The rack is a torture device that consists of an oblong rectangular, usually wooden frame, slightly raised from the ground, with a roller at one, or both, ends, having at one end a fixed bar to which the legs were fastened, and at the other a movable bar to which the hands were tied. Torture, according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture, is "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental is intentionally Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs The victim's feet are fastened to one roller, and the wrists are chained to the other.
As the interrogation progresses, a handle and ratchet attached to the top roller are used to very gradually stepwise increase the tension on the chains, which induces excruciating pain as the victim's joints slowly dislocate. Pain, in the sense of physical pain, is a typical sensory experience that may be described as the unpleasant awareness of a noxious stimulus or bodily harm A joint is the location at which two or more Bones make contact By means of pulleys and levers this latter could be rolled on its own axis, thus straining the ropes till the sufferer's joints were dislocated.
Additionally, once muscle fibers have been stretched past a certain point they lose their ability to contract, thus victims who were released had ineffective muscles as well as problems arising from dislocation.
Because of its mechanically precise, graded operation, it was particularly suited for hard interrogation, as to extract a confession.
One gruesome aspect of being stretched too far on the rack is the loud popping noises made by snapping cartilage, ligaments or bones. Cartilage is a type of dense Connective tissue. It is composed of specialized cells called chondrocytes that produce a large amount of extracellular matrix Eventually, if the application of the rack is continued, the victim's limbs are ripped right off. One powerful method for putting pressure upon a prisoner was to merely force him to view someone else being subjected to the rack. A person stretched on the rack presented a spectacle of the body in pain.
It was used since Antiquity, being used on St. Vincent and mentioned by the Church Fathers Tertullian (on extraction of confessions from criminals and on persisting Christian 'sacrilegers' against the state cult) and St. Jerome (used on a woman according to his first letter). Saint Vincent of Saragossa also known as Vincent of Huesca, is the Patron saint of Lisbon. Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, Anglicised as Tertullian, (ca Jerome (c 347 – September 30, 420) ( Latin: Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος
Its first employment in England is said to have been due to John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter, the constable of the Tower in 1447, whence it was popularly known as the Duke of Exeter's daughter. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland John Holland 2nd Duke of Exeter KG ( 18 March 1395 &ndash 5 August 1447) was an English nobleman and military commander The Constable of the Tower of London is the governor of the Tower of London. The Duke of Exeter's daughter was a torture rack used in the Tower of London. Being tortured on the rack was often referred to as being "put to the question. "
In 1628 the whole question of its legality was raised by the attempt of the privy council to rack John Felton, the assassin of the duke of Buckingham. John Felton may refer to John Felton (assassin, assassin of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham John Felton (martyr George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham ( 28 August 1592 &ndash 23 August 1628) (surname ˈvɪlɚz ("villers" was the Favourite This the judges resisted, unanimously declaring its use to be contrary to the laws of England.
Well known victims of the rack in England include Guy Fawkes, Edmund Campion and Anne Askew, venerable William Carter (1584), the famous Elizabethan dramatist, Thomas Kyd (1592) and Jesuit lay-brother Saint Nicholas Owen (1606). Guy Fawkes ( 13 April 1570 – 31 January 1606) sometimes known as Guido Fawkes, was a member of a group of English Saint Edmund Campion SJ ( January 24 1540 &ndash December 1 1581) was an English Jesuit priest Anne Askew (also spelled Anne Ayscough) ( 1521 - 16 July 1546) was an English poet and Protestant who was persecuted as a heretic William Carter may refer to William Carter (martyr (1548&ndash1584 English printer and martyr William Blount Carter (1792&ndash1848 Thomas Kyd ( 3 November 1558 – 16 July 1594) was an English Dramatist, the author of The Spanish Tragedy Saint Nicholas Owen, often known as Little John or as little Michael (died 2 March 1606) was an English Martyr who built numerous
Another well known victim was Saint John Sarkander (1620). Saint John Sarkander ( Czech and Polish: Jan Sarkander) (1576 – 1620 was a Polish and Moravian priest Saint John Sarkander ( Czech and Polish: Jan Sarkander) (1576 – 1620 was a Polish and Moravian priest
The Inquisition used the rack as one of their principal methods of torture. The term Inquisition can refer to any one of several institutions charged with trying and convicting heretics within the Roman Catholic Church and (McCall, 1979)
The term rack is also used, occasionally, for a number of simpler constructions that constitute no such mechanical torture device, but simply to position the victim over for some physical punishment, after which it may be named specifically, e. Corporal punishment is the deliberate infliction of pain intended to Punish a person or change his/her behavior g. caning rack, since in a given jurisdiction it was often custom or even prescribed to administer any given punishment in a specific position, for which the device (with or without fitting shackling and/or padding) would be chosen or specially made.
A similar device was the intestinal crank. This method of torture involved making an incision in the abdominal area, separating the duodenum from the pylorus, and attaching of the upper part of the intestine to a crank. In Anatomy of the Digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm (10-12 in long connecting the Stomach to the Jejunum The pylorus (from Greek πυλωρος = "gate guard" is the region of the Stomach that connects to the Duodenum. In Anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the Stomach to the Anus and in humans and other mammals consists The crank then would be rotated to extract the intestines from the gastrointestinal cavity of a conscious person, for the purposes of torture (Monestier, 1994).  A similar device appears during a dream-like sequence in the 2000 movie The Cell. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. The Cell is a 2000 Psychological thriller film written by Mark Protosevich directed by Tarsem Singh and starring Jennifer Lopez.