Quirino Cristiani (July 2, 1896–August 2, 1984) was an Argentine animation director and cartoonist, responsible for the world's first two animated feature films as well as the first animated feature film with sound. Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival Year 1896 ( MDCCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Events 338 BC - A Macedonian army led by Philip II defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes in the Year 1984 ( MCMLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar) For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. The bouncing ball animation (below consists of these 6 frames A film director, or filmmaker, is a person who directs the making of a Film. A cartoonist is a person who specializes in drawing Cartoons Traditionally much of this work was and still is humorous and is intended primarily for entertainment purposes
Cristiani was born on July 2, 1896, in Santa Guiletta, Italy. Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival Year 1896 ( MDCCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest His family moved to Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1900, and Quirino spent his childhood soaking up the fast pace and left-leaning politics of the great southern metropolis. Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern Year 1900 ( MCM) was an exceptional Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar He came to consider himself a porteño first (as the natives of the port of Buenos Aires called themselves) and an Argentinian second.
As a teenager, he developed a passion for drawing, which led him through a brief course with the Academy of Fine Arts to the publication of political caricatures for the city newspapers. A caricature is either a Portrait that exaggerates or distorts the essence of a person or thing to create an easily identifiable visual likeness or in literature a description Soon the perfect target for his satire presented himself.
The national elections of 1916 peacefully ended the thirty-six-year-long rule of the Conservative party and placed Radical party leader Hipólito Yrigoyen in the President's seat. Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Juan Hipólito del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús Irigoyen Alem ( July 12 1852 &ndash July 3 1933) was twice President of Argentina (from The President of Argentina (full title President of the Argentine Nation, Spanish: Presidente de la Nación Argentina) is the Head of state Yrigoyen favored the lower middle class, especially in Buenos Aires, and granted unprecedented freedom to the press. The press in response turned on him, mocking his social awkwardness, his replacement of Conservative corruption with Radical corruption in the government, and his decision to keep Argentina out of World War I, a decision that was unpopular with the germanophile Argentine military. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All He was soon dubbed "Peludo" ("shaggy") for his lack of personal grooming (with the additional slang meaning of "idiot"). Personal grooming (also called titivating) is the art of cleaning grooming and maintaining parts of the body
Living in the capital was another Italian immigrant, Frederico Valle, once a cameraman and director in Europe (he used Wilbur Wright's visit to Rome in 1909 as the opportunity to film the world's first aerial cinematography), now a producer of newsreels for his adopted country. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Year 1909 ( MCMIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting See also Filmmaking Cinematography (from Greek: kinesis κινησις (movement and grapho γραφω (to record is the discipline A newsreel is a Documentary film that is regularly released in a public presentation place containing filmed News stories Valle was apolitical, but he knew the porteños were not. He hired the twenty-year old Cristiani off the street, gave him Émile Cohl's Les Allumettes animées (Animated Matches, 1908) to teach him the technique, and set him loose. Émile Cohl ( January 4, 1857 – January 20, 1938) born Émile Eugène Jean Louis Courtet, was a French Caricaturist Before 1916 was out, Valle's newsreel Actualides Valle came out with an episode including the one minute cartoon La Intervención en la provencia de Buenos Aires (Intervention in the Province of Buenos Aires) by Quirino Cristiani. The cartoon was about Yrigoyen's ouster of Buenos Aires governor Marcelino Ugarte for dishonesty. This film used cardboard cutouts as the form of animation, a choice Cristiani would stick with throughout his career.
This short film did surprisingly well, and Valle announced a new project: the green animator would next create the world's first feature-length animated film, with President Yrigoyen as the subject. The funding would come from a Mr. Franchini, who owned a chain of movie theaters to show the finished film. Cristiani would get his character designs from newspaper cartoonist Diógenes Taborda (pen name "El Mono", "The Monkey") Amazingly, Cristiani actually managed to accomplish his goal (doing the lion's share of the animation while Taborda found better uses for his valuable time): the 58,000-frame El Apóstol (an hour and ten minutes at an anemic 14 frames per second) premiered on November 9, 1917. El Apóstol (The Apostle is a 1917 Argentine Animated cartoon, and also the world's first animated feature film Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
The movie was a satire, with President Yrigoyen ascending to the heavens to use Jupiter's thunderbolts to cleanse Buenos Aires of immorality and corruption. In Roman mythology, Jupiter was the king of the gods and the god of Sky and Thunder. The result is a burnt city. The film was well-received, but most of the praise went to producer Valle, with what was left over going to Taborda.
In 1918, the German commander in Argentina, Baron von Luxburg, decided to manipulate Argentina into joining World War I on its side by sinking an Argentine ship and blaming the act on the Entente. Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Triple Entente (" entente " — French for "agreement" was the name given to the loose alignment of the United Kingdom, the The tales of the survivors of the incident led nearly everyone to realize what really happened, but Yrigoyen swung his political weight to cover the incident up, out of fear that Argentina might be pushed into the war as an enemy of Germany, an outcome he feared just as much as a German alliance.
Cristiani saw the incident as the perfect opportunity, and with a new set of producers created the world's second feature-length animated film, Sin dejar rastros in 1918. The title (Leaving No Trace) was a reference to von Luxburg's supposed order to the German U-boat captain who sank the ship. President Yrigoyen felt he had no choice but to order the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to confiscate the film the day after it premiered. In doing this, the Radical showed himself little better than the repressive Conservative presidents he had replaced. On the other hand, Cristiani was not imprisoned and spent the next several years creating political cartoons and caricatures for the newspapers. Two other animated features were put out at this time by Andrés Ducaud, the man who designed the fire effects in El Apóstol.
To support his growing family, Cristiani founded the advertising company Publi-Cinema, where he made short commercial cartoons. To show these cartoons, he traveled to the poorer parts of town, where no movie theatres were to be found, and showed the paying public Chaplin shorts and other films interspersed with his animation. This did so well that the police shut him down for "disturbing the peace and interrupting traffic".
President "Peludo" finished out his six-year term in 1922, and was succeeded by another Radical, Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear. Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Máximo Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear Pacheco ( Buenos Aires October 4 1868 &ndash March 23 1942 in Don Torcuato better known During Alvear's presidency, Cristiani started making animated shorts for entertainment purposes. Some of the titles included Firpo-Dempsey (1923) on the boxing match between American heavyweight champion Jack Dempsey and Argentinian champion Luis Firpo, Uruguayos Forever (1924) on Uruguay's Olympic gold medal in soccer, and Humberto de garufa (Little Umberto's Folic, 1924), on the visit of Italian Prince Umberto of Savoy to Buenos Aires. Year 1923 ( MCMXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Jack Dempsey versus Luis Ángel Firpo fight was a historical Boxing fight It was the first time that a Latin American fighter would The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Jack "Manassa Mauler" Dempsey ( June 24, 1895 – May 31, 1983) was an American boxer who held the world Luis Ángel Firpo, ( October 11, 1894 ? - August 7, 1960) was an Argentine boxer. Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. At the 1924 Summer Olympics held in Paris, Uruguay dominated the Football (soccer tournament winning the Gold Umberto II, occasionally anglicized as Humbert II, (September 15 1904 - March 18 1983 the last King of Italy, nicknamed the King of May ( Re In 1926, a fire destroyed Federico Valle's film vaults; among the films lost forever was El Apóstol. Year 1926 ( MCMXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
In 1928, the aging Hipólito Yrigoyen was re-elected president of Argentina. Year 1928 ( MCMXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Cristiani felt that the man was too dominated by the corrupt leaders of the Radical party. With a script by Eduardo Gonzalez Lanuza, he set out to make his third animated feature film, Peludópolis. The movie was be a sort of fable, with pirate Yrigoyen's floating "Peludo City" (Argentina) beset by hungry sharks (the Radicals). Cristiani converted the operation over to sound partway through, including a few songs in the soundtrack (he used the primitive sound-on-disc system for the recording since it was unlikely that most Argentine theaters would be able to handle sound-on-film at the time of release). The term Sound-on-disc refers to a class of Sound film processes utilizing a Phonograph or other disc to record or playback Sound in sync with a motion Sound-on-film refers to a class of Sound film processes where the sound accompanying picture is physically recorded onto photographic film usually but not always the same Then, on September 6, 1930, a year into production, work on Peludópolis was halted when President Yrigoyen was ousted by a Conservative military coup d'état. Events 3114 BC - According to the Proleptic Julian calendar the current era in the Maya Long Count Calendar started Year 1930 ( MCMXXX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. With so much invested in the film so far, Cristiani decided to proceed, re-arranging the plot to de-emphasize Yrigoyen and the sharks, and carefully adding the characters of the generals as the heroes, in an attempt to protect himself from possible persecution. He then added an everyman character named Juan Pueblo, to become the moral centre of the film. With the provisional blessing of the provisional ruler of Argentina, General José Félix Uriburu, Cristiani premiered the film on September 16, 1931. General José Félix Benito Uriburu y Uriburu (1868 - 1932 was the first de facto President of Argentina, achieved through military force from Events 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers Year 1931 ( MCMXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. It was the first animated film with sound.
Few people felt that the wake of a revolution was the right time to laugh about it. In addition, the Great Depression had come to Argentina. Worst of all, Yrigoyen died in bed in 1933 and suddenly the entire country was gripped with grief for a man few had cared deeply for when he was alive. Year 1933 ( MCMXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Cristiani respectfully withdrew the film from circulation.
Quirino Cristiani never had another chance for greatness in animation. Mickey Mouse took over Argentina like he had the rest of the world, and like so many other artists, Cristiani couldn't compete. Mickey Mouse is a comic animal Cartoon character who has become an icon for The Walt Disney Company. Studios Cristiani was converted into a dubbing/subbing lab, one of the best of its kind in Argentina.
Cristiani made three more animated films in his life, none of which was very memorable. When Walt Disney came to Argentina as part of his Latin America research tour, Cristiani showed his films to him, then sent him to cartoonist Molina Campos, the source of the gaucho segment in Saludos Amigos (1943). Walter Elias Disney (December 5 1901 – December 15 1966 was a multiple Academy Award -winning American Film producer, director, Screenwriter Gaucho ( gaúcho in Portuguese, "gaucho" in Spanish) is a term commonly used to describe residents of the South American Pampas Saludos Amigos ( Alô Amigos in Portuguese is a 1942 animated film produced by Walt Disney and released by RKO Radio Pictures. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Two fires in 1957 and 1961 destroyed the majority of Cristiani's work, including the only prints of Peludópolis. Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He died in Bernal, Argentina, on August 2, 1984. Events 338 BC - A Macedonian army led by Philip II defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes in the Year 1984 ( MCMLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar)