The Rainhill Trials were an important competition in the early days of steam locomotive railways, run in October of 1829 in Rainhill, Merseyside (between Liverpool and Manchester). For the game see 1829 (board game. Year 1829 ( MDCCCXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display Rainhill is a Civil parish and large village in the Metropolitan Borough of St Helens, Merseyside, England. Merseyside is a Metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 1365900
When the Liverpool and Manchester Railway was approaching completion, the directors of the railway ran a competition to decide whether stationary steam engines or locomotives would be used to pull the trains. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR was the world's first inter-city passenger Railway in which all the trains were timetabled and were hauled for most of the distance The Rainhill Trials were arranged as an open contest that would let them see all the locomotive candidates in action, with the choice to follow. Regardless of whether or not locomotives were settled upon, a prize of £500 was offered to the winner of the trials. Three notable figures from the early days of locomotive engineering were selected as judges: John Kennedy, John Urpeth Rastrick, and Nicholas Wood. John Urpeth Rastrick ( January 26 1780 &ndash November 1 1856) was one of the first English Steam locomotive builders
Locomotives that were entered were to be subjected to a variety of tests and conditions. These were amended at various points, but were eventually nailed down to:
- "The weight of the locomotive engine, with its full complement of water in the boiler, shall be ascertained at the weighing machine, by eight o'clock in the morning, and the load assigned to it shall be three times the weight thereof. The water in the boiler shall be cold, and there shall be no fuel in the fire-place. As much fuel shall be weighed, and as much water shall be measured and delivered into the tender-carriage, as the owner of the engine may consider sufficient for the supply of the engine for a journey of 35 mile [56 km]. The fire in the boiler shall then be lighted and the quantity of fuel consumed for getting up the steam shall be determined, and the time noted.
- "The tender-carriage, with the fuel and water, shall be considered to be, and taken as a part of the load assigned to the engine.
- "Those engines that carry their own fuel and water, shall be allowed a proportionate deduction from their load, according to the weight of the engine.
- "The engine, with the carriages attached to it, shall be run by hand up to the starting-post, and as soon as the steam, is got up to fifty pounds per square inch [345 kPa], the engine shall set out upon its journey.
- "The distance the engine shall perform each trip, shall be one mile and three-quarters [2. 8 km] each way, including one-eighth of a mile [200 m] at each end for getting up the speed, and for stopping the train; by this means the engine with its load will travel one and a half mile [2. 4 km] each way at full speed.
- "The engine shall make ten trips, which will be equal to a journey of thirty-five miles [56 km]; thirty-miles [48 km] whereof shall be performed at full speed, and the average rate of travelling shall not be less than ten miles per hour [16 km/h]. " [Note: The only other passenger railway in the world at that time, the Stockton and Darlington Railway, had an average speed of only about 13 km/h (8 mph). The Stockton and Darlington Railway (S&DR which opened in 1825 was the world's first permanent Steam locomotive hauled public Railway. ]
- "As soon as the engine has performed this task, (which will be equal to the travelling from Liverpool to Manchester,) there shall be a fresh supply of fuel and water delivered to her; and as soon as she can be got ready to set out again, she shall go up to the starting-post, and make ten trips more, which will be equal to the journey from Manchester back again to Liverpool.
- "The time of performing every trip shall be accurately noted, as well as the time occupied in getting ready to set out on the second journey.
- "Should the engine not be enabled to take along with it sufficient fuel and water for the journey of ten trips, the time occupied in taking in a fresh supply of fuel and water, shall be considered and taken as a part of the time in performing the journey.
The preserved Rocket
Ten locomotives were entered, but on the day the competition began -- 6 October 1829 -- only five locomotives actually began the tests:
- Cycloped, built by Thomas Shaw Brandreth. Events 105 BC - Battle of Arausio: The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus For the game see 1829 (board game. Year 1829 ( MDCCCXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display Cycloped was an early horse-powered Locomotive, built by Thomas Shaw Brandreth of Liverpool, which competed unsuccessfully in the Rainhill Thomas Shaw Brandreth, FRS ( 24 July 1788 – 27 May 1873) was an English Mathematician, Inventor
- Novelty, built by John Ericsson and John Braithwaite. Novelty was an early Steam locomotive built by John Ericsson and John Braithwaite to take part in the Rainhill Trials. This article is about John Ericsson the Swedish-American inventor John Braithwaite the younger (1797–1870 was an English engineer who invented the first steam Fire engine.
- Perseverance, built by Timothy Burstall. Perseverance was an early steam Locomotive that took part in the Rainhill Trials.
- Rocket, built by George Stephenson and Robert Stephenson. Replica Rocket and coachjpg|thumb|right|A replica coach and Rocket at the Rocket 150 event]] Stephenson's Rocket was an early Steam locomotive of 0-2-2 George Stephenson ( 9 June 1781 &ndash 12 August 1848) was an English Civil engineer and mechanical engineer Robert Stephenson FRS (16 October 1803 &ndash 12 October 1859 was an English Civil engineer.
- Sans Pareil, built by Timothy Hackworth. For the West End theatre founded in 1806 see Adelphi Theatre Sans Pareil was a Steam locomotive built by Timothy Timothy Hackworth ( 22 December 1786 &ndash 7 July 1850) was a Steam locomotive engineer who lived in Shildon, County
Locomotives were run two or three per day, and several tests for each locomotive were performed over the course of several days.
The Rainhill stretch of the Railway was dead level for a mile or so: a perfect site for the Trials.
Cycloped was the first to drop out of the competition. Built with "legacy technology", it used a horse walking on a drive belt for power, and was withdrawn after an accident caused the horse to burst through the floor of the engine.
Next to retire was Perseverance. Damaged en route to the competition, Burstall spent five days repairing it. When it failed to reach the required 10 miles per hour on its first tests the next day, it was withdrawn from the trial. It was granted a £25 consolation prize.
Sans Pareil nearly completed the trials, though at first there was some doubt as to whether it would be allowed to compete as it was 300 lb (136 kg) overweight. However, it did eventually complete eight trips before cracking a cylinder. Despite the failure it was purchased by the Liverpool & Manchester, where it served for two years before being leased to the Bolton and Leigh Railway. History The company obtained its Act of Parliament on 31 March 1825 to build a line "from the Manchester Bolton & Bury Canal at Bolton to the
The last drop-out was Novelty. In complete contrast to Cycloped it was cutting-edge for 1829, lighter and considerably faster than the other locomotives in the competition. It was accordingly the crowd favourite. Reaching a then-astonishing 28 mph (45 km/h) on the first day of competition, it later suffered some damage to a boiler pipe which could not be fixed properly on site in the time allotted. Nevertheless it continued its run on the next day, but upon reaching 15 mph (24 km/h) the pipe gave way again and damaged the engine severely enough that it had to drop out.
So, the Rocket was the only locomotive to complete the trials. It averaged 12 miles per hour (achieving a top speed of 30 miles per hour) hauling 13 tons, and was declared the winner of the £500 prize. The Stephensons were accordingly given the contract to produce locomotives for the Liverpool & Manchester Railway.
86214 Sans Pareil at the Rocket 150 event
In 1980 the Rocket 150 celebration was held to mark the 150th Anniversary of the trials.
A replica of Novelty was built for the event, which was also attended by a replicas Sans Pareil and Rocket (plus coach).
The event was also attended by:
- Lion, apparently the second oldest steam locomotive in existence
- Flying Scotsman No. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway (LMR 57 Lion is an early 0-4-2 Steam locomotive. The LNER Class A3 Pacific locomotive no 4472 "Flying Scotsman" (originally no 4472
- LMS 4-6-0 Jubilee class No. 5690 Leander
- Sir Nigel Gresley No. London Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS Jubilee Class No 5690 (BR No London and North Eastern Railway (LNER A4 Class number 4498 (original 7 (LNER 1946 and 60007 (BR named Sir Nigel Gresley 4498
- GWR 0-6-0 No. The Great Western Railway Earl Class 4-4-0 steam Locomotives for passenger train work 3205
- LMS Class 4 MT 2-6-0 No. 43106
- BR 92220 Evening Star, the last steam locomotive to be built by British Railways
- LMS 4-6-2 Princess Elizabeth No. British Railways Standard Class 9F number 92220 Evening Star, is a preserved British steam locomotive The London Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS Princess Royal Class is a class of an express passenger Steam locomotive designed by William Stanier. 6201
Two Class 86 locomotives 86214 Sans Pareil and 86235 Novelty were painted in a variation of the Large Logo Rail Blue livery where the BR logo was replaced by Rocket 150 motif on a yellow background. The British Rail Class 86 was the standard Electric locomotive built during the 1960s developed as a result of testing with the earlier Classes 81, The history of British Rail 's corporate liveries is quite complex
A replica of Sans Pareil
at a 1980 restaging of the Rainhill Trials. For the West End theatre founded in 1806 see Adelphi Theatre Sans Pareil was a Steam locomotive built by Timothy
In a recent (2002) restaging of the Rainhill Trials using replica engines, neither Sans Pareil (11 out of 20 runs) and Novelty (10 out of 20 runs) completed the course. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. In calculating the speeds and fuel efficiencies, it was found that Rocket would still have won fair and square, since its relatively modern technology made it a much more reliable locomotive than the others. Novelty almost matched it in terms of efficiency, but its firebox design caused it to gradually slow to a halt due to a build up of molten ash (called "clinker") cutting off the air supply. The restaged trials were run over a section of line in Llangollen, Wales, and were the subject of a BBC Timewatch documentary. Llangollen (ɬaŋ'ɡoɬɛn is a small town in Denbighshire, north-east Wales, situated on the River Dee and on the edge of the Berwyn Timewatch is a long-running British television series showing documentaries on historical subjects spanning all human history
This restaging should not be taken as accurate as there were major compromises made for television and because of the differences in crew experience, the fuel used, the modifications made to the replicas for modern safety rules, modern construction methods, and following operating experience. Sensible comparisons were made between the engines only after calcuations took into account the differences.
None of the replicas is without major differences from the 1829 originals.
- ^ Marsden, Colin (1981). Motive Power Recognition :1 - Locomotives. Shepperton: Ian Allen Ltd, 133. ISBN 0 7110 1109 5.
- ^ Nixon, Les (1983). BR Colour Album. London: Jane's Publishing Company Limited. ISBN 0 7106 0287 1.
- Dendy Marshall, CF, The Rainhill Locomotive Trials of 1829. From the Transactions of the Newcomen Society, 1929 Vol 9.
External links 1829 (South is a railroad operations and share -trading Board game in the 18xx series first published by Hartland Trefoil Reiner Knizia (ˈraɪnɚ ˈknɪtsiːə is a prolific German-style board game designer
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