Rashtrapati Bhavan (Sanskrit for 'President House / Presidential Palace') is the official residence of the President of India, located in New Delhi, Delhi, India. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical An official residence is the residence at which Heads of state, Heads of government, gubernatorial or other senior figures officially The President of India or Rashtrapati ( Hindi: राष्ट्रपति a Sanskrit Neologism, lit New Delhi (नई दिल्ली ਨਵੀਂ ਦਿੱਲੀ نئی دلی is the Capital city of India. Delhi (दिल्ली ਦਿੱਲੀ دلی d̪ɪlːiː sometimes referred to as Dilli) is the second largest metropolis of India, with a population India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Until 1950 it was known as "Viceroy's House" and served as the residence of the Governor-General of India. The Governor-General of India (or from 1858 to 1947 the Viceroy and Governor-General of India) was the head of the British administration in India, and It is at the heart of an area known as Lutyens' Delhi. Lutyens' Delhi is an area in Delhi, specifically New Delhi, India, named after the leading British architect Edwin Lutyens (1869–1944
During the Delhi Durbar year of 1911, it was decided that the capital of India would be shifted from Calcutta to Delhi. The Delhi Durbar, meaning " Court of Delhi " was a mass assembly at Delhi India to commemorate the Coronation of a King This was announced on December 12 by King George V. Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian As the plan for New Delhi took shape, the Governor-General's residence was given an enormous scale and prominent position. New Delhi (नई दिल्ली ਨਵੀਂ ਦਿੱਲੀ نئی دلی is the Capital city of India. The British architect Edwin Landseer Lutyens, a key member of the city-planning process, was also given the prime architectural opportunity of designing the building. Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, OM, KCIE, PRA, FRIBA, LLD ( 29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944
The original plans of the viceroy’s house called for something which would be a mixture between western and eastern styles. There were some who wanted the palace to be a classically designed one, in the tradition of the Greeks. The term Classical architecture has a specific Archaeological meaning relating to the architecture of Classical Greece The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca This would clearly show western power in India. Others desired a palace which would be modelled on Indian architecture. It was also suggested for various degrees of mixing the two styles. The Viceroy declared that the palace was to be classical, but with an Indian motif. This was what the design eventually developed into. The palace developed very similarly to the original sketches which Lutyens sent Baker from Shimla on June 14 1912. Shimla [ʃɪmla] ( Hindi: शिमला originally called Simla, is a city in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh Events 1276 - While taking exile in Fuzhou in southern China, away from the advancing Mongol invaders, the remnants of the Lutyens' design is grandly classical overall, with colors and details inspired by Indian architecture.
Lutyens and Baker who had been assigned to work on the Viceroy’s House and the Secretariats, began on friendly terms, although they later quarrelled. Baker had been assigned to work on the two secretariat buildings which were in front of Viceroy’s House. Early on in the design process, Viceroy’s House was decided to be moved from the original position on the top of Raisina Hill. The original plan was to have Viceroy’s House on the top of the hill, with the secretariats lower down. It was decided to move it back 400 yards, and put both buildings on top of the plateau. In Geology and Earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting While Lutyens wanted the Viceroy’s house to go higher up, he was forced to move it back from the intended position due to a dispute with Baker. Following the completion of the palace, Lutyens fought with Baker, because the view of the front of the palace was obscured by the high angle of the road.
Lutyens regarded this as his ‘Bakerloo’ (a reference to Waterloo) because he campaigned for its fixing, but was not able to get it to be changed. In the Battle of Waterloo (Sunday 18 June 1815 near Waterloo Belgium Lutyens wanted to make a long inclined grade all the way to Viceroy’s house with retaining walls either side. While this would give a view of the house from further back, it would also cut through the square between the secretariat buildings. The committee with Lutyens and Baker established in January 1914 said the grade was to be no steeper than 1 in 25, though it eventually was changed to 1 in 22, a steeper gradient which made it more difficult to see the Viceroy’s palace. While Lutyens knew about the gradient, and the possibility that the Viceroy’s palace would be obscured by the road, it is thought that Lutyens did not fully realise how much the front of the house would not be visible. In 1916 the Imperial Delhi committee dismissed Lutyens’ proposal to alter the gradient. Lutyens thought Baker was more concerned with making money and pleasing the government, rather than focusing on making a good architectural design.
Lutyens travelled between India and England almost every year for twenty years, to work on the building of the Viceroy’s house in both countries. Lutyens had to reduce the building size from 13 to 8. 5 million cubic feet (240,000 m³) because of the budget restrictions of Lord Hardinge. While he had demanded that costs be cut, he nevertheless wanted the house to retain a certain amount of ceremonial grandeur.
Various Indian designs were added to the building. These included several circular stone basins on the top of the palace, as water features are an important part of Indian architecture. There was also a traditional Indian chujja or chhajja, which took the place of a frieze in classical architecture; it was a sharp, thin, protruding element which extended 8 feet (2. Chhajja is the term for projecting Eaves or cover usually supported on large carved brackets, as used in Indian architecture (especially Mughal Chhajja is the term for projecting Eaves or cover usually supported on large carved brackets, as used in Indian architecture (especially Mughal In Architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an Entablature and may be plain or &ndash in the Ionic or Corinthian order &ndash 4 m) from the building, and created deep shadows. It stopped harsh sunlight from getting to the windows, and also stopped rain during a monsoon season. On the roofline were several chuttris, which helped to break up the look of the flat part of the roofline not covered by the dome. Chhatris are elevated dome-shaped pavilions used as an element in Indian architecture, or funerary sites in India which have such structures built over them Lutyens appropriated some Indian designs, but used them sparingly and effectively throughout the palace. There were also statues of elephants and fountain sculptures of cobras in the gardens. The British sculptor Charles Sargeant Jagger, known for his war memorials in Britain, designed the elephants on the corners of the retaining walls, as well as the bas-reliefs around the base of the Jaipur Column. Charles Sargeant Jagger MC (1885-1934 was a British Sculptor who following active service in the First World War, sculpted many works on the theme
There were grilles made from red sandstone, called jalis or jaalis. A jali (or jaali) is the term for a perforated stone or Latticed Screen, usually with an ornamental pattern constructed through the use of Calligraphy These jalis were inspired by Indian design.
The front of the palace, on the east side, has twelve unevenly spaced columns with the Delhi order capitals. These capitals have a fusion of acanthus leaves with the four pendant Indian bells. The acanthus is one of the most common ornaments used to depict foliage A bell is a simple Sound -making device The bell is a Percussion instrument and an Idiophone. The Indian temple bells are a part of the culture of Indian religions, such as Hindu and Buddhist, the idea coming from a Jain temple at Moodabidri in Karnataka. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Moodabidri ( Kannada: ಮೂಡಬಿದ್ರಿ)(also called Mudbidri, Moodbiri Karnataka (ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ pronounced) is a state in the southern part of India One bell is on each corner at the top of the column. It was said that as the bells were silent British rule in India would not end. The front of the palace does not have windows, except for the wings at the sides.
Lutyens put several small personal touches to the house, such as an area in the garden walls and two ventilator windows on the stateroom to look like the glasses which he wore.
Viceregal Lodge was largely completed by 1929, and (along with the rest of New Delhi) officially inaugurated in 1931. It is interesting to note that the building which was completed in seventeen years and on the eighteenth year of its completion India became independent.
After Indian independence in 1947, the now ceremonial governor-general continued to live there, being succeeded by the president in 1950 when India became a republic and the house was renamed "Rashtrapati Bhavan. "
The dome, though claimed by Lutyens to be inspired by the Pantheon of Rome, is primarily derived from the Sanchi Stupa built during the Mauryan times. The Pantheon ( Latin Pantheon, from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheon, meaning "Temple of all the gods" is a building in Rome Sanchi is a small Village in Raisen District of India, it is located 46 km north east of Bhopal, and 10 km from Besnagar and The Maurya Empire ( 322 – 185 BCE) ruled by the Mauryan dynasty was a geographically extensive and powerful political and military There is also the presence of Mughal and European colonial architectural elements. Overall the structure is distinctly different from other comtemporary British Colonial symbols. It has 355 decorated rooms and a floor area of 200,000 square feet (19,000 m²). The structures includes 700 million bricks and 3. 5 million cubic feet (85,000 m³) of stone, with only minimal usage of steel.
The layout of the palace is designed around a massive square, although there are many courtyards and open inner areas within. For alternative meanings of the word "court" see Court (disambiguation. There are separate wings for the Viceroy, and another wing for guests. WING "ESPN 1410" is a commercial AM radio station in Dayton Ohio operating with 5000 watts at 1410 kHz with studios offices and transmitter located on David The Viceroy’s wing is a separate four-storey house in itself, with its own court areas within. The wing was so large that the first president of India decided not to stay there, staying in the guest wing, a tradition which was followed by subsequent presidents. At the centre of the main part of the palace, underneath the main dome, is Durbar’s Hall, which was known as the Throne Room during British rule when it had thrones for the Viceroy and his wife. The interior of this room and almost all the rooms of the palace are bare, relying on the stonework and shapes to show an austerity rather than intricate decoration. In the hall, the columns are made in ‘Delhi’ order which combines vertical lines with the motif of a bell. The vertical lines from the column were also used in the frieze around the room, which could not have been done with one of the traditional Greek orders of columns. The hall has a 2-ton chandelier which hangs from a 33-metre height. On each of the four corners of the hall is a room, including two state drawing rooms, a state supper room and the state library. There are also other rooms such as many loggias (galleries with open air on one side) which face out into the courtyards, a large dining hall with an extremely long table, sitting rooms, billiards rooms, and a large ball room, and staircases. Water features are also through the palace, such as near the Viceroy’s stairs, which has eight marble lions spilling water into six basins. The lions symbolise Britain, as the lion was often used for this purpose. There is also an open area in one room to the sky, which lets in much of the natural light.
The dome in the middle involved a mixture of Indian and British styles. A dome is a common structural element of Architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a Sphere. In the centre was a tall copper dome surmounted on top of a drum, which stands out from the rest of the building, due to its height. Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 The dome is exactly in the middle of the diagonals between the four corners of the building. The dome is more than twice the height of the rest of the building. The height of the dome was raised by Lord Hardinge in the plan of the building in 1913. The dome combines classical and Indian styles. Lutyens said the design evolved from that of the Pantheon in Rome, while it is also possible that it was modelled after the great Stupa at Sanchi. A porch goes around the dome with evenly spaced columns which support the dome, with an open area between the columns. Because this goes the whole way round, it makes the dome appear from any angle that it is ‘floating’ as seen in the heat haze of Delhi. The reinforced concrete shell of the outer dome began to take shape near the start of 1929. The last stone of the dome was laid on April 6 1929. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato in the Battle of Thapsus However the copper casing of the dome was not laid until 1930.
The main entrance to Rashtrapati Bhavan is known as Gate 35, and is located on Prakash Vir Shastri Avenue, renamed from North Avenue in November of 2002, as a memorial to the politician of the namesake who served here during his tenure as a Member of Parliament for the state of Uttar Pradesh. Prakash Vir Shastri Avenue is an urban street road in New Delhi, known for spanning the majority of the city and classically housing the city Members of Parliament Prakash Vir Shastri Avenue is an urban street road in New Delhi, known for spanning the majority of the city and classically housing the city Members of Parliament A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a Parliament. Uttar Pradesh (उत्तर प्रदेश اتر پردیش pronounced, Translation: Northern Province) referred to as '''U