Direct Rambus DRAM or DRDRAM (sometimes just called Rambus DRAM or RDRAM) is a type of synchronous dynamic RAM, designed by the Rambus Corporation. SDRAM refers to synchronous Dynamic random access memory, a term that is used to describe dynamic random access memory that has a synchronous interface SDRAM refers to synchronous Dynamic random access memory, a term that is used to describe dynamic random access memory that has a synchronous interface DDR SDRAM ( double data rate synchronous dynamic random access memory) is a class of memory Integrated circuit used in Computers It achieves nearly twice In Electronic engineering, DDR3 SDRAM or double-data-rate three Synchronous dynamic random access memory is a Random access memory XDR DRAM or extreme data rate Dynamic random access memory is a high-performance RAM interface and successor to the Rambus RDRAM it XDR2 DRAM is a type of Dynamic Random Access Memory that is offered by Rambus. V irtual C hannel R andom A ccess M emory ( VC-RAM GDDR3, Graphics Double Data Rate 3, is a graphics card-specific memory technology designed by ATI Technologies with the collaboration of JEDEC GDDR4 SDRAM (Graphics Double Data Rate version 4 is a type of Graphics card memory specified by the JEDEC Semiconductor Memory Standard GDDR5 (Graphics Double Data Rate version 5 is a type of Graphics card memory the standards of which were set out in the GDDR5 specification by JEDEC Rambus Incorporated ( founded in 1990, is a provider of high-speed interface technology most notably their Rambus Dynamic RAM memory technology, which
The first PC motherboards with support for RDRAM debuted in 1999. They supported PC-800 RDRAM, which operated at 400 MHz and delivered 1600 MB/s of bandwidth over a 16-bit bus using a 184-pin RIMM form factor. The hertz (symbol Hz) is a measure of Frequency, informally defined as the number of events occurring per Second. A megabyte is a unit of Information or Computer storage equal to either 106 (1000000 Bytes or 220 (1048576 bytes depending on Data is transferred on both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal, a technique known as double data rate. In Computing, a Computer bus operating with double data rate transfers data on both the rising and falling edges of the Clock signal. For marketing reasons the physical clock rate was multiplied by two (because of the DDR operation); therefore, the 400 MHz Rambus standard was named PC-800. This was significantly faster than the previous standard, PC-133 SDRAM, which operated at 133 MHz and delivered 1066 MB/s of bandwidth over a 64-bit bus using a 168-pin DIMM form factor. SDRAM refers to synchronous Dynamic random access memory, a term that is used to describe dynamic random access memory that has a synchronous interface A DIMM, or dual in-line memory module, comprises a series of Dynamic random access memory Integrated circuits These modules are mounted on a Printed
Moreover, if a mainboard has a dual- or quad-channel memory subsystem, all of the memory channels must be upgraded simultaneously. Dual-channel architecture describes a technology that theoretically doubles data throughput from RAM to the memory controller. Sixteen-bit modules provide one channel of memory, while 32-bit modules provide two channels. Therefore, a dual channel mainboard accepting 16-bit modules must have RIMMs added or removed in pairs. A dual channel mainboard accepting 32-bit modules can have single RIMMs added or removed as well.
Rambus's RDRAM saw use in several video game consoles, beginning in 1996 with the Nintendo 64. The, often abbreviated as N64, is Nintendo 's third home Video game console for the international market The Nintendo console utilized 4 MB RDRAM running with a 500 MHz clock on an 8-bit bus, providing 500 MB/s bandwidth. RDRAM allowed N64 to be equipped with a large amount of memory bandwidth while maintaining a lower cost due to design simplicity. RDRAM's narrow bus allows circuit board designers to use simpler design techniques to minimize cost. The memory, however, was disliked for its high random access latencies. In the N64, the RDRAM modules are cooled by a passive heatspreader assembly. 
Sony uses RDRAM in the PlayStation 2. The PS2 was equipped with 32 MB of the memory, and implemented a dual-channel configuration resulting in 3200 MB/s available bandwidth. The PS3 utilizes 256 MB of Rambus's XDR DRAM, which could be considered a successor to RDRAM, on a 64-bit bus at 400 MHz with an octal data rate (cf. XDR DRAM or extreme data rate Dynamic random access memory is a high-performance RAM interface and successor to the Rambus RDRAM it double data rate) providing speeds of 3. In Computing, a Computer bus operating with double data rate transfers data on both the rising and falling edges of the Clock signal. 2 GHz, allowing a large 204. 8 Gbit/s (25. 6 GB/s) bandwidth. 
Cirrus Logic implemented RDRAM support in their Laguna graphics chip, with two members of the family; the 2D-only 5462 and the 5464, a 2D chip with 3D acceleration. RDRAM offered a cost-advantage while being potentially faster than competing DRAM technologies with its high bandwidth. The chips were used on the Creative Graphics Blaster MA3xx series, among others. Creative Technology Limited ( is a listed manufacturer of computer Multimedia products based in Singapore, where the firm was founded and now under the executive
Compared to other contemporary standards, Rambus shows a slight increase in latency, heat output, manufacturing complexity, and cost. SDRAM latency refers to the delays incurred when a Computer tries to access Data in SDRAM. Some criticized RDRAM's larger die size, which is required to house the added interface and results in a 10-20 percent price premium at 16-megabit densities and adds about a 5 percent penalty at 64M. 
PC-800 RDRAM operated with a latency of 45 ns, which was more latency than other comparable DRAM technologies of the time. A nanosecond ( ns) is one billionth of a second See also times of other orders of magnitude. RDRAM memory chips also put out significantly more heat than SDRAM chips, necessitating heatspreaders on all RIMM devices. A heat sink (or heatsink) is an environment or object that absorbs and dissipates heat from another object using Thermal contact (either direct or radiant RDRAM includes a memory controller on each memory chip, significantly increasing manufacturing complexity compared to SDRAM, which used a single memory controller located on the northbridge chipset. The northbridge, also known as the memory controller hub ( MCH) in Intel systems (AMD VIA SiS and others usually use 'northbridge' is traditionally one RDRAM was also two to three times the price of PC-133 SDRAM due to a combination of high manufacturing costs and high license fees. PC-2100 DDR SDRAM, introduced in 2000, operated with a clockspeed of 133 MHz and delivered 2100 MB/s over a 64-bit bus using a 184-pin DIMM form factor. DDR SDRAM ( double data rate synchronous dynamic random access memory) is a class of memory Integrated circuit used in Computers It achieves nearly twice
When installing multiple RIMMs on a memory channel, performance impact is greater than SDRAM design because the data in the further memory module has to travel across all memory chips installed physically closer to the memory controller, instead of just 1 or 2 chips in production SDRAM motherboards.
The design of many common Rambus memory controllers dictated that memory sticks be installed in sets of two. Any remaining open memory slots must be filled with CRIMMs. CRIMM s are Continuity Rambus In-Line Memory Modules. CRIMMs are passive devices used on motherboards that help to enable a Rambus system to terminate properly These sticks provide no extra memory, and only served to propagate the signal to termination resistors on the motherboard instead of providing a dead end where signals would reflect. The picture on the lower right depicts a CRIMM stick.
With the introduction of the i840 (Pentium III), Intel 850 (Pentium 4), Intel 860 (Pentium 4 Xeon) chipsets, Intel added support for dual-channel PC-800 RDRAM, doubling bandwidth to 3200 MB/s by increasing the bus width to 32-bit. This is a list of Computer Motherboard Chipsets made by Intel. This was followed in 2002 by the i850E chipset, which introduced PC-1066 RDRAM, increasing total dual-channel bandwidth to 4200 MB/s. This is a list of Computer Motherboard Chipsets made by Intel. Then in 2002, Intel released the E7205 Granitebay chipset, which introduced dual-channel DDR support for a total bandwidth of 4200 MB/s, at a slightly lower latency than competing RDRAM. This is a list of Computer Motherboard Chipsets made by Intel.
To achieve RDRAM's 800 MHz speed, the memory module only runs on 16-bit bus, instead of 64-bit bus in contemporary SDRAM DIMM. Furthermore, not all production RDRAM module at the time of Intel 820 launch can run at 800 MHz, but rather at slower speed.
Benchmark tests conducted in 1998 showed most applications run slower with RDRAM. Although RDRAM was shown to be slightly faster than SDRAM alternatives in UMA solution, Intel 820 was not a low-end product, and no low-end products using RIMM has ever been made, so the advantage is useless for end users. In Computer architecture, Shared Memory Architecture (SMA refers to a design where the graphics chip does not have its own dedicated memory and instead shares the 
In 1999, benchmark for Intel 840, Intel 820, Intel 440BX showed the performance gain (if any) from using Rambus chipsets do not justify its premium price over 440BX chipsets with PC-133 SDRAM except for workstation use. 
Later in 2002, it was shown that single channel DDR400 SDRAM modules, coupled with SiS648, can closely match against dual channel 1066 MHz RDRAM setup with Intel 850E in real-life applications. Furthermore, there were upcoming chipsets that can use dual channel DDR400 SDRAM modules.
In November, 1996, Rambus entered into a development and license contract with Intel. Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) . Realizing the superiority of RDRAM in comparison to DDR SDRAM, Intel announced to the Wintel development community that it would only support the Rambus memory interface for its microprocessors, Intel was granted rights to purchase 1M shares of Rambus's stock at $10 per share. A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a Central processing unit (CPU on a single Integrated 
In 1998, Intel planned to make a $500 million equity investment in Micron Technology, to accelerate the adoption of Direct RDRAM. Micron Technology ("Micron" is a multinational company based in Boise, Idaho, USA best known for producing many forms of Semiconductor  Other investment included paying $100 million to Samsung Electronics in 1999. The Samsung Group ( Korean:, Samsung Guerup) is South Korea 's largest company or Chaebol and the world's largest conglomerate 
As a transition strategy, Intel planned to support PC-133 SDRAM DIMM on future Intel 82x chipset using Memory Transfer Hub (MTH).  In 2000, Intel recalled Intel 820 motherboard with memory translator hub (MTH) because the MTH can, while doing simultaneous switching, produce noise that may cause the computer to hang mysteriously or to spontaneously reboot. Electronic noise is an unwanted signal characteristic of all electronic circuits.  Since then, no production Intel 820 motherboards contain MTH.
In 2003, Intel introduced Intel 865 and Intel 875 chipsets, which were marketed as high end replacement of Intel 850. Furthermore, the future memory roadmap did not include Rambus. 
Few DRAM manufacturers have ever obtained the license to produce RDRAM, and those who did license the technology failed to make enough RIMMs to satisfy PC market demand, causing RIMM to be priced higher than SDRAM DIMMs, even when memory prices skyrocketed during 2002.  During RDRAM's decline, DDR continued to advance in speed while, at the same time, it was still cheaper than RDRAM. Meanwhile, a massive price war in the DDR SDRAM allowed DDR SDRAM to be sold at or below production cost. DDR SDRAM makers were losing massive amounts of money, while RDRAM suppliers were making a good profit for every module sold. While it is still produced today, few motherboards support RDRAM. Between 2002-2005, market share of RDRAM had never extended beyond 5%. 
In 2004, it was revealed that Infineon, Hynix, Samsung, Micron, and Elpida had entered into a price-fixing scheme . Infineon Technologies AG () was founded in April 1999 when the Semiconductor operations of parent company Siemens AG, were spun off to form a separate Hynix Semiconductor Inc of South Korea is a memory Semiconductor supplier of Dynamic random access memory ('DRAM' chips and Flash memory ( is a corporation that develops designs manufactures and sells dynamic random-access memory (DRAM products  Infineon, Hynix, Samsung and Elpida all entered plea agreements with the US DOJ, pleading guilty to price fixing over 1999-2002.  They paid fines totalling over $700 million and numerous executives were sentenced to jail time.
Rambus has alleged that, as part of the conspiracy, the DRAM manufacturers acted to depress the price of DDR memory in an effort to prevent DRDRAM from succeeding in the market. Those allegations are the subject of lawsuits by Rambus against the various companies.