Relativistic jets are extremely powerful jets of plasma which emerge from the centers of some active galaxies, notably radio galaxies and quasars. An active galactic nucleus ( AGN) is a compact region at the centre of a Galaxy which has a much higher than normal luminosity over some or all of the Electromagnetic Special relativity (SR (also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the Physical theory of Measurement in Inertial In Physics and Chemistry, plasma is an Ionized Gas, in which a certain proportion of Electrons are free rather than being bound A supermassive black hole is a Black hole with a Mass of an order of magnitude between 105 and 1 In Physics and Chemistry, plasma is an Ionized Gas, in which a certain proportion of Electrons are free rather than being bound An active galactic nucleus ( AGN) is a compact region at the centre of a Galaxy which has a much higher than normal luminosity over some or all of the Electromagnetic Radio galaxies and their relatives radio-loud Quasars and Blazars, are types of Active galaxy that are very luminous at radio wavelengths (up A quasar (contraction of QUASi-stellAR radio source) is an extremely powerful and distant Active galactic nucleus. Their lengths can reach several thousand or even hundreds of thousands of light years.  It is believed that the twisting of magnetic fields in the accretion disk collimates the outflow along the rotation axis of the central object, so that when conditions are suitable, a jet will emerge from each face of the accretion disk. An accretion disc (or accretion disk) is a structure (often a Circumstellar disk) formed by diffuse material in orbital motion around a central body Collimated light is Light whose rays are nearly parallel and therefore will spread slowly as it propagates If the jet is oriented along the line of sight to earth, relativistic beaming will change its apparent brightness. Relativistic beaming is the process by which the relativistic effect modifies the apparent luminosity of a Relativistic jet. The mechanisms for the creation of jets and the composition of jets are still a matter of much debate in the scientific community. It is believed that the jets are composed of an electrically neutral mixture of electrons, positrons and protons in some proportion. The electron is a fundamental Subatomic particle that was identified and assigned the negative charge in 1897 by J The positrons or antielectron is the Antiparticle or the Antimatter counterpart of the Electron. The proton ( Greek πρῶτον / proton "first" is a Subatomic particle with an Electric charge of one positive
Similar jets, though on a much smaller scale, can develop around the accretion disks of neutron stars and stellar black holes. A neutron star is a type of remnant that can result from the Gravitational collapse of a massive Star during a Type II, Type Ib or Type A stellar black hole is a Black hole formed by the Gravitational collapse of a massive Star (20 or more Solar masses, though the exact amount These systems are often called microquasars. A famous example is SS433, whose well-observed jet has a velocity of 0. SS 433 is one of the most exotic Star systems observed It is an eclipsing X-ray binary system, with the primary most likely a 23c, although other microquasars appear to have much higher (but less well measured) jet velocities. Even weaker and less-relativistic jets may be associated with many binary systems; the acceleration mechanism for these jets may be similar to the magnetic reconnection processes observed in the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind. Magnetic reconnection is the process whereby magnetic field lines from different magnetic domains are spliced to one another changing their patterns of connectivity with respect to the A magnetosphere' is a highly magnetized region around and possessed by an Astronomical object. The solar wind is a Stream of charged particles&mdasha plasma &mdashthat are ejected from the upper atmosphere of the Sun.
It is believed that the formation of relativistic jets is the key to explaining the production of gamma-ray bursts. Gamma-ray bursts ( GRB s are the most luminous electromagnetic events occurring in the Universe since the Big Bang. These jets have Lorentz factors of ~ 100, making them one of the fastest celestial objects currently known. The Lorentz factor or Lorentz term appears in several equations in Special relativity, including Time dilation, Length contraction, and the
Because of the enormous amount of energy needed to launch a relativistic jet, some jets are thought to be powered by spinning black holes. A black hole is a theoretical region of space in which the Gravitational field is so powerful that nothing not even Electromagnetic radiation (e There are two competing theories for how the energy is transferred from the black hole to the jet.