There are different views of reality in Buddhism. Reality, in everyday usage means "the state of things as they actually exist" Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Some teachers (e. g. , the mahasiddha Tilopa) even discouraged any intellectual activity, including philosophy. Mahasiddhas (Tibetan grub thob chen po; tul shug or tulshug; Sanskrit Maha - great Siddhas - achievers Tilopa ( Tibetan; Sanskrit: Talika, 988–1069 was born in either Chativavo ( Chittagong) Bengal or Jagora Bengal Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language See also the position on some philosophical questions and the famous arrow parable ascribed to Buddha Shakyamuni. In Buddhism, buddhahood ( Sanskrit: buddhatva. Pali: buddhatta. Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder
Buddhism evolved a variety of doctrinal/philosophical traditions, each with its own ideas of reality. The following are still regularly studied in some branches of the Buddhist tradition: Theravada, Vaibhashika, Sautrantika, Jojitsu, Madhyamika, Yogacara, tiantai, Huayan. History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation Vaibhashika is an early Buddhist school formed by adherents of the Vibhasha Shastra. The Sautrāntika were an early school of Buddhist philosophy. Madhyamaka ( Sanskrit: मध्यमक Madhyamaka,, Pinyin: Zhōngguānzōng; also known as Śunyavada) is a Buddhist Yogācāra (Sanskrit "yoga practice" "one whose practice is yoga" Chinese Yüjiazong "Yoga School" 瑜珈宗 is an influential school of Eastern Philosophy Tiantai (天台宗 Wade-Giles: T'ien T'ai) is one of the important sects of Buddhism in China, Korea and Japan, also called Some of these are divided into subschools, and all are subject to interpretation, both by Buddhist teachers and by academic scholars. In addition to these, some less doctrinal traditions and individual teachers have their own ideas on the subject.
Some views of reality in Buddhism are relevant to the issue of dependent origination and some to teachings beyond cause and effect. The doctrine of pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit paticcasamuppāda; rten Examples are discussed below.
Different schools and traditions in Tibetan Buddhism give different explanations of the mechanism producing the illusion usually called "reality". Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and certain regions of the Himalayas, including 
Buddhist sutras devote considerable space to the concept of reality, with each of two major doctrines — the Doctrine of Dependent Origination (pratitya-samutpada) and the Doctrine of Cause and Effect (karma and vipaka) — attempting to incorporate both the natural and the spiritual into its overall world view. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices The doctrine of pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit paticcasamuppāda; rten Karma ( Sanskrit: कर्म, kárman - "act action performance" Pali: kamma) is the concept of "action" While there is no prime force setting the universe in motion, no "First Cause", Buddhist teachings continue to explore the nature of the world and our place in it. The cosmological argument is an Argument for the Existence of God or a " First Cause "
The Theravada school teaches that there is no universal personal god. History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation The world as we know it does not have its origin in a primordial being such as Brahman or God. Brahman ( bráhman-, Nominative bráhma sa ब्रह्म is a concept of Hinduism. God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. What we see is only a product of transitory factors of existence, which depend functionally upon each other. The Buddha is said to have said: "The world exists because of causal actions, all things are produced by causal actions and all beings are governed and bound by causal actions. They are fixed like the rolling wheel of a cart, fixed by the pin of its axle shaft. " (Sutta-Nipata 654)
The word 'illusion' is frequently associated with Buddhism and the nature of reality. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Some interpretations of Buddhism teach that reality is a coin with two sides: impermanence or anicca and the "not-self characteristic" or anatta, referred to as "emptiness" in some Mahayana schools. Impermanence ( Sanskrit: अनित्य anitya; Pāli: अनिच्चा anicca; Tibetan: མི་རྟག་པ་ In Buddhist philosophy, anatta ( Pāli) or anātman ( Sanskrit) refers to the notion of "not-self" Mahayana ( Sanskrit: mahāyāna, Devanagari: महायान 'Great Vehicle' is one of the two main existing schools of Buddhism and a term for Dzogchen, as the non-dual culmination of the Ancient School (a school with a few million followers out of a few hundred million Buddhists) of Mantrayana, resolves atman and anatman into the Mindstream Doctrine of Tapihritsa. Nondualism implies that things appear distinct while not being separate The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug) Vajrayana Buddhism is also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayāna, Mantrayana, Mantranaya, Secret Mantra, Esoteric Buddhism and In Buddhist philosophy, anatta ( Pāli) or anātman ( Sanskrit) refers to the notion of "not-self" Mindstream is a compound Lexical item composed of Mind and Stream used to translate a term from Buddhist philosophy. Tapihritsa (c 7th ~ 8th century (or Tapahritsa Wylie Ta pi hri tsa) is a Bönpo who achieved the Dzogchen mastery of the Rainbow body and The Buddha Shakyamuni is said to have taught the variously understood and interpreted concept of "not-self" in the Anatta-lakkhana Sutta. The Anattalakkhaṇa Sutta ( Pali, "Not-Self Characteristic Discourse" also known as the Pañcavaggiya Sutta (Pali "Group of In this sutta, he lists the characteristics that we often associate with who we are, and found that these characteristics, ultimately, are not who we are because they are subject to change. He further illustrates the changing nature of our feelings, perceptions, and consciousness.
We can look at the concepts of impermanence and not-self in objective terms, for example by deconstructing the concept of an aggregated object such as a lotus and seeing that the flower is made up entirely of non-flower elements like soil, nutrients, photosynthetic energy, rain water and the effort of the entities that nourished and grew the flower. Deconstruction is a term used in Philosophy, Literary criticism, and the Social sciences, popularised through its usage by Jacques Derrida in In Buddhist phenomenology and Soteriology, the five skandhas ( Sanskrit) or khandhas ( Pāli) are five "aggregates" Padma ( nelumblum speciosum) the Sacred lotus, is an Aquatic plant that plays a central role in Indian religions such as Hinduism, All of these factors, according to the Diamond Sutra, co-exist with each other to manifest what we call a 'flower'. The Diamond Sutra is a short Mahayana Sutra of the Perfection of Wisdom genre which teaches the practice of the avoidance of abiding in extremes In other words, there is no essence arisen from nothingness that is unique and personal to any being. In particular, there is neither a human soul that lives on beyond the death of the physical body nor one that is extinguished at death since, strictly speaking, there is nothing to extinguish. The soul, according to many religious and philosophical beliefs is the self-awareness, or Consciousness, unique to a particular living The relative reality (i. e. , the illusory perceived reality) comes from our belief that we are separate from the rest of the things in the universe and, at times, at odds with the processes of nature and other beings. The ultimate or absolute reality, in some schools of Buddhist thought, shows that we are inter-connected with all things. The concept of non-discrimination expands on this by saying that, while a chair is different from a flower, they 'inter-are' because they are each made of non-flower and non-chair elements. Ultimately those elements are the same, so the distinction between chair and flower is one of quantity not of quality.
The Diamond Sutra, a Mahayana scripture, has many passages that use the formula: A is not A, therefore A is called A. The Diamond Sutra is a short Mahayana Sutra of the Perfection of Wisdom genre which teaches the practice of the avoidance of abiding in extremes Mahayana ( Sanskrit: mahāyāna, Devanagari: महायान 'Great Vehicle' is one of the two main existing schools of Buddhism and a term for
From a metaphysical standpoint, some subschools of the Mahayana school have posited the idea of this ultimate reality of inter-connectedness as a unity with all things, a buddha-nature which illuminates or personifies the 'ultimate dimension' of reality. Luminous mind in the Nikayas There is a clear reference in the Anguttara Nikaya to a " Luminous mind " present within all people be they corrupt or pure whether The Mahayana Uttaratantra Shastra, one of the 'Five Treatises', presents what are alleged by some Mahayanists to be the Buddha's definitive teachings on how we should understand this ground [definition needed] of enlightenment and clarifies the nature and qualities of buddhahood (Dharmakaya). The Dharmakāya (lit Truth Body or Reality Body is a central concept in Mahayana Buddhism forming part of the Trikaya doctrine that was first expounded in the The Buddha Nature is declared to be the True Self of Buddha, both within and beyond samsara; and that True Self is stated by the Buddha in what is traditionally said to be his final Mahayana sutra, the Mahaparinirvana Sutra, to be "sovereign/ autonomous" (aishvarya), "real", "true", and "eternal" (nitya / sasvata). Mahayana and the Nirvana Sutra Sasaki (1999 in a review of Shimoda (1997 conveys a key premise of Shimoda's work namely that the origins of Mahayana Buddhism It is dependent on nothing — but is utterly free.
In Dzogchen, perceived reality is considered to be unreal. According to some schools of Tibetan Buddhism and Bön, Dzogchen is the natural primordial state or natural condition of every sentient Being
|The real sky is (knowing) that samsara and nirvana are merely an illusory display. In sramanic philosophy Nirvana (निर्वाण| Nirvāṇa; निब्बान Nibbāna; Prakrit: णिव्वाण|
— Mipham Rinpoche, Quintessential Instructions of Mind, p. Jamgön Ju Mipham or Mipham Jamyang Namgyal Gyamtso (also known as "Mipham the Great" was a great master of the Nyingma lineage of Tibetan Buddhism 117
According to contemporary teacher Chögyal Namkhai Norbu Rinpoche, all appearances perceived during the whole life of an individual, through all senses, including sounds, smells, tastes and tactile sensations in their totality, are like a big dream. Chögyal Namkhai Norbu ( is a Dzogchen teacher who was born in Derge, Kham district (Eastern Tibet) on 8 December Rinpoche or Rimpoche ( rinˈpotʃe is an honorific title used in Tibetan Buddhism. Dreams are the images sounds thoughts and feelings experienced while Sleeping, particularly strongly associated with Rapid eye movement sleep. It is claimed that, on careful examination, the dream of life and regular nightly dreams are not very different, and that in their essential nature there is no difference between them.
The non-essential difference between the dreaming state and ordinary waking experience is that the latter is more concrete and linked to attachment; the dreaming experience while sleeping is slightly detached.
Also according to this teaching, there is a correspondence between the states of sleep and dream and our experiences when we die. After experiencing the intermediate state of bardo, an individual comes out of it, a new karmic illusion is created and another existence begins. This is an article on a Buddhist concept For other meanings of the word Bardo, see Bardo (disambiguation The Tibetan word Bardo This is how transmigration happens. Transmigration of the soul (sometimes given simply as Transmigration) is similar and foreign in some ways to the philosophy of Reincarnation.
According to Dzogchen teachings, the energy of an individual is essentially without form and free from duality. According to some schools of Tibetan Buddhism and Bön, Dzogchen is the natural primordial state or natural condition of every sentient Being However, karmic traces contained in the individual's mindstream give rise to two kinds of forms:
What appears as a world of apparently external phenomena, is the energy of the individual him or herself. There is nothing external or separate from the individual. Everything that manifests in the individual's field of experience is a continuum. This is the 'Great Perfection' that is discovered in Dzogchen practice. According to some schools of Tibetan Buddhism and Bön, Dzogchen is the natural primordial state or natural condition of every sentient Being According to some schools of Tibetan Buddhism and Bön, Dzogchen is the natural primordial state or natural condition of every sentient Being 
It is possible to do yogic practice such as Dream Yoga and Yoga Nidra whilst dreaming, sleeping and in other bardo states of trance. Dream Yoga or Milam (T rmi-lam or nyilam; Ssvapnadarśana — the Yoga of the Dream State are a suite of advanced tantric Sadhana of the entwined Yoga Nidra, may be rendered in English as "yogic sleep" or "sleep of the yogis" This is an article on a Buddhist concept For other meanings of the word Bardo, see Bardo (disambiguation The Tibetan word Bardo Trance denotes a variety of processes techniques modalities and states of mind awareness and consciousness In this way the yogi can have a very strong experience and with this comes understanding of the dream-like nature of daily life. This is also very relevant to diminishing attachments, because they are based on strong beliefs that life's perceptions such as objects are real and as a consequence: important. If one really understands what Buddha Shakyamuni meant when he said that everything is unreal, then one can diminish attachments and tensions.
The teacher advises that the realization that life is only a big dream can help us finally liberate ourselves from the chains of various emotions, different kinds of attachment and the chains of ego. Then we have the possibility of ultimately becoming enlightened. 
Contrasting with some forms of Buddhism, the Buddha's teaching on 'reality' in the Tathagatagarbha Mahayana scriptures - which the Buddha states constitute the ultimate manifestation of the Mahayana Dharma (other Mahayana sutras make similar claims about their own teachimngs) - insists that there truly is a sphere or realm of ultimate truth - not just a repetitious cycle of interconnected elements, each dependent on the others. In Mahayana and Tantric Buddhism, the Tathāgatagarbha (如來藏 doctrine (often essentially the same as the Buddha nature concept teaches Mahayana ( Sanskrit: mahāyāna, Devanagari: महायान 'Great Vehicle' is one of the two main existing schools of Buddhism and a term for That suffering-filled cycle of x-generating-y-and-y-generating-z-and-z-generating-a, etc. , is Samsara, the prison-house of the reincarnating non-self; whereas liberation from dependency, enforced rebirth and bondage is nirvana or reality / spiritual essence (tattva / dharmata). In sramanic philosophy Nirvana (निर्वाण| Nirvāṇa; निब्बान Nibbāna; Prakrit: णिव्वाण This sphere also bears the name Tathagatagarbha (Buddha matrix). It is the deathless realm where dependent origination holds no sway, where non-self is supplanted by the everlasting, sovereign (aishvarya) self (atman) (as a trans-historical, unconditioned, ultimate, liberating, supra-worldly yet boundless and immanent awakened mind). Ātman (आत्मन् or Atta ( Pāli) literally means "self" but is sometimes translated as " Soul " or " Ego " Of this real truth, called nirvana - which, while salvationally infused into samsara, is not bound or imprisoned in it - the Buddha states in the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra:
"What is the Real (tattva)? Knowledge of the true attributes of Nirvana; the Tathagata, the Dharma, the Sangha, and the attributes of space . Mahayana and the Nirvana Sutra Sasaki (1999 in a review of Shimoda (1997 conveys a key premise of Shimoda's work namely that the origins of Mahayana Buddhism . . is the Real. What is knowledge of the attributes of Nirvana? The attributes of Nirvana are eightfold. What are these eight? Cessation [of ignorance and suffering]; loveliness/ wholesomeness; Truth; Reality; Eternity, Bliss, the Self [atman], and complete Purity: that is Nirvana. "
He further comments: " . . . that which is endowed with the Eternal, Bliss, the Self, and Purity is stated to be the meaning of 'Real Truth' . . . Moreover, the Real is the Tathagata [i. e. , the Buddha]; the Tathagata is the Real . . . The Tathagata is not conditioned and not tainted, but utterly blissful: this is the Real . . . ".
Thus, in such doctrines, a very positive goal is envisioned, which is said to lie beyond the grasp of the five senses and the ordinary, restless mind, and only attainable through direct meditative perception and when all inner pollutants (twisted modes of view, and all moral contaminants) are purged, and the inherently deathless, spotless, radiantly shining mind of Buddha stands revealed. This is the realm of the Buddha-dhatu (popularly known as buddha nature) - inconceivable, beginning-less, endless, omniscient truth, the Dharmakaya (quintessential body-and-mind) of the Buddha. Luminous mind in the Nikayas There is a clear reference in the Anguttara Nikaya to a " Luminous mind " present within all people be they corrupt or pure whether The Dharmakāya (lit Truth Body or Reality Body is a central concept in Mahayana Buddhism forming part of the Trikaya doctrine that was first expounded in the This reality is empty of all falsehood, impermanence, ignorance, afflictions, and pain, but filled with enduring happiness, purity, knowingness (jnana), and omni-radiant loving-kindness (maitri).