channels are from 200 (87. See also Frequency modulation, FM band FM broadcasting is a broadcast Technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that 9 MHz) to 300 (107. The hertz (symbol Hz) is a measure of Frequency, informally defined as the number of events occurring per Second. 9 MHz), one every 0. 2 MHz. (Example: W42BD, K263AF. )
Numbered translator stations (a format such as "W70ZZ") are typically low-power repeaters, most often 100 watts or less. The former "translator band", UHF TV channels 70 through 83, was originally occupied primarily by these low-powered translators. The combination of low power and high frequencies provided a very limited range for these broadcasts. This band has now been reallocated to cellular telephone services, with the handful of remaining transmitters from these channels moved to lower frequencies.
Full-power repeaters (such as WPBS-TV's identical twin transmitter WNPI-TV) are normally assigned -TV or -DT callsigns like those of any other full-power station. WPBS is a PBS member station in New York state serving Watertown / Potsdam as well as south western Quebec and most of eastern/southeastern WPBS is a PBS member station in New York state serving Watertown / Potsdam as well as south western Quebec and most of eastern/southeastern They do not bear numbered callsigns and must operate in the same manner as other full-power broadcasters.
LPTV stations may also choose a regular four-letter callsign with an -LP suffix for analog or -LD for digital, generally done only if the station originates programming. Digital stations which use the first option get a -D suffix (as in W42BD-D), despite the fact the full-power digital TV stations had their -DT (originally -HD) suffixes dropped by the FCC before -D and -LD were implemented.
It is unknown whether digital LPTV stations keep their analog or digital channel numbers as part of their digital callsigns as LPTV operations are not required to simulcast a digital signal nor to shutdown analogue operation in 2009 when full-power US TV operators must do so. This article is about the year For the film see 2009 Lost Memories.
Critics of the FCC's licensing procedures (such as LPFM promoters and some critics of dominionism) have charged that certain noncommercial broadcasters have taken unfair advantage of FM repeater regulations in regard to nonprofit repeater licensing, by allowing satellite-delivered programming hundreds or even thousands of miles outside the parent station's coverage area. Low-power broadcasting is the concept of Broadcasting at very low power and low cost to a small community area Dominionism describes in several distinct ways a tendency among some conservative politically-active Christians, especially in the United States This article is about artificial satellites For natural satellites also known as moons see Natural satellite. Some religious outlets — such as Calvary Chapel's KAWZ-Twin Falls, Idaho or Family Radio's KEAR-FM-Sacramento – are relayed by hundreds of FM "translator" stations across the U. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Calvary Chapel, a Non-denominational, Evangelical fellowship of Christian churches began in 1965 in Southern California. CSN International began broadcasting Christian radio over satellite on April 26th 1995 from KAWZ in Twin Falls, Idaho. For the motion picture see Twin Falls Idaho (film Twin Falls is the County seat and largest Family Radio (Family Stations Inc is a non-commercial, 24-hour listener-supported Christian radio religious broadcasting network in the United States KEAR-FM 881 FM is a Non-commercial traditional Christian radio station in Sacramento California, which runs programming from S. As these parent stations are owned by non-profit organizations, they are not required to have their translators receive their signal over the air, as would be required for a commercial broadcaster – a loophole that only exists for noncommercial broadcasters;  this particular loophole has been used by a number of religious broadcasters to set up large satellite-based networks composed almost entirely of "distant translators" – translators outside of the market area (generally a 50-mile radius surrounding the transmitter). This article is about artificial satellites For natural satellites also known as moons see Natural satellite.
Prominent in this regard are endeavors linked to Calvary Chapel (including Radio Assist Ministries, Horizon Broadcasting, and (formerly) Edgewater Broadcasting and REACH Media) and American Family Radio owned by the American Family Association. The American Family Association (AFA is a 501(c(3 Non-profit organization that promotes conservative Christian values Educational Media Foundation, owners of the K-Love contemporary Christian music radio network, have also been cited as applying for distant translators en masse. Contemporary Christian Music (or CCM; also by its religious neutral term " inspirational music " is a genre of Popular music which is The multiple networks associated with Calvary Chapel have been a particular focus in regard to translator-based networks.  due to the extremely high volume of licenses applied for (a partial list is available at RECnet) At least four separate radio stations operated by Calvary Chapel churches and relaying Calvary Satellite Network programming have been identified as "home stations" for distant translators and there are many home churches in addition to the main "national" Calvary Chapel concerns applying for licenses (see RECnet link above).
An FCC licensing window for new translator applications in 2003 resulted in over 13,000 applications being filed, most of them coming from religious broadcasters; this has become known to LPFM advocates as the Great Translator Invasion.   In many cases, multiple applications were submitted by different companies linked to Calvary Chapel in particular for the same channel. 
This has posed difficulties for non-translator station operators, in particular LPFM license applicants. Low-power broadcasting is the concept of Broadcasting at very low power and low cost to a small community area LPFM licenses often cannot get stations on the air due to translators eliminating any available channels in an area and (in the case of American Family Radio in particular) there are indications that this is a deliberate strategy by the religious broadcasters in question. Low-power broadcasting is the concept of Broadcasting at very low power and low cost to a small community area  There are also cases where translator stations owned by "sat-casting" networks have threatened licenses of existing LPFM licensees. Low-power broadcasting is the concept of Broadcasting at very low power and low cost to a small community area Other LPFM stations have been similarly threatened REC Networks has filed a petition with the FCC that would, among other things, require the FCC to give higher priority to LPFM stations. 
Eventually, the problem with "application spam" from "religiocasting" distant translator networks became sufficiently severe that the FCC issued an emergency hold order on new translator applications until the present batch can be sorted through; this came after considerable criticism from LPFM lobbyist groups such as Prometheus Radio.  There is at least one proposed rulemaking that would revise the procedures by which nonprofit groups may apply for translators (thus closing the "distant translator" loophole); in addition, the FCC has modified channel requirements for LPFM broadcasters to open up channel space. 
In the meantime, though, there are still areas (including major metro areas) with no available FM spectrum for LPFM due to large distant translator networks (for example, Chicago IL and list of issued licenses which contain several Calvary Chapel and Educational Media Foundation stations; Atlanta, GA and list of issued licenses which contain Way-FM (associated with K-Love and Salem Communications) and Edgewater Broadcasting stations; Dallas, TX and list of issued licenses which show Calvary Satellite Network and American Family Radio; even Louisville, KY  and Knoxville, TN; both small market areas, have a complete lack of LPFM channels due to distant translator invasion by Calvary Chapel and Way-FM translators in particular).