|Red Army invasion of Georgia|
The Transcaucasus Campaign of 1921. The South Caucasus is a mountainous geopolitical area of south-central Eurasia, also referred to as Transcaucasia, or The Transcaucasus. Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar
| Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic,|
Republic of Turkey
|Democratic Republic of Georgia|
| Anatoli Gekker,|
|~50,000 (Russia's Red Army),|
~20,000 (Turkey's Third Army)
|Casualties and losses|
|Unknown, dead estimated at 5,500 Soviet soldiers||Unknown, dead estimated at 3,000-7,000 Georgians|
The Red Army invasion of Georgia also known as the Soviet-Georgian War (February 15 – March 17, 1921) was a military campaign by the Soviet Russian (RSFSR) Red Army against the Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG) aimed at overthrowing the local Social-Democratic (Menshevik) government and installing the Bolshevik regime in the country. The South Caucasus is a mountainous geopolitical area of south-central Eurasia, also referred to as Transcaucasia, or The Transcaucasus. The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (საქართველოს საბჭოთასოციალისტური რესპუბლიკა Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The Democratic Republic of Georgia ( DRG; Georgian: საქართველოს დემოკრატიული რესპუბლიკა Sakartvelos Anatoli Ilyich Gekker (Анатолий Ильич Геккер ( August 25, 1888 – July 1, 1937) was a Soviet military commander Mikhail Dmitrievich Velikanov (Михаил Дмитриевич Великанов ( December 27, 1892 – July 27, 1938) was a Soviet Grigoriy Konstantinovich Ordzhonikidze (გრიგოლ (სერგო ორჯონიკიძე - Grigol (Sergo Orjonikidze Russian: Григорий Константинович Musa Kâzım Karabekir (1882 İstanbul – January 26, 1948, Ankara) was a Turkish general and politician Giorgi Kvinitadze (გიორგი კვინიტაძე Георгий Иванович Квинитадзе Georgy Ivanovich Kvinitadze; his real surname was Giorgi Mazniashvili (გიორგი მაზნიაშვილი (1872 -1937 was a Georgian general and one of the most prominent military figures in the Democratic Vladimir “Valiko” Jugheli (ვალიკო ჯუღელი ( January 1, 1887 - January 9, 1924) was a Georgian politician The Red Army ( Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия R aboche- K rest'yanskaya K rasnaya A rmiya The Turkish Third Army is the country's largest army In the days of the Soviet Union and the Third Army was stationed on the Caucasus border to counter any Warsaw Pact Events 590 - Khosrau II is crowned as king of Persia 1637 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar The Red Army ( Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия R aboche- K rest'yanskaya K rasnaya A rmiya The Democratic Republic of Georgia ( DRG; Georgian: საქართველოს დემოკრატიული რესპუბლიკა Sakartvelos The Social Democratic Party of Georgia was a leading political party in pre- Soviet Georgia The Mensheviks (Minority (Меньшевик) were a faction of the Russian Revolutionary movement that emerged in 1903 after a dispute between Vladimir The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction The conflict was a result of expansionist policy by the Soviets, who aimed at control of the same territories, which had been part of Imperial Russia until the turbulent events of World War I, as well as the revolutionary efforts of mostly Russia-based Georgian Bolshevik elite, who did not enjoy sufficient support in their native country to seize power without foreign intervention. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between 
Independence of the DRG had been recognized by Russia in the May 7, 1920 treaty and the invasion of Georgia was not universally agreed upon in Moscow. Events 558 - In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar The Treaty of Moscow (Московский договор Moskovskiy dogovor, მოსკოვის ხელშეკრულება Moskovis khelshekruleba Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of It was largely engineered by two influential Georgia-born Soviet officials – Joseph Stalin and Grigoriy (Sergo) Ordzhonikidze, who obtained, on February 14, 1921, a consent of the Soviet leader, Vladimir Lenin, to advance into Georgia on the pretext of supporting the "peasants and workers rebellion" in the country. Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party Grigoriy Konstantinovich Ordzhonikidze (გრიგოლ (სერგო ორჯონიკიძე - Grigol (Sergo Orjonikidze Russian: Григорий Константинович Events 842 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar The Soviet forces took the Georgian capital Tbilisi (then known as Tiflis to most non-Georgian speakers) after heavy fighting and declared the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic on February 25, 1921. Tbilisi (ˌtbiˈliːsi in Georgian: თბილისი is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mt'k'vari Georgian (ka ქართული ენა kartuli ena) is the Official language of Georgia, a country in the Caucasus. The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (საქართველოს საბჭოთასოციალისტური რესპუბლიკა Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor The rest of the country was overrun within three weeks, but it was not until September 1924 that the Soviet rule was firmly established. Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Almost simultaneous occupation of a large portion of southwest Georgia by Turkey (February-March 1921) threatened to develop into a crisis between Moscow and Ankara and led to significant territorial concessions by the Soviets to the Turkish National Government in the Treaty of Kars. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after İstanbul. The Treaty of Kars (Kars Antlaşması Карсский договор / Karskiy dogovor) was a friendship treaty between the Grand National Assembly of Turkey
Georgia effectively wrested out of Russian control in the chaotic aftermath of the February Revolution in Russia in 1917. The February Revolution (Февральская революция in 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year After an abortive attempt to unite with Armenia and Azerbaijan into a federative state, Georgian leaders proclaimed the country’s independence as the Democratic Republic of Georgia on May 26, 1918. Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Azerbaijan ( English; Azərbaycan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası is the largest and most populous country in the South The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TDFR Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Республика (ЗКДФР Zakavkazskaya Events 451 - The Battle of Avarayr between Armenian rebels and the Sassanid Empire takes place Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Through sporadic conflicts with its neighbors and occasional outbreaks of civil strife, Georgia managed to maintain its precarious independence and achieved more or less firm control over its newly established borders in the troubled years of the Russian Civil War. The Russian Civil War (1917–1923 was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed
Despite relatively high public support and some successful reforms, the Social Democratic leadership of Georgia failed to create a stable economy and build a strong and disciplined army that could be able to oppose the easily predictable Bolshevik advent. Although there were a significant number of highly qualified officers who had served in the Imperial Russian military, the army was underfed and poorly equipped. The Military history of Imperial Russia encompasses the period of warfare in which Russian Empire ground, naval and air forces participated from its creation A parallel military structure, the People’s Guard of Georgia, was recruited from the members of the Menshevik Party, and was hence more honored and disciplined, but dominated by party functionaries and highly politicized.
Since early 1920, the local Bolsheviks were actively fomenting political unrest in Georgia, capitalizing on agrarian disturbances in rural areas and inter-ethnic tensions within the country. Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar The operational centre of the Soviet military-political forces in the Caucasus was the Kavburo (Caucasian Bureau), attached to the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party. The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East The Central Committee, abbreviated in Russian as ЦК, "Tse-ka" was the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU Set up in February 1920, this body was presided by the Georgian Bolshevik Grigoriy Ordzhonikidze, with Sergei Kirov as his deputy. Grigoriy Konstantinovich Ordzhonikidze (გრიგოლ (სერგო ორჯონიკიძე - Grigol (Sergo Orjonikidze Russian: Григорий Константинович Sergei Mironovich Kirov (Серге́й Миро́нович Ки́ров ( &ndash December 1, 1934) was a prominent early Bolshevik leader whose assassination While the Allied powers were preoccupied with the Turkish War of Independence, the Sovietization of the Caucasus appeared to the Bolshevik leaders an easier task. The Entente Powers (from Triple Entente) were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı May 19, 1919 October 29, 1923) refers to the political and military resistance developed Sovietization is term that may be used with two distinct (but related meanings the adoption of a political system based on the model of soviets (workers' councils  Furthermore, the Ankara-based Turkish national government led by Kemal Pasha expressed its full commitment to a close co-operation with Moscow, promising to compel "Georgia… and Azerbaijan… to enter into union with Soviet Russia… and… to undertake military operations against the expansionist Armenia. Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after İstanbul. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 &ndash 10 November 1938 was an army officer revolutionary Statesman " The Soviet leadership successfully exploited the situation and send in its army to occupy Baku, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan. Baku (Bakı sometimes known as Baqy, Baky, Baki or Bakü, is the capital the largest city and the largest port of Azerbaijan The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic ( ADR; Azərbaycan Xalq Cümhuriyyəti was the first Democratic and Secular Republic in the Muslim world
Following the establishment of Soviet rule in Baku in April 1920, Ordzhonikidze, acting most probably on his own initiative, advanced on Georgia to support a planned Bolshevik coup in Tbilisi. The coup failed, however, allowing the government to concentrate all forces on successfully blocking the advance of Russian troops on the Georgian-Azerbaijani border. Facing an uneasy war with Poland, the Soviet Russian leader, Vladimir Lenin, ordered to start negotiations with Georgia. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland In the Treaty of Moscow signed on May 7, 1920, Soviet Russia recognized Georgia’s independence and concluded a non-aggression pact. The Treaty of Moscow (Московский договор Moskovskiy dogovor, მოსკოვის ხელშეკრულება Moskovis khelshekruleba Events 558 - In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar The treaty de jure established the existing borders between the two nations and obliged Georgia to surrender all third-party elements considered hostile by Moscow. Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of In a secret supplement, Georgia promised to legalize the local Bolshevik party. 
Despite the peace treaty, an eventual overthrow of the Menshevik-dominated government of Georgia was both intended and planned.  With its well-established diplomatic ties with several European nations and its control of strategic transit routes from the Black Sea to the Caspian, Georgia was viewed by the Soviet leadership as “an advance post of the Entente”. The Entente Powers (from Triple Entente) were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. Another reason why it was thought impossible to allow the Georgian government to stay in power was the Bolsheviks’ desire to take revenge on the Russian Mensheviks in European exile whose anti-Soviet propaganda could not so easily be silenced. Anti-Sovietism and Anti-Soviet refer to persons and activities actually or allegedly aimed against the Soviet Union or the Soviet power within the Soviet 
The cessation of Red Army operations against Poland, the defeat of the White Russian leader Wrangel and the fall of the Democratic Republic of Armenia provided a favorable situation to suppress the last independent nation in the Caucasus to resist Soviet control. The White movement (Beloie Dvijenie Белое движение whose military arm is known as the White Army (Belaia Armia Белая Армия or White Guard Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel (Пётр Николаевич Врангель (Peter von Wrangel ( August 15, 1878, Zarasai, Lithuania (then The Democratic Republic of Armenia ( DRA; Armenian: Դեմոկրատական Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East  By that time, the British expeditionary corps had completely evacuated the Caucasus and the West was reluctant to intervene in support of Georgia. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings
However, Russian military intervention was not universally agreed upon in Moscow and there was considerable disagreement among the Bolshevik leaders on how to deal with the southern neighbor. The People's Commissar of Nationalities Affairs, Joseph Stalin, who had, by the end of the Civil War, already accumulated a remarkable amount of bureaucratic power in his own hands, took a particularly hard line with his native Georgia, strongly supporting a military overthrow of the Georgian government and continuously urging Lenin to give his consent to advance into Georgia. Council of Ministers of the USSR (Совет Министров СССР tr Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party The People's Commissar of War, Leon Trotsky, strongly disagreed with what he described as a “premature intervention” explaining that the population would be able to carry the revolution. Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij Pursuant to his national policy on the right of nations to self-determination, Lenin had initially rejected use of force, calling for extreme caution in order to ensure that the Russian factor would help and not dominate the Georgian revolution. Self-determination is defined as free choice of one’s own acts without external compulsion and especially as the freedom of the people of a given Territory to determine their  However, as victory in the Civil War drew ever closer, Moscow’s actions became less restrained and, for many Bolsheviks, self-determination was increasingly "a diplomatic game which has to be played in certain cases". 
According to Moscow, relations with Georgia deteriorated over alleged violations of the peace treaty, re-arrests of Georgian Bolsheviks, obstruction of the passage of convoys passing through to Armenia, and a suspicion that Georgia was aiding armed rebels in the North Caucasus. The North Caucasus, also Ciscaucasus, Ciscaucasia or Forecaucasia, is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe 
The tactics used by the Soviets to gain control of Georgia were similar to those applied in Azerbaijan and Armenia in 1920, i. e. , to send in the Red Army while encouraging local Bolsheviks to stage unrest. However, this policy was rather difficult to implement in Georgia, where the Communist party did not enjoy popular support and remained an isolated political force.
On the night of 11 to 12 February 1921, with the instigation of Ordzhonikidze, the Bolsheviks attacked local Georgian military posts in the ethnic Armenian district of Lorri and the nearby village of Shulaveri, near the Armenian and Azerbaijani borders. Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Events 1429 - English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orleans from attack by the The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large The Armenia-based Red Army units quickly came to an aid of the insurrection, though without Moscow's formal approval.  When the Georgian government protested to the Soviet envoy in Tbilisi, Aron Sheinman, about the incidents, he denied any Russian involvement and declared that any disturbances which might be taking place must be a spontaneous revolt by the Armenian communists.  Meanwhile, the Bolsheviks had already set up a Georgian Revolutionary Committee (Georgian Revkom) in Shulaveri, a body that would soon acquire the functions of a rival government. Revolutionary committees or revkoms (Революционный комитет ревком were Bolshevik -led organizations in Soviet Russia and in areas Chaired by a Georgian Bolshevik Filipp Makharadze, the Revkom formally applied to Moscow for help. Filipp Makaradze ( Georgian: ფილიპე მახარაძე Russian: Филипп Махарадзе (1868–1941 was President of the Georgian
Disturbances erupted also in the town of Dusheti and among Ossetians in northeast Georgia who resented the Georgian government’s refusal to grant them autonomy. Dusheti (დუშეთი is a town in Georgia, situated in the Mtskheta-Mtianeti region, 54 km northeast of the nation’s capital of Tbilisi Georgian forces managed to contain the disorders in some areas, but the preparations for a Soviet intervention were already being set in train. When the Georgian army moved to Lorri to crush the revolt, Lenin finally gave in to the repeated requests of Stalin and Ordzhonikidze to allow the Red Army to invade Georgia, on the pretext of aiding a staged uprising, and establish Bolshevik power. An ultimate decision was made on the February 14 meeting of the Central Committee of the Communist Party:
|“||The Central Committee is inclined to allow the 11th Army to give active support to the uprising in Georgia and to occupy Tiflis provided that international norms are observed, and on condition that all members of the Military Revolutionary Council of the Eleventh Army, after a thorough review of all information, guarantee success. Events 842 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German The Central Committee, abbreviated in Russian as ЦК, "Tse-ka" was the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU We give warning that we are having to go without bread for want of transport and that we shall therefore not let you have a single locomotive or railway track. We are compelled to transport nothing from the Caucasus but grain and oil. We require an immediate answer by direct line signed by all members of the Military Revolutionary Council of the Eleventh Army. ||”|
Yet, the decision to support the invasion was not unanimous. It was opposed by Karl Radek and was held secret from Trotsky who was in the Ural area at that time. Karl Berngardovich Radek ( October 31, 1885 - May 19, 1939) was a socialist active in the Polish and German Ural (Ура́л is a geographical region around the Ural Mountains, mostly within Russia but also including a part of northwestern Kazakstan.  The latter was so upset by the news of the Central Committee decision and Ordzhonikidze’s role in engineering it that on his return to Moscow he demanded, though fruitlessly, the set up of a special party commission to investigate the affair.  Later Trotsky would reconcile himself to the accomplished fact and even defended the invasion in a special pamphlet. 
At dawn on February 16, the main 11th Red Army troops under Anatoli Gekker crossed into Georgia and started the Tiflis Operation aimed at capturing the capital of Georgia. Events 1249 - Andrew of Longjumeau is dispatched by Louis IX of France as his ambassador to meet with the Khan of the Mongols Anatoli Ilyich Gekker (Анатолий Ильич Геккер ( August 25, 1888 – July 1, 1937) was a Soviet military commander At the battle on the Khrami River, the Georgian border forces under General Stephan Akhmeteli were overwhelmed and suffered a defeat. The Khrami River (ხრამი is a 201 km-long river in eastern Georgia, the right tributary to the Mtkvari River (Kura Retreating westward, the Georgian commander General Tsulukidze blew up railway bridges and demolished roads in an effort to delay the enemy’s advance. Simultaneously, Red Army units marched to Georgia from the north through the Daryal and Mamisoni passes and along the Black Sea coast towards Sukhumi. The Darial Gorge (Дарьял დარიალის ხეობა Darielis Kheoba) is the gorge on the border between Russia and Georgia. Mamison Pass (Мамисонский перевал მამისონის უღელტეხილი is a high mountainous pass in the central Greater Caucasus crest The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey Sukhumi, also spelled as Sukhum ( Abkhaz: Аҟəа Aqwa; სოხუმი Sokhumi, Сухуми/Сухум is the capital While these events were proceeding, the Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs issued a series of statements disclaiming all knowledge of military actions between Georgia and the Red Army, and professing willingness to mediate in any disputes which have arisen within Georgia. This page lists foreign ministers of Russian Empire, Soviet Union, and Russian Federation: Heads of Posolsky Prikaz, 1549-1699 
By February 17, the Soviet infantry and cavalry divisions supported by aviation had significantly advanced to the Georgian capital, less than 15 kilometers southwest. Events 1500 - Battle of Hemmingstedt. 1600 - Philosopher Giordano Bruno is burned alive at Campo de' Fiori The Georgian army put up a stubborn fight in defense of the approaches to Tbilisi, which they held for a week in the face of overwhelming forces of the Red Army. The strategic heights of Kojori and Tabakhmela passed from hands to hands from February 18 to February 20, when the Georgian forces under General Giorgi Mazniashvili rolled back the Red Army units which suffered heavy losses and started regrouping in an attempt to squeeze the circle around Tbilisi. Kojori (კოჯორი is a Townlet ( daba) in Georgia, some 20 kilometers southwest of the nation’s capital of Tbilisi. Tabaxmela ( Georgian: ტაბახმელა ( Dry Lake - Tba-Lake Khmeli-dry is a Village in the Kartli region in Tbilisi Events 3102 BC - Epoch (origin of the Kali Yuga. 1229 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II Holy Events 1472 - Orkney and Shetland are left by Norway to Scotland, due to a Dowry payment Giorgi Mazniashvili (გიორგი მაზნიაშვილი (1872 -1937 was a Georgian general and one of the most prominent military figures in the Democratic By February 23, the railway bridges had been restored and Soviet tanks and armored trains joined the main Red Army troops into a renewed assault on the capital. Events 1455 - Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western Book printed from Movable A tank is a tracked, Armoured fighting vehicle designed for Front-line combat which combines Operational mobility and tactical An armoured train is a Train protected with armour. Usually they are equipped with Railroad cars armed with Artillery and Machine guns While the armored trains laid down suppressing fire, the tanks and infantry penetrated the Georgian positions on the Kojori heights.  On February 24, the Georgian commander-in-chief, Giorgi Kvinitadze, in an untenable position, bowed to the inevitable and ordered a withdrawal to save his army form complete encirclement and the city from destruction. Events 303 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Giorgi Kvinitadze (გიორგი კვინიტაძე Георгий Иванович Квинитадзе Georgy Ivanovich Kvinitadze; his real surname was The Georgian government and Constituent Assembly evacuated for Kutaisi, western Georgia. A constituent assembly is a body elected with the purpose of drafting and in some cases adopting a Constitution.
On February 25, the triumphant Red Army entered Tbilisi and the Bolshevik soldiers engaged in wide-spread looting. Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor  The Revkom headed by Mamia Orakhelashvili and Shalva Eliava ventured into the capital and proclaimed the overthrow of the Menshevik government, the dissolution of the Georgian National Army and People’s Guard, and the formation of a Georgian Soviet Republic. Revolutionary committees or revkoms (Революционный комитет ревком were Bolshevik -led organizations in Soviet Russia and in areas Mamia Orakhelashvili (მამია ორახელაშვილი Иван (Мамия Дмитриевич Орахелашвили Ivan (Mamia Dmitrievich Orakhelashvili Shalva Eliava (შალვა ელიავა Шалва Зурабович Элиава Shalva Zurabovich Eliava) ( September 18 1883 – December The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (საქართველოს საბჭოთასოციალისტური რესპუბლიკა On the same day, in Moscow, Lenin received the congratulations of his commissars – "The red banner blows over Tbilisi. Long live Soviet Georgia!"
The Georgian commanders planned to concentrate their forces at the town of Mtskheta, northwest to Tbilisi, and to continue battle on the new lines of defense. Mtskheta (მცხეთა one of the oldest cities of the country of Georgia (in Kartli province of Eastern Georgia is located approximately 20 kilometers northeast The fall of the capital, however, heavily demoralized the Georgian troops who had finally to abandon their positions at Mtskheta. The army was gradually disintegrating as it continued its retreat westward, offering largely unorganized, but sometimes fierce resistance to the advancing Russian troops. It took another two weeks to the Soviets to take hold of major cities and towns of eastern Georgia.
The Mensheviks entertained hopes of aid from a French naval squadron cruising in the Black Sea off the Georgian coast. The French Navy, officially the Marine nationale ( National Navy) and often called La Royale ( The Royal Navy) is the maritime arm  On February 28, The French even opened fire on the 31st Rifle Division of the 9th Red Army under V. Events 202 BC - coronation ceremony of Liu Bang as Emperor Gaozu of Han takes place initiating four centuries of the Han Dynasty 's rule Chernishev operating at the coast, but did not land troops. Yet the Georgians managed to regain control of the coastal town of Gagra. Gagra ( Abkhaz and Russian: Гагра გაგრა is a town in Abkhazia, the breakaway republic Their success was temporary, however, and the Soviet forces joined by the Abkhaz peasant militias, Kyaraz, succeeded in taking Gagra on March 1, New Athos on March 3 and Sukhumi on March 4, and advanced eastward to occupy Zugdidi on March 9 and Poti on March 14. The Abkhazians or Abkhaz ( Abkhaz: Аҧсуа Apswa; Georgian: აფხაზი Aphkhazi) are a Caucasian Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant New Athos (Афон Ҿыц Afon Tshyts, ახალი ათონი Akhali Atoni, Новый Афон Events 1284 - Statute of Rhuddlan incorporated the Principality of Wales into England 1575 - Indian Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Zugdidi ( Georgian and Mingrelian: ზუგდიდი is a city in the Western Georgian historical province of Mingrelia (Samegrelo. Events 590 - Bahram Chobin is crowned as king Barham VI of Persia. Poti (ფოთი is a Port city in Georgia, located on the eastern Black Sea coast in the region of Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti Events 1489 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice.
The Georgians’ attempt of holding out near Kutaisi was further dashed by the surprise advance of a Red Army detachment from North Caucasia which traversed the virtually impermeable Mamisoni Pass through deep snow drifts and advanced down the Rioni Valley. Kutaisi (ქუთაისი ancient names Aea / Aia, Kutatisi, Kutaïssi) is Georgia 's second largest city and the capital of the Phasis redirects here For the Butterfly Genus, see Phasis (butterfly. After a bloody clash at Surami on March 5 1921, the 11th Red Army also crossed the Likhi Range into the western part of the country. Surami (სურამი is a Townlet ( daba) in Georgia ’s Shida Kartli region with the population of 9800 (2002 Georgia Census Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90000 to attack the Sassanid Empire, in a Likhi Range or Surami Range is a Mountain range in Georgia, a part of the Caucasus mountains. On March 10, the Soviet forces entered Kutaisi, which had been abandoned by the Georgian leadership, army and People’s Guard to the key Black Sea port city of Batumi in southwest Georgia. Events 241 BC - First Punic War: Battle of the Aegates Islands - The Romans sink the Carthaginian fleet bringing Batumi (ბათუმი formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and Capital of Adjara, an Autonomous Part of the Georgian forces withdrew into the mountains and continued to fight.
On February 23, ten days after the Red Army began its march on Tbilisi, Kazım Karabekir, the Turkish commander in Western Armenia, issued an ultimatum demanding the evacuation of Ardahan and Artvin by Georgia. Events 1455 - Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western Book printed from Movable Musa Kâzım Karabekir (1882 İstanbul – January 26, 1948, Ankara) was a Turkish general and politician Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches This article is about the historical subregion in Eurasia See Armenian Highland for the geographical region Ardahan (Արդահան Ардаган არტაანი is a city in northeastern Turkey on the Georgian border Artvin is a city in northeastern Turkey on the Çoruh River near the Georgian border The Mensheviks, under fire from both sides, had to accede and the Turkish forces advanced into Georgia, occupying the frontier areas. This brought the Turkish army within a short distance of still Georgian-held Batumi and as the Red Army’s 18th Cavalry Division under Dmitri Zhloba approached the city, created the circumstances for a possible armed clash. Dmitri Petrovich Zhloba (Дмитрий Петрович Жлоба ( June 3, 1887 – June 10, 1938) was a Soviet military commander The Mensheviks hoped to use these circumstances and reached, on March 7, a verbal agreement with Karabekir, permitting the Turkish army to enter the city while leaving the government of Georgia in control of its civil administration.  On March 8, Turkish troops under Colonel Kizim-Bey took up defensive positions surrounding the city, leading to a crisis with Soviet Russia. Georgy Chicherin, Soviet People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs, submitted a protest note to Ali Fuat Pasha, the Turkish representative in Moscow. Georgy Vasilyevich Chicherin (Георгий Васильевич Чичерин ( 7 July 1936) was a Marxist revolutionary and a Soviet politician Council of Ministers of the USSR (Совет Министров СССР tr In response Ali Fuat handed two notes to the Soviet government. The Turkish notes claimed that the Turkish armies were just providing security to the local Muslim elements which were put under threat by the Soviet military operations in the region. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion 
By that time, despite Moscow’s military successes, the situation in the Caucasus front became very precarious. Armenians, aided by the Red Army involvement in Georgia, had revolted, retaking Yerevan on February 18, 1921. Yerevan (Երևան Երեւան or Երեվան ˌjɛrəˈvɑːn sometimes written as Erevan, Iravan, Erewan, Ayrivan, and Erivan In the North Caucasus, Dagestani rebels continued to fight the Soviets. The North Caucasus, also Ciscaucasus, Ciscaucasia or Forecaucasia, is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe The Republic of Dagestan dæɡɪˈstɑːn (IntEng ˈdeɪɡəstæn (AmEng (Респу́блика Дагеста́н Дагъистанлъул ДжумхIурият Daɣistanłul The Turkish occupation of Georgia’s territories implied the near certainty of a Soviet-Turkish confrontation and the Georgians repeatedly refused to capitulate. Lenin, who feared an unfavourable outcome of the Georgian campaign, sent, on March 2, his "warm greetings to Soviet Georgia" but clearly revealed his desire to bring hostilities to an end as quickly as possible. He emphasized the "tremendous importance of devising an acceptable compromise for a bloc" with the Georgian Mensheviks. On March 8, the Georgian Revkom reluctantly proposed a coalition government, but the Mensheviks refused. 
However, when the Turkish authorities proclaimed the annexation of Batumi on March 16, the Georgian government was forced to make a choice. Their hopes for French or British intervention had already vanished as France never considered sending an expeditionary force and the United Kingdom ordered the Royal Navy not to intervene. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) Furthermore, on March 16, the British and Soviet governments signed a trade agreement, in which Prime Minister Lloyd George effectively promised to refrain from anti-Soviet activities in all territories of the former Russian Empire. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom David Lloyd George 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor OM, PC (17 January 1863 &ndash 26 March 1945 was a British Statesman and the only Simultaneously, a treaty of friendship was signed in Moscow between Soviet Russia and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, whereby Ardahan and Artvin were awarded to Turkey, which renounced its claims to Batumi. The Treaty of Moscow or Treaty of Brotherhood was a friendship treaty between Grand National Assembly of Turkey (TBMM under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi - TBMM, usually referred to simply as Meclis - "the Parliament" is the Unicameral
The Turks were reluctant to evacuate Batumi and continued its occupation, however. The Georgian leaders quite ready, rather than have the Turks take Batumi, to see it occupied by the Bolsheviks agreed on talks with the Revkom to prevent Georgia's permanent loss of the city. In Kutaisi, the Georgian Defense Minister Grigol Lordkipanidze and the Soviet plenipotentiary Avel Enukidze arranged an armistice on March 17 and then, on March 18, an agreement which allowed the Red Army to advance in force to Batumi. Grigol Lordkipanidze (გრიგოლ ლორთქიფანიძე ( September 2 1881 - September 2 1937) was a Georgian Avel Safronovich Enukidze ( &ndash October 30, 1937) a prominent " Old Bolshevik " and at one point a member of the Soviet Central Committee
Amid the ongoing Turkish-Soviet consultations in Moscow, the armistice with the Mensheviks allowed the Bolsheviks to act indirectly from behind the scene, through several thousand soldiers of the Georgian National Army mobilized at the outskirts of Batumi and inclined to fight for the city. On March 18, the Georgians under General Mazniashvili engaged in a heavy street fighting with the Turkish garrison. While the battle raged, the Menshevik government boarded an Italian vessel and sailed into exile escorted by French warships. The Regia Marina ( Italian Royal Navy) dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 after Italian unification. Fighting ended on March 19 with the port and most of the city in the Georgian hands. On the same day, Mazniashvili surrendered the city to the Revkom and Zhloba’s cavalry entered Batumi to reinforce the Bolshevik authority there.
The sanguinary events in Batumi halted the Russian-Turkish negotiations, and it was not until September 26 when the talks between Turkey and the Soviets, nominally including also the representatives of the Armenian, Azerbaijani and Georgian SSRs, finally reopened in Kars. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar dedicates a The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (Հայկական ՍովետականՍոցիալիստական Հանրապետություն Haykakan Sovetakan Sotsialistakan Hanrapetutyun This article is about the former Soviet republic for other similar uses see Azerbaijan (disambiguation. The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (საქართველოს საბჭოთასოციალისტური რესპუბლიკა Kars may refer to Kars Turkey Kars Province, Turkey Kars Oblast, Russian Empire Kars Province The Treaty of Kars, signed on October 13, contained the provisions agreed upon in March and some other new territorial settlements just reached. The Treaty of Kars (Kars Antlaşması Карсский договор / Karskiy dogovor) was a friendship treaty between the Grand National Assembly of Turkey Events 54 - Nero ascends to the Roman throne 409 - Vandals and Alans crossed the Pyrenees In exchange for Artvin, Ardahan, and Kars, Turkey abandoned its claims to Batumi, whose largely Muslim Georgian population was to be granted autonomy within the Georgian SSR. The Adjar ASSR, Adzhar ASSR or Adjarian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union within the Georgian SSR 
Despite the Georgian government’s emigration and the demobilization of the National Army, pockets of guerilla resistance still remained in the mountains and some rural areas. The Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG continued to function as the Government in exile (National Government of Georgia NGG after the Soviet The invasion of Georgia brought about serious controversies among the Bolsheviks themselves. The newly established Communist government initially offered unexpectedly mild terms to their former opponents who still remained in the country. Lenin also favored a policy of conciliation in Georgia, where a pro-Bolshevik revolt did not enjoy the popular backing claimed for it, and the population was solidly anti-Bolshevik.  In 1922, a strong public resentment over the forcible Sovietization indirectly reflected in the opposition of Soviet Georgian authorities to Moscow’s centralizing policies promoted by Dzerzhinsky, Stalin and Ordzhonikidze. Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky ( Polish: Feliks Edmundowicz Dzierżyński, Russian: Феликс Эдмундович Дзержинский Belarusian The problem, known in modern history writing as the "Georgian Affair", was to become one of the major points at issue between Stalin and Trotsky in the last years of Lenin's leadership and found its reflection in "Lenin's Political Testament". The Georgian Affair of 1922 (Грузинское дело was a political conflict within the Soviet leadership about the way in which social and political transformation was Lenin's Testament is the name given to a document written by Vladimir Lenin in the last weeks of 1922 and the first week of 1923 
The world largely neglected the violent Soviet takeover of Georgia. On March 27 1921, the exiled Georgian leadership issued an appeal from their temporary offices in Istanbul to "all socialist parties and workers' organizations" of the world, protesting against the invasion of Georgia. Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey The appeal went unheeded, though. Beyond passionate editorials in some Western newspapers and calls for action from such Georgian sympathizers as Sir Oliver Wardrop, the international response to the events in Georgia was silence. Sir John Oliver Wardrop, KBE, CMG (1864-1948 was a British diplomat traveller and translator primarily known as the United Kingdom's first Chief 
In Georgia, an intellectual resistance to the Bolshevik regime and occasional outbreaks of guerilla warfare evolved into a major rebellion in August 1924. The August Uprising (აგვისტოს აჯანყება agvistos adjank’eba) was an unsuccessful Insurrection against the Soviet rule Its failure and the ensuing wave of large-scale repressions orchestrated by the emerging Soviet security officer, Lavrentiy Beria, heavily demoralized the Georgian society and exterminated its most active pro-independence part. Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (ლავრენტი პავლეს ძე ბერია Lavrenti Pavles dze Beria; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Within a week, from August 29 to September 5, 1924, 12,578 people, chiefly nobles and intellectuals, were executed and over 20,000 exiled to Siberia. Events 708 - Copper coins are minted in Japan for the first time (Traditional Japanese date: August 10, 708) Events 1590 - Alexander Farnese 's army forces Henry IV of France to raise the siege of Paris. Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving  From that time, no major overt attempt was made to challenge Soviet authority in the country until a new generation of anti-Soviet movements emerged in the late 1970s. This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970.
Soviet historians considered the Soviet-Georgian conflict a part of the Civil War and Foreign Intervention. Soviet historiography is the history of the academic study of history as written by scholars of the Soviet Union. The Russian Civil War (1917–1923 was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed The Allied intervention was a multi-national military expedition launched in 1918 during the Russian Civil War and World War I The Red Army invasion, according to an official Soviet version, was in response to a plea for help that followed an armed rebellion by Georgia’s peasants and workers. Using its control over education and the media, the Soviet Union successfully created an image of a popular socialist revolution. Most Georgian historians were not allowed to consult Spetskhran, special restricted access library collections and archival reserves that also covered the "unacceptable" events in Soviet history, particularly those that could be interpreted imperialist or contradicted a concept of a popular uprising against the Menshevik government. Spetskhran (Спецхран an abbreviation for "Special Storage Section" отдел специального хранения were limited access collections and archival 
The 1980s wave of Gorbachev's Glasnost ("publicity") policy refuted an old Soviet version of the 1921-4 events. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ( Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov;; born 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye Stavropol Krai) is a Russian politician (Гла́сность)is literally defined as publicity and sometimes figuratively interpreted as "tipping a vase to let someone see into the vase but not the bottom of the vase" The first Soviet historian, who attempted, in 1988, to revise the hitherto commonly accepted interpretation of the Soviet-Georgian war, was a notable Georgian scholar, Akaki Surguladze, ironically the same historian whose 1982 monograph described the alleged Georgian worker revolt as a truly historical event. Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) Akaki Surguladze (აკაკი სურგულაძე (1913-1991 was a Georgian historian Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar) 
Under strong public pressure, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR set up, on June 20, 1989, a special commission for investigation of legal aspects of the 1921 events. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet ( Президиум Верховного Совета in Russian, or Prezidium Verkhovnogo Soveta was a Soviet Events 451 - Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius ' defeats Attila the Hun. Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) The commission came to the conclusion that "the [Soviet Russian] deployment of troops in Georgia and seizure of its territory was, from a legal point of view, a military interference (intervention) and occupation aimed at changing the existing political regime. " At an extraordinary session of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR convened on May 26, 1990, the Sovietization of Georgia was officially denounced as "an occupation and effective annexation of Georgia by Soviet Russia. The Supreme Soviet of the USSR (Верхо́вный Сове́т СССР Verkhóvnyj Sovét SSSR) was the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in Events 451 - The Battle of Avarayr between Armenian rebels and the Sassanid Empire takes place Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) "