apostrophe ( ’ ' )
ampersand ( & )
Quotation marks or inverted commas (also informally quotes, and speech marks) are punctuation marks used in pairs to set off speech, a quotation, a phrase or a word. Guillemets ( or after French) also called Angle quotes, are line segments pointed as if arrows ( « or ») sometimes forming a complementary A hyphen ( -) is a Punctuation mark It is used for both Words to join and to separate Syllables It is often confused with the dashes The question mark (? also known as an interrogation point, question point, query, or eroteme, is a punctuation mark that replaces A semicolon (   ) is a conventional Punctuation mark with several usages The slash ( /) is a punctuation mark It is also called a virgule, diagonal, stroke, forward slash, oblique dash, The solidus ( ⁄) is a punctuation mark that is not found on standard keyboards Interword separation is the act and the effect of mutually separating the written representations of Words The early Semitic languages mdashwhich had no vowel In writing a space () is a blank area that is devoid of content which separates words letters numbers and punctuation An interpunct ( ·) is a small dot used for Interword separation in ancient Latin script, being perhaps the first consistent visual representation of word boundaries Typography is the art and techniques of arranging type, Type design, and modifying type Glyphs Type glyphs are created and modified using a variety An ampersand ( &) also commonly called an " 'and' sign," is a Logogram representing the conjunction "and" The typographic character @, the at sign, denotes a pan-lingual abbreviation of the word 'at' An asterisk ( *) (Latin asteriscum "little star" from Greek ἀστερίσκος) is a Typographical symbol or Glyph The backslash ( \) is a typographical mark ( Glyph) used chiefly in Computing. In Typography, a bullet is a typographical symbol or Glyph used to introduce Items in a list, like below also known as the point of a bullet Caret is the name for the symbol ^ in ASCII and some other Character sets Its Unicode code point is U+005E and its ASCII code in hexadecimal is 5E The currency sign ( ¤) is a character used to denote a currency when the symbol for a particular currency is unavailable In many national currencies, the cent is a monetary unit that equals 1/100 of the basic monetary unit The euro sign (€ is the Currency sign used for the Euro, the official currency of the European Union (EU See also Pound (currency.The pound sign (" £ " or " ₤ " is the symbol for the Pound sterling —the currency of the ¥￥ ₪The sheqel sign ( ₪) A dagger ( †, &dagger U+ 2020 is a typographical symbol or Glyph. The degree symbol (° Unicode: U+00B0 HTML: &deg is a typographical symbol or Glyph, that is used to represent degrees of arc (see The inverted question and exclamation marks are used to begin interrogative and exclamatory sentences respectively in written Spanish. The inverted question and exclamation marks are used to begin interrogative and exclamatory sentences respectively in written Spanish. In Logic and Mathematics, negation or not is an operation on Logical values for example the logical value of a Proposition Number sign is a name for the symbol #; it is the preferred Unicode name for the Code point associated with that Glyph. The Numero sign (U+2116 or Number sign is used in many languages to indicate ordinal numeration especially in names and titles for example instead of writing the long " The percent sign ( %) is the symbol used to indicate a Percentage (that the preceding number is divided by one hundred The pilcrow (¶ Unicode U+00B6 HTML entity &para also called the Paragraph sign or the alinea ( The prime symbol ( ′  double prime symbol ( &Prime  triple prime symbol ( ‴  etc The section sign (§ Unicode U+00A7 HTML entity &sect is a typographical character used mainly to refer to a particular section The tilde (~ (/ˈtɪldə/ is a Grapheme with several uses The name of the character comes from Spanish, from the Latin titulus Diaeresis or trema See also Diaeresis History Historically the diaeresis mark or trema is far older than the umlaut mark The underscore _ (also called understrike, underbar, low line, or low dash is a character that originally appeared on the Typewriter. Note "broken bar" and the glyph "¦" redirect here Typography is the art and techniques of arranging type, Type design, and modifying type Glyphs Type glyphs are created and modified using a variety For other uses of this term please refer to Asterism disambiguation page The symbol ☞ is a Punctuation mark called an index or fist. In a Mathematical proof, the therefore sign (∴ is a symbol that is sometimes placed before a Logical consequence, such as the conclusion of a The interrobang ( ‽, is a nonstandard English -language Punctuation mark intended to combine the functions of the Question mark (also "؟" redirects here For the Arabic question mark see Question mark. This page lists Japanese typographic symbols which are not included in Kana or Kanji. A sarcasm mark or sarcasm point identifies text as being Derogatory or ironic. The pair consists of an opening quotation mark and a closing quotation mark, which may or may not be the same character.
They have a variety of forms in different languages and in different media:
For fragments of a human expression placed inside quotation marks, see Quotation. For the Wikipedia quotation templates see:CategoryQuotation templates.
In English usage, they come as pairs in two forms: as single quotation marks (‘. . . ’), and as double quotation marks (“. . . ”).
Single or double quotation marks denote either speech or a quotation. Neither style – single or double – is an absolute rule, though double quotation marks are preferred in the United States, and both single and double quotation marks are used in the United Kingdom. A publisher’s or even an author’s style may take precedence over national general preferences.
The important rule is that the style of opening and closing quotation marks must be matched:
For speech within speech, the other is used as inner quotation marks:
Omitting quotation marks is generally not recommended.
Sometimes, quotations are nested in more levels than inner and outer quotation. Nesting levels up to five can be found in the Bible. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin  In these cases, questions arise about the form (and names) of the quotation marks to be used. The most common way is to simply alternate between the two forms, thus:
If such a passage is further quoted in another publication, then all of their forms have to be shifted over by one level.
In most cases, quotations that span multiple paragraphs should be set as block quotations, and thus do not require quotation marks. A paragraph (from the Greek paragraphos, " to write beside " or " written beside " is a self-contained unit of a discourse in A block quotation also known as a long quotation, block quote or extract, is a Quotation in a written document set off from the main text Quotation marks are used for multiple-paragraph quotations in some cases, especially in narratives. A narrative or story is a construct created in a suitable format (written spoken poetry prose images song Theater, or Dance) that describes a sequence of The convention in English is to give the first and each subsequent paragraph opening quotation marks, using closing quotation marks only for the final paragraph of the quotation. The Spanish convention, though similar, uses closing quotation marks at the beginning of all subsequent paragraphs beyond the first.
When quoted text is interrupted, such as with the phrase he said, a closing quotation mark is used before the interruption, and an opening quotation mark after. Commas are also often used before and after the interruption, more often for quotations of speech than for quotations of text:
It is generally considered incorrect to use quotation marks for paraphrased speech where they may give the impression that the paraphrasing represents the actual words used. Paraphrase ( IPA: /ˈpærəˌfreɪz/ is restatement of a text or passage using other words
If HAL says: “All systems are functional. ”, then:
However, another convention when quoting text in the body of a paragraph or sentence, for example in philosophical essays, is to recognize double quotation marks as marking an exact quotation, and single quotation marks as marking a paraphrased quotation or a quotation where grammar, pronouns or plurality have been changed in order to fit the sentence containing the quotation (this is the same as reported speech).
Another important use of quotation marks is to indicate or call attention to ironic or apologetic words. Irony is a literary or Rhetorical device, in which there is an incongruity or Discordance between what one says or does and what one means or Ironic quotation marks can also be called scare, sneer, shock, or distance quotes. Scare quotes is a general term for Quotation marks used for purposes other than to identify a direct quotation Ironic quotation marks are sometimes gestured in oral speech using air quotes:
Quotation marks indicating ironic use of a term should be used with care. Without the intonational cues of speech, they can obscure the writer’s intended meaning. In Linguistics, intonation is variation of pitch whilst speaking which is not used to distinguish words They can also be confused easily with direct quotations, so some style guides specify single quotation marks for this usage, and double quotation marks for verbatim speech.
Quotation marks are also used to indicate that the writer realizes that a word is not being used in its current commonly-accepted sense.
In addition to conveying a neutral attitude and to call attention to a neologism or a slang or special terminology (also known as jargon), quoting can also indicate words or phrases that are descriptive but unusual, colloquial, folksy, startling, humorous, or metaphoric:
Dawkins's concept of the meme could be described as an "evolving idea". A neologism (from Greek neo = "new" + logos = "word" is a word that although devised relatively recently in a specific time period has been Slang is the use of highly informal Words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speaker's Dialect or Language. For Wikipedia jargon see WikipediaGlossary. For hacker slang see Jargon File.
People use quotation marks in this way to:
The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), 15th edition acknowledges this type of use but cautions against overuse in section 7. Scare quotes is a general term for Quotation marks used for purposes other than to identify a direct quotation The Chicago Manual of Style (abbreviated in writing as CMS or CMOS or verbally as Chicago) is a Style guide for American English 58, "Quotation marks are often used to alert readers that a term is used in a nonstandard, ironic, or other special sense [. . . ] They imply 'This is not my term' or 'This is not how the term is usually applied. '. Like any such device, scare quotes lose their force and irritate readers if overused. "
Either quotation marks or italic type can emphasize that an instance of a word refers to the word itself rather than its associated concept. The use–mention distinction (sometimes referred to as the words-as-words distinction) is the distinction between using a word (or phrase and mentioning In Typography, italic type /ɪˈtælɪk/ or /aɪˈtælɪk/ refers to cursive Typefaces based on a stylized form of calligraphic Handwriting. The use–mention distinction (sometimes referred to as the words-as-words distinction) is the distinction between using a word (or phrase and mentioning
A three-way distinction is occasionally made between normal use of a word (no quotation marks), referring to the concept behind the word (single quotation marks), and the word itself (double quotation marks):
Books about language often use italics for the word itself and single quotation marks for its translation:
Quotation marks, rather than italics, are generally used for the titles of shorter works. Whether these are single or double is again a matter of style:
Quotation marks offset a nickname embedded in an actual name, or a false or ironic title embedded in an actual title; for example, Nat “King” Cole. David Bowie (ˈboʊiː born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947 is an English Musician, actor producer, and arranger. This article is about the song For the album which includes this song see Space Oddity (album. A nickname is a Name of an entity or thing that is not its Proper name. Nathaniel Adams Coles (March 17 1919 &ndash February 15 1965 known professionally as Nat King Cole, was an American musician
Quotes are sometimes used incorrectly for emphasis in lieu of underlining or italics, most commonly on signs or placards. This usage can be confused with ironic or altered-usage quotation, sometimes with unintended humor. For example, For sale: “fresh” fish, “fresh” oysters, could be construed to imply that fresh is not used with its everyday meaning, or indeed to indicate that the fish or oysters are anything but fresh. Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two The common name oyster is used for a number of different groups of Bivalve Mollusks most of which live in marine habitats or Brackish water. And again, Teller lines open until noon for your “convenience” might mean that the convenience was for the bank employees, not the customers. A bank teller is an employee of a Bank who deals directly with most customers Noon (also midday) is the hour of 1200 in an observer's local time zone or more loosely a time near the middle of the day when workers in many countries take a meal break Convenience is anything that is intended to save Time, Energy or Frustration.    
The traditional convention in American English is for commas and periods to be included inside the quotation marks, regardless of whether they are part of the quoted sentence, while the British style places them in or outside of the quotation marks according to whether or not the punctuation is part of the quoted phrase. Phonology North American English regional phonology In many ways compared to English English, North American English is conservative in its Phonology. The American rule is derived from typesetting while the British rule is grammatical (see below for more explanation). Although the terms American style and British style are used, it is not as clear cut as that because at least one major British newspaper prefers typesetters' quotation (punctuation inside) and BBC News uses both styles, while scientific and technical publications, even in the U. S. , almost universally use logical quotation (punctuation outside unless part of the source material), due to its precision.
As with many such differences, the American rule follows an older British standard. The typesetter’s rule was standard in early 19th century Britain; the grammatical rule was advocated by the extremely influential book The King’s English, by Fowler and Fowler. The King's English is a book on English usage and grammar It was written by the Fowler brothers Henry Watson Fowler and Francis George Fowler
The American English rule is often not applied if the presence of the punctuation mark inside the quotation marks will lead to ambiguity, for example in describing commands to be typed into a computer:
Before the advent of mechanical type, the order of quotation marks with periods and commas was not given much consideration. The printing press required that the easily damaged smallest pieces of type for the comma and period be protected behind the more robust quotation marks.  The U. S. style still adheres to this older tradition in everyday use and in non-technical formal writing. Today, most areas of publication conform to one of the two standards above. However, in subjects such as chemistry and software documentation it is conventional to include only the precise quoted text within the quotation marks. This avoids ambiguity with regard to whether a punctuation mark belongs to the quotation:
In both styles, question marks and exclamation marks are placed inside or outside quoted material on the basis of logic, but colons and semicolons are always placed outside :
In the first two sentences above, only one punctuation mark is used at the end of each. Regardless of its placement, only one end mark (?, !, or . ) can end a sentence in American English.
References: Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition; Hart’s Rules for Compositors and Readers at the University Press, Oxford. The Chicago Manual of Style (abbreviated in writing as CMS or CMOS or verbally as Chicago) is a Style guide for American English Hart's Rules for Compositors and Readers at the University Press Oxford is a reference book and Style guide published in England by Oxford University
In English, when a quotation follows other writing on a line of text, a space precedes the opening quotation mark unless the preceding symbol, such as a dash, requires that there be no space. A dash is a Punctuation mark It is longer than a Hyphen and is used differently When a quotation is followed by other writing on a line of text, a space follows the closing quotation mark unless it is immediately followed by other punctuation within the sentence, such as a colon or closing punctuation. (These exceptions are ignored by some Asian computer systems that systematically display quotation marks with the included spacing, as this spacing is part of the fixed-width characters. )
There is generally no space between an opening quotation mark and the following word, or a closing quotation mark and the preceding word. When a double quotation mark or a single quotation mark immediately follows the other, proper spacing for legibility requires that a non-breaking space be inserted. In computer-based Text processing and Digital typesetting, a non-breaking space or no-break space ( NBSP) is
Straight quotation marks (or italicized straight quotation marks) are often used to approximate the prime and double prime (e. The prime symbol ( ′  double prime symbol ( &Prime  triple prime symbol ( ‴  etc g. , when signifying feet and inches, or arcminutes and arcseconds). A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. A minute of arc, arcminute, or MOA is a unit of angular measurement, equal to one sixtieth (1/60 of one degree. A minute of arc, arcminute, or MOA is a unit of angular measurement, equal to one sixtieth (1/60 of one degree. For instance, 5 feet and 6 inches is often written 5' 6", and 40 degrees, 20 minutes, and 50 seconds is written 40° 20' 50". When available, however, the prime should be used instead (e. g. , 5′ 6″, and 40° 20′ 50″). Prime and double prime are not present in most character sets, including ASCII and Latin-1, but are present in Unicode, as characters U+2032 (dec. In Computing, Unicode is an Industry standard allowing Computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in most of the world's 8242) and U+2033 (dec. 8243), and as HTML entities ′ and ″. HTML has been in use since 1991, but HTML 40 (December 1997 was the first standardized version where international characters were given reasonably complete treatment They also represent inches of mercury in weather forecasts.
Straight single and double quotation marks are used in most programming languages to delimit strings or literal characters. A programming language is an Artificial language that can be used to write programs which control the behavior of a machine particularly a Computer. In Computer programming and some branches of Mathematics, a string is an ordered Sequence of Symbols. For other uses see Character. In Computer and machine-based Telecommunications terminology a character is a unit of In some languages (e. g. Pascal) only one type is allowed, in some (e. Pascal is an influential imperative and procedural Programming language, designed in 1968/9 and published in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a small g. C and its derivatives) both are used with different meanings and in others (e. tags please moot on the talk page first! --> In Computing, C is a general-purpose cross-platform block structured g. Python) both are used interchangeably. Python is a general-purpose High-level programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes programmer productivity and code readability In many languages, if it is desired to include the same quotation marks used to delimit a string inside the string, the quotation marks are doubled. For example to represent the string eat 'hot' dogs in Pascal one uses 'eat ''hot'' dogs'.
For a quotation consisting of several paragraphs, especially in older texts, the convention is to start each separate paragraph of the quoted text with an opening quotation mark, but to use a closing quotation mark only at the end of the last paragraph, as in the following example from Pride and Prejudice:
In the first centuries of typesetting, quotations were distinguished merely by indicating the speaker, and this can still be seen in some editions of the Bible. Different Typefaces Character encodings and Computer languages use various encodings and glyphs for quotation marks. Typesetting involves the presentation of textual material in graphic form on Paper or some other medium. During the Renaissance, quotations were distinguished by setting in a typeface contrasting with the main body text (often Italic type with roman, or the other way round). The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere In Typography, a typeface is a set of one or more Fonts designed with stylistic unity each comprising a coordinated set of Glyphs A typeface usually comprises In Typography, italic type /ɪˈtælɪk/ or /aɪˈtælɪk/ refers to cursive Typefaces based on a stylized form of calligraphic Handwriting. In Typography, "roman" type has two principal meanings both stemming from the stylistic origin of text typefaces from inscriptional capitals used in Long quotations were also set this way, at full size and full measure. 
Quotation marks were first cut in metal type during the middle of the sixteenth century, and were used copiously by some printers by the seventeenth. In some Baroque and Romantic-period books, they would be repeated at the beginning of every line of a long quotation. Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the When this practice was abandoned, the empty margin remained, leaving the modern form of indented block quotation. A block quotation also known as a long quotation, block quote or extract, is a Quotation in a written document set off from the main text 
In Early Modern English, quotation marks were used only to denote pithy comments. Early Modern English is the stage of the English language used from about the end of the Middle English period (the latter half of the 15th century to 1650 They first began to quote direct speech in 1714. By 1749 single quotation marks, or “inverted commas”, were commonly used to denote direct speech. 
This article was originally based on material from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, which is licensed under the GFDL. The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing ( FOLDOC) is an online searchable encyclopedic Dictionary of Computing subjects The GNU Free Documentation License ( GNU FDL or simply GFDL) is a Copyleft License for free documentation designed by the Free Software