Ramie (Boehmeria nivea) is a flowering plant in the nettle family Urticaceae, native to eastern Asia. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupré ( September 4, 1789 - January 16, 1854) was a French Botanist. The flowering plants or angiosperms ( Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta) are the most widespread group Nettle is the common name for between 30-45 species of Flowering plants of the genus Urtica in the family Urticaceae, with a cosmopolitan though Urticaceae, or the nettle family is a family of Flowering plants The family name comes from the genus Urtica (nettles It is a herbaceous perennial growing to 1 - 2. A herbaceous plant (or in botanical use a Herb) is a Plant that has leaves and stems that die down at the end of A perennial plant or perennial ( Latin per, "through" annus, "year" is a Plant that lives for more than 5 m tall; the leaves are heart-shaped, 7-15 cm long and 6-12 cm broad, and white on the underside with dense small hairs - this gives it a silvery appearance; unlike nettles, the hairs do not sting. In Botany, a leaf is an above-ground Plant organ specialized for Photosynthesis. The true ramie or China Grass also called Chinese plant or white ramie is the Chinese cultivated plant. A second type, is known as green ramie or rhea and is believed to have originated in the Malay Peninsula. This type has smaller leaves which are green on the underside and it appears to be better suited to tropical conditions. 
Ramie is one of the oldest fibre crops, having been used for at least six thousand years, and is principally used for fabric production. Fiber or fibre is a class of Materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces similar to lengths of thread. It is a bast fibre, and the part used is the bark (phloem) of the vegetative stalks. In Vascular plants phloem is the living tissue that carries organic Nutrients (known as photosynthate particularly Sucrose, a sugar to Ramie is normally harvested two to three times a year but under good growing conditions can be harvested up to six times per year.  Unlike other bast crops, ramie requires chemical processing to de-gum the fibre.
Harvesting is done just before or soon after the beginning of flowering. It is done at this time because at this stage there is a decline in plant growth and the maximum fiber content is achieved.  Stems are harvested by either cutting just above the lateral roots or else bending the stem. This will enable the core to be broken and the cortex can be stripped from the plant in situ. In Botany, the cortex is the outer of the stem or Root of a plant bounded on the outside by the epidermis and on the inside by the Endodermis 
After harvesting, stems are decorticated while the plants are fresh. If this is not done while the plants are still fresh the plants will dry out and the bark will be hard to remove. The bark ribbon is then dried as quickly as possible. This will prevent bacteria and fungi from attacking it. The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ 
The dry weight of harvested stem from crops ranges from 3. 4 to 4. 5 t/ha/year, so a 4. 5 ton crop yields 1,600 kg/ha/year of dry non-de-gummed fiber. The weight loss during de-gumming can be up to 25% giving a yield of de-gummed fiber of about 1,200 kg/ha/year. 
The extraction of the fiber occurs in three stages. First the cortex or bark is removed; this can be done by hand or by machine. This process is called de-cortication. Second the cortex is scraped to remove most of the outer bark, the parenchyma in the bast layer and some of the gums and pectins. Parenchyma is a term used to describe a bulk of a substance It is used in different ways in Animals and in Plants. Finally the residual cortex material is washed, dried, and de-gummed to extract the spinnable fiber. Fiber or fibre is a class of Materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces similar to lengths of thread. 
Ramie has been around for so long that it was even used in mummy cloths in Egypt during the period 5000-3300 BC and has been grown in China for many centuries. A mummy is a Corpse whose Skin and Flesh have been preserved by either intentional or Incidental exposure to Chemicals extreme This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. In the study of the "Lazarus" mummy, three types of textiles were found. The outermost cloth was heavy and coarsely woven; the innermost was the lightest and most tightly woven. The outer cloth appeared to be ramie (which Wiseman notes "contains non-fibrous material that is toxic to bacteria and fungi"-- in other words, an ideal textile for mummymaking).
Brazil began production in the late 1930s with production peaking in 1971. Since then, production has steadily declined as a result of competition with alternative crops, such as soybeans and the important synthetic fibres. They used it in Ancient China for the farmers clothes.
Ramie is one of the strongest natural fibers. It exhibits even greater strength when wet. Ramie fiber is known especially for its ability to hold shape, reduce wrinkling, and introduce a silky lustre to the fabric appearance. Silk is a natural Protein Fiber, some forms of which can be woven into Textiles The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons It is not as durable as other fibers, and so is usually used as a blend with other fibers such as cotton or wool. Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species It is similar to flax in absorbency, density and microscopic appearance. However it will not dye as well as cotton. Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp Because of its high molecular crystallinity, ramie is stiff and brittle and will break if folded repeatedly in the same place; it lacks resiliency and is low in elasticity and elongation potential. 
Despite its strength, ramie has had limited acceptance for textile use. The fiber's extraction and cleaning are expensive, chiefly because of the several steps—involving scraping, pounding, heating, washing, or exposure to chemicals. Some or all are needed to separate the raw fiber from the adhesive gums or resins in which it is ensheathed. Spinning the fiber is made difficult by its brittle quality and low elasticity; and weaving is complicated by the hairy surface of the yarn, resulting from lack of cohesion between the fibers. The greater utilization of ramie depends upon the development of improved processing methods.
Ramie is used to make such products as industrial sewing thread, packing materials, fishing nets, and filter cloths. It is also made into fabrics for household furnishings (upholstery, canvas) and clothing, frequently in blends with other textile fibers (for instance when used in admixture with wool, shrinkage is reported to be greatly reduced when compared with pure wool. Upholstery is the work of providing Furniture, especially seats with Padding, springs Webbing, and fabric or Leather Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty plain-woven fabric used for making Sails Tents Marquees Backpacks and other functions Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species ) Shorter fibres and waste are used in paper manufacture.
Ramie is also used as an ornamental plant in eastern Asia. Ornamental plants are typically grown in the flower Garden or as House plants Most commonly they are grown for the display of their Flowers Other common
China leads in the production of ramie and exports mainly to Japan and Europe. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Other producers include Japan, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Brazil. Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld  Only a small percentage of the ramie produced is available on the international market. Japan, Germany, France and the UK are the main importers, the remaining supply is used domestically. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located