|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|ATC code||M09 P01BC01|
|Mol. mass||324. IUPAC Nomenclature is a system of naming Chemical compounds and of describing the science of Chemistry in general CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for Chemical compounds Polymers biological sequences mixtures and Alloys They are also referred to The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs It is controlled by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. PubChem is a Database of chemical Molecules The system is maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI a component The DrugBank database available at the University of Alberta is a unique Bioinformatics and Cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the Atoms that constitute a particular Chemical compound, and how the relationship between those atoms changes Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the The molecular mass (abbreviated m of a substance, more commonly referred to as molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the Mass of one 417 g/mol|
|Melt. point||177 °C (351 °F)|
|Bioavailability||76 to 88%|
|Metabolism||Hepatic (mostly CYP3A4 and CYP2C19-mediated)|
|Half life||~18 hours|
Quinine (IPA: /ˈkwaɪnaɪn, kwɪˈniːn, ˈkwiːniːn/) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), antimalarial, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. For other uses of the words gram or gramme see Gram (disambiguation. The mole (symbol mol) is a unit of Amount of substance: it is an SI base unit, and almost the only unit to be used to measure this The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to Liquid. In Pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered Dose of unchanged drug that reaches the Systemic circulation, one of A drug's efficiency may be affected by the degree to which it binds to the proteins within Blood plasma. Drug metabolism is the Metabolism of drugs, their Biochemical modification or degradation usually through specialized enzymatic systems The liver is a vital organ in the human body and is present in Vertebrates and some other animals Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) ( a member of the Cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system is one of the most important enzymes involved in the metabolism Cytochrome P450 2C19 (abbreviated CYP2C19) a member of the Cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system is involved in the metabolism of Xenobiotics The biological half-life of a substance is the time it takes for a substance (drug radioactive nuclide or other to lose half of its pharmacologic physiologic or radiologic activity Excretion is the process of eliminating waste products of Metabolism and other non-useful materials The kidneys are complicated organs that have numerous biological roles The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical if it is used as directed by the mother during The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction In Pharmacology and Toxicology, a route Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of Liquid substances directly into a Vein. In Materials science, a crystal is a Solid in which the constituent Atoms Molecules or Ions are packed in a regularly ordered repeating This article is about the chemical compounds alkaloids For the Pharmaceutical company in the Republic of Macedonia see Alkaloid (company. Antipyretics are Drugs that reduce body temperature in situations such as Fever. Antimalarial drugs are designed to prevent or cure Malaria. Some antimalarial agents particularly Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, are also used Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces Inflammation. It is a stereoisomer of quinidine. Stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution but which differ in the three dimensional orientations Quinidine is a Pharmaceutical agent that acts as a Class I antiarrhythmic agent in the Heart.
Quinine was the first effective treatment for malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, appearing in therapeutics in the 17th century. Malaria is a vector -borne Infectious disease caused by Protozoan Parasites It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions including Plasmodium falciparum is a Protozoan Parasite, one of the species of Plasmodium that cause Malaria in humans It remained the antimalarial drug of choice until the 1940s, when other drugs took over. Since then, many effective antimalarials have been introduced, although quinine is still used to treat the disease in certain critical situations. Quinine is available with a prescription in the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Quinine is also used to treat nocturnal leg cramps and arthritis, and there have been attempts (with limited success) to treat prion diseases. Cramps, sometimes called Charley horses are unpleasant often painful sensations caused by contraction or over shortening of Muscles Cramps can be caused by cold Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation plural arthritides is a group of conditions involving damage to the Joints of the body A prion (ˈpriːɒn is thought to be an infectious agent that according to current scientific consensus is comprised entirely of a propagated, mis-folded It was once a popular heroin adulterant. Heroin ( INN: diacetylmorphine, BAN: diamorphine) is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from Morphine, a derivative Adulterants are Chemical substances which should not be contained within other substances (eg
It was first brought to Europe by Jesuits and it was also used to cure King Louis XIV. Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent
Quinine contains two major fused-ring systems: The aromatic quinoline and the bicyclic quinuclidine. Quinoline, also known as 1-azanaphthalene, 1-benzazine, or benzopyridine, is a Heterocyclic Aromatic Organic compound. bicyclic molecule contains two fused Aliphatic rings. Fusion can occur in three ways At two mutually bonded atoms or Across a sequence of atoms Quinuclidine is an Organic compound and a Bicyclic Amine and used as a Catalyst and a chemical building block
The drug acts by inhibiting the hemozoin biocrystallization, thus facilitating an aggregation of cytotoxic heme. Hemozoin is a disposal product formed from the digestion of Blood by some blood-feeding Parasites. Biocrystallization is the formation of Crystals from organic Macromolecules by living Organisms. Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells Examples of toxic agents are a Chemical substance, an Immune cell or some types of Venom A heme ( American English) or haem ( British English) is a Prosthetic group that consists of an Iron atom contained in the center of Toxic free heme accumulates in the parasites, leading to their death.
Quinine was extracted from the bark of the South American cinchona tree and was isolated and named in 1817 by French researchers Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaimé Caventou. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a Cinchona is a Genus of about 25 Species in the family Rubiaceae, native to tropical South America. Year 1817 ( MDCCCXVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Pierre-Joseph Pelletier ( 22 March 1788 &ndash 19 July 1842) was a French Chemist who did notable research work on vegetable The name was derived from the original Quechua (Inca) word for the cinchona tree bark, "Quina" or "Quina-Quina", which roughly means "bark of bark" or "holy bark". Quechua ( Runa Simi) is a Native American language of South America. Prior to 1820, the bark was first dried, ground to a fine powder and then mixed into a liquid (commonly wine) which was then drunk.
Large scale use of quinine as a prophylaxis started around 1850, although it had been used in un-extracted form by Europeans since at least the early 1600s. Prophylaxis ( Greek "προφυλάσσω" to guard or prevent beforehand) is any medical or Public health procedure whose purpose For the game see 1850 (board game. 1850 ( MDCCCL) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link Quinine was first used to treat malaria in Rome in 1631. During the 1600s, malaria was endemic to the swamps and marshes surrounding the city of Rome. A swamp is a Wetland featuring temporary or permanent inundation of large areas of land by shallow bodies of water In Geography, a marsh, or morass, is a type of Wetland which is subject Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Over time, malaria was responsible for the death of several Popes, many Cardinals and countless common citizens of Rome. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. Most of the priests trained in Rome had seen malaria victims and were familiar with the shivering brought on by the cold phase of the disease. A priest or priestess is a person having the authority or power to administer religious rites in particular rites of sacrifice to and propitiation of a deity or deities In addition to its anti-malarial properties, quinine is an effective muscle relaxant, long used by the Quechua Indians of Peru to halt shivering brought on by cold temperatures. Quechua ( Runa Simi) is a Native American language of South America. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. The Jesuit Brother Agostino Salumbrino (1561-1642), an apothecary by training and who lived in Lima, observed the Quechua using the quinine-containing bark of the cinchona tree for that purpose. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Lima is the Capital and largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers on a coast overlooking Cinchona is a Genus of about 25 Species in the family Rubiaceae, native to tropical South America. While its effect in treating malaria (and hence malaria-induced shivering) was entirely unrelated to its effect in controlling shivering from cold, it was still the correct medicine for malaria. At the first opportunity, he sent a small quantity to Rome to test in treating malaria. In the years that followed, cinchona bark became one of the most valuable commodities shipped from Peru to Europe.
Quinine also played a significant role in the colonization of Africa by Europeans. As the harbinger of modern pharmacology, Quinine was the prime reason why Africa ceased to be known as the white man's grave. According to socialist historian Clifford Conner in "A People's History of Science", "It was quinine's efficacy that gave colonists fresh opportunities to swarm into the Gold Coast, Nigeria and other parts of west Africa. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal . . " (Conner pp 95-96 also cites Porter, "The Greatest Benefit to Mankind," pp. 465-466).
Cinchona trees remain the only practical source of quinine. In Total synthesis, the Quinine total synthesis describes the efforts in synthesis of Quinine over a 150 year period Cinchona is a Genus of about 25 Species in the family Rubiaceae, native to tropical South America. However, under wartime pressure, research towards its artificial production was undertaken. A formal chemical synthesis was accomplished in 1944 by American chemists R.B. Woodward and W.E. Doering. Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Robert Burns Woodward ( April 10 1917 &ndash July 8 1979) was an American organic chemist. William von Eggers Doering (born 22 June 1917 in Fort Worth, Texas) is a Professor Emeritus at Harvard University and the former Chair  Since then, several more efficient quinine total syntheses have been achieved, but none of them can compete in economic terms with isolation of the alkaloid from natural sources. In Total synthesis, the Quinine total synthesis describes the efforts in synthesis of Quinine over a 150 year period
Quinine is a basic amine and is therefore always presented as a salt. Amines are Organic compounds and Functional groups that contain a basic Nitrogen Atom with a Lone pair. Various preparations that exist include the hydrochloride, dihydrochloride, sulfate, bisulfate and gluconate. In chemistry hydrochlorides are salts resulting or regarded as resulting from the reaction of Hydrochloric acid with an organic base (mostly Amines Gluconic acid is an Organic compound with Molecular formula C6H12O7 and condensed structural formula HOCH2(CHOH4COOH This makes quinine dosing very complicated, because each of the salts has a different weight.
The following amounts of each form are equal:
All quinine salts may be given orally or intravenously (IV); quinine gluconate may also be given intramuscularly (IM) or rectally (PR). Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of Liquid substances directly into a Vein. Intramuscular injection is the injection of a substance directly into a Muscle.  The main problem with the rectal route is that the dose can be expelled before it is completely absorbed, but this can be rectified by giving a half dose again.
The IV dose of quinine is 8 mg/kg of quinine base every eight hours; the IM dose is 12. 8 mg/kg of quinine base twice daily; the PR dose is 20 mg/kg of quinine base twice daily. Treatment should be given for seven days.
The preparations available in the UK are quinine sulfate (200 mg or 300 mg tablets) and quinine hydrochloride (300 mg/ml for injection). Quinine is not licensed for IM or PR use in the UK. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The adult dose in the UK is 600 mg quinine dihydrochloride IV or 600 mg quinine sulfate orally every eight hours.
In the United States quinine sulfate is available as 324 mg tablets under the brand name Qualaquin; the adult dose is two tablets every eight hours. There is no injectable preparation of quinine licensed in the U. S. : quinidine is used instead. Quinidine is a Pharmaceutical agent that acts as a Class I antiarrhythmic agent in the Heart. 
Quinine is not recommended for malaria prevention (prophylaxis) because of its side effects and poor tolerability, not because it is ineffective. When used for prophylaxis, the dose of quinine sulfate is 300–324mg once daily, starting one week prior to travel and continuing for four weeks after returning.
It is usual for quinine in therapeutic doses to cause cinchonism; in rare cases, it may even cause death (usually by pulmonary edema). Cinchonism or quinism is a pathological condition in humans caused by an overdose of Quinine or its natural source Cinchona bark Cinchonism or quinism is a pathological condition in humans caused by an overdose of Quinine or its natural source Cinchona bark Pulmonary Edema (American English or oedema (British English is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the Lungs It leads to impaired gas exchange and may cause The development of mild cinchonism is not a reason for stopping or interrupting quinine therapy and the patient should be reassured. Blood glucose levels and electrolyte concentrations must be monitored when quinine is given by injection; the patient should also ideally be in cardiac monitoring when the first quinine injection is given (these precautions are often unavailable in developing countries where malaria is most a problem).
Cinchonism is much less common when quinine is given by mouth, but oral quinine is not well tolerated (quinine is exceedingly bitter and many patients will vomit after ingesting quinine tablets): other drugs such as Fansidar (sulfadoxine (sulfonamide antibiotic) with pyrimethamine) or Malarone (proguanil with atovaquone) are often used when oral therapy is required. Sulfadoxine (also spelled sulphadoxine) is an ultra-long-lasting Sulfonamide often used in combination with Pyrimethamine to treat or prevent Pyrimethamine ( Daraprim) is a Medication used for Protozoal infections Proguanil (proguanil hydrochloride is a Prophylactic Antimalarial drug, which works by stopping the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum Atovaquone (alternative spelling atavaquone) is a chemical compound that belongs to the class of Naphthalenes Atovaquone is a hydroxy-14-naphthoquinone an analog Blood glucose, electrolyte and cardiac monitoring are not necessary when quinine is given by mouth.
Quinine can cause paralysis if accidentally injected into a nerve. It is extremely toxic in overdose and the advice of a poisons specialist should be sought immediately. Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicos and logos) is the study of the adverse effects of Chemicals on living organisms
In very large doses, quinine also acts as an abortifacient; in the United States quinine is classed as a Category X teratogen by the Food and Drug Administration, meaning that it can cause birth defects if taken by a woman during pregnancy. An abortifacient is a substance that induces Abortion. Abortifacients for Animals that have mated undesirably are known as Mismating shots Teratology stems from the Greek ( Genitive) meaning monster, or marvel and, meaning word, speech. A congenital disorder is a disease or disorder that is present at birth Pregnancy ( Latin graviditas) is the carrying of one or more offspring known as a Fetus or Embryo, inside the Uterus of a Female In the UK, the recommendation is that pregnancy is not a contra-indication to quinine therapy for falciparum malaria (which directly contradicts the US recommendation), although it should be used with caution; the reason for this is that the risks to the pregnancy are small and theoretical, as opposed to the very real risk of death from falciparum malaria. Plasmodium falciparum is a Protozoan Parasite, one of the species of Plasmodium that cause Malaria in humans
Quinine can cause hemolysis in G6PD deficiency, but again this risk is small and the physician should not hesitate to use quinine in patients with G6PD deficiency when there is no alternative. Hemolysis (or haemolysis)—from the Greek Hemo-, Greek meaning blood - Lysis, meaning to break open—is the breaking Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is an X-linked recessive Hereditary disease characterised by abnormally low levels of Glucose-6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is an X-linked recessive Hereditary disease characterised by abnormally low levels of Glucose-6-phosphate Quinine can also cause drug-induced immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Medication, also referred to as medicine, can be loosely defined as any substance intended for use in the diagnosis cure mitigation treatment or prevention of disease Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP is the condition of having a low Platelet count ( Thrombocytopenia) of no known cause ( Idiopathic)
Quinine can cause abnormal heart rhythms and should be avoided if possible in patients with atrial fibrillation, conduction defects or heart block. Atrial fibrillation ( AF or afib) is a Cardiac arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythm that involves the two upper chambers ( atria) of the Heart A heart block is a disease in the electrical system of the Heart.
Quinine must not be used in patients with hemoglobinuria, myasthenia gravis or optic neuritis, because it worsens these conditions. In Medicine, hemoglobinuria is a condition in which the Oxygen transport Protein Hemoglobin is found in abnormally high concentrations in the Myasthenia gravis (literally "serious muscle-weakness" from Greek μύς "muscle" "weakness" and Latin gravis Optic Neuritis is the Inflammation of the Optic nerve that may cause a complete or partial loss of vision
Some studies have related the use of quinine and hearing impairment, which can cause some high-frequency loss, but it has not been conclusively established whether such impairment is temporary or permanent. 
From 1969 to 1992, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) received 157 reports of health problems related to quinine use, including 23 which had resulted in death. Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  In 1994, the FDA banned the use of over-the-counter (OTC) quinine as a treatment for nocturnal leg cramps. Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Over-the-counter (OTC drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to Prescription drugs The name "over-the-counter" Pfizer Pharmaceuticals had been selling the brand name Legatrin for this purpose. Pfizer Incorporated ( is a major Pharmaceutical company, which ranks number one in the world in sales A drug, broadly speaking is any chemical substance that when absorbed into the body Doctors may still prescribe quinine, but the FDA has ordered firms to stop marketing unapproved drug products containing quinine. The FDA is also cautioning consumers about off-label use of quinine to treat leg cramps. Quinine is approved for treatment of malaria, but is also commonly prescribed to treat leg cramps and similar conditions. Because malaria is life-threatening, the risks associated with quinine use are justified for that condition. But because of the drug's risks, FDA believes it should not be used to prevent or treat leg cramps. 
Quinine is a flavour component of tonic water, bitter lemon, and vermouth. Tonic water (or Indian tonic water) is a carbonated Soft drink Flavored with Quinine, which gives it a distinctively bitter taste Bitter lemon is a carbonated Soft drink Flavoured with Quinine and Lemon. Vermouth (also spelled vermuth) is a Fortified wine flavored with aromatic Herbs and spices ("aromatized" in the trade using closely-guarded recipes According to tradition, the bitter taste of anti-malarial quinine tonic led British colonials in India to mix it with gin, thus creating the gin and tonic cocktail, which is still popular today in many parts of the world. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Gin is a spirit flavoured with Juniper berries. Distilled gin is made by redistilling white grain spirit which has been flavoured with juniper A gin and tonic is a highball Cocktail made with Gin and Tonic water, usually garnished with a slice of lime or Lemon
Bark of Remijia contains 0,5 - 2 % of quinine. Remijia is a genus in tribe Cinchoneae in the Rubiaceae and is native to Peru and Brazil. The bark is cheaper than bark of Cinchona and is has got an intensive taste so it is used for making of tonic water. Cinchona is a Genus of about 25 Species in the family Rubiaceae, native to tropical South America. Tonic water (or Indian tonic water) is a carbonated Soft drink Flavored with Quinine, which gives it a distinctively bitter taste 
In some areas, non-medical use of quinine is regulated. For example, in the United States and in Germany, quinine is limited to between 83-85 parts per million (83-85 mg/kg),  which is 0. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. "Parts-per" notation is used especially in Science and Engineering, to denote Ratios (relative proportions in measured quantities particularly 5% to 0. 25% the concentration used in therapeutic tonic. In Chemistry, concentration is the measure of how much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance Therapy (in Greek: θεραπεία) or treatment, is the attempted Remediation of a health problem usually following a Diagnosis
In France, quinine is an ingredient of an apéritif known as Quinquina. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. An apéritif (also spelled aperitif) is an alcoholic drink that is usually served to stimulate the appetite before a meal In France, Quinquina is a collective name for Alcoholic Bitters (aperitif having Quinine as one of their main ingredients
Because of its relatively constant and well-known fluorescence quantum yield, quinine is also used in photochemistry as a common fluorescence standard. Fluorescence is a Luminescence that is mostly found as an The quantum yield of a Radiation -induced process is the number of times that a defined event occurs per Photon absorbed by the system Photochemistry, a sub-discipline of Chemistry, is the study of the interactions between Atoms, small Molecules, and light (or Electromagnetic radiation A technical standard is an established norm or requirement It is usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria methods processes and practices
Quinine (and quinidine) are used as the chiral moiety for the ligands used in Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation. Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation (also called the Sharpless bishydroxylation) is the Chemical reaction of an Alkene with Osmium tetroxide
Quinine is often added to street drugs cocaine or ketamine in order to "cut" the product and make more profit.
In Canada, quinine is an ingredient in the carbonated chinotto beverage called Brio. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The (pronounced, roughly "key-NAWT-toe" is a small bitter Citrus Fruit from the chinotto or "myrtle-leaved" orange tree ( A drink, or beverage, is a Liquid specifically prepared for Human consumption BRIO is a wooden Toy company founded in Sweden. Founder Ivar Bengtsson was a basket maker who started to make toys in Osby, Scania
In the United Kingdom, Scottish company A.G. Barr's uses quinine as an ingredient in the carbonated and caffeinated beverage Irn-Bru. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located AG Barr plc ( LSE Stockcode BAG is a Scottish Soft drinks manufacturer based in Cumbernauld, North Lanarkshire, Scotland This article is about ingredients in general There is also an American soul and R&B group called The Main Ingredient. Caffeine is a bitter white crystalline Xanthine Alkaloid that acts as a Psychoactive Stimulant Drug and a mild Diuretic Irn-Bru (pronounced iron brew ˈaɪɚn ˈbruː is a popular carbonated Soft drink produced in Scotland.
In England, Australia and New Zealand, quinine is an ingredient in Schweppes and other Indian Tonic waters, at a concentration of 0. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Tonic water (or Indian tonic water) is a carbonated Soft drink Flavored with Quinine, which gives it a distinctively bitter taste 5%.
In Uruguay and Argentina, quinine is an ingredient of a Pepsico Inc. Uruguay.(official full name in República Oriental del Uruguay;, Oriental Republic of Uruguay) is a country located in the southeastern part of South America For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. PepsiCo Incorporated (Short for Pepsi Company ( is a large conglomerate with interests in manufacturing marketing and selling a wide variety of carbonated and non- carbonated Tonic water named Paso de los Toros. Tonic water (or Indian tonic water) is a carbonated Soft drink Flavored with Quinine, which gives it a distinctively bitter taste Paso de los Toros (Passing of the Bulls is a Uruguayan commercial Carbonated Soft drink, a brand of Tonic water.
In South Africa, quinine is an ingredient of a Clifton Instant Drink named Chikree produced by Tiger Food Brands. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa