|Mainstream popularity||Topped charts in UK during late 1970s. Rock and roll (also known as rock 'n' roll) is a form of Music that evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s with roots in mostly African Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of Rock and roll music and emerged in the early 1950s Frat rock was an early influential American subgenre of Rock and roll / Roots rock. Psychedelic rock is a style of Rock music that attempts to replicate the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs. Pub rock was a mid- to late-1970s musical movement largely centred around North London and South East Essex, particularly Canvey Island and Southend Glam rock (also known as glitter rock) is a sub-genre of Rock music that developed in the UK in the post- Hippie early 1970s which was "performed by The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles The electric bass guitar (also called electric bass, or simply bass; ˈbeɪs as in "base" is a Stringed instrument played primarily with the A drum kit (also drum set or trap set) is a collection of Drums Cymbals and sometimes other Percussion instruments such as cowbells International commercial success for pop punk and ska punk, mid-1990s–2000s. Pop punk (also known as punk pop and other names is a Fusion genre that combines elements of Punk rock with Pop music, to varying Ska punk is a fusion Music genre that combines Ska and Punk rock.|
|Derivative forms||New Wave - Post-punk - Alternative rock - Emo|
|Anarcho-punk - Art punk - Garage punk - Gothic rock - Glam punk - Hardcore - Horror punk - Oi! - Riot Grrrl - Skate punk - Christian punk - Nazi punk|
|Anti-folk - Celtic punk - Chicano punk - Cowpunk - Deathrock - Folk punk - Gypsy punk - Pop punk - Psychobilly - Punk blues - Ska punk - 2 Tone - Punk jazz|
|Argentina - Australia - Belgium - Brazil - California - France - Germany - Uruguay - Yugoslavia|
|Brisbane - Toronto|
|DIY ethic - First wave punk - Queercore - Punk fashion - Punk forerunners - Punk ideologies - Punk movies - Punk fanzines - Punk subculture - Punk timeline - Second wave punk - Straight Edge - List of punk bands - Punk rock subgenres|
Punk rock is an anti-establishment rock music genre and movement that emerged in the mid-1970s. New Wave is a Rock music genre that existed during the late 1970s and the 1980s Post-punk was a popular musical movement in the mid to late 1970s following on the heels of the initial Punk rock explosion of the early 1970s Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock or simply alternative; known primarily in the UK as indie) is a genre of Emo (ˈiːmoʊ is a genre of music that originated from Hardcore punk early on and adopted Pop-punk influences later on in the 2000s when A number of overlapping punk rock genres have developed since the emergence of Punk rock (often shortened to punk) in the mid 1970s Anarcho-punk is a faction of the Punk subculture that consists of bands groups and individuals promoting anarchist politics Art rock is a term describing a subgenre of Rock music that tends to have "experimental or avant-garde influences" and emphasizes "novel sonic texture Garage punk is a Rock music Fusion of Garage rock and Punk rock. This article is about the musical style of gothic rock For the goth scene in general see Goth subculture. Glam punk (or glitter punk) is a Music genre that mixes elements of Glam rock with Protopunk or Punk rock (and sometimes Garage Hardcore punk (now usually referred to as simply hardcore) is a subgenre of Punk rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s Horror punk is a Music genre that was defined by the bands The Misfits, The Cramps and seminally influential group The Damned, blending Oi! is a Working class street-level subgenre of Punk rock that originated in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s Riot grrrl was an underground Feminist punk movement that started in the early 1990s and is often associated with Third-wave feminism (it Skate punk is a sub-genre of Punk rock which was named because of its popularity among skateboarders, and the fact that many members of skate punk bands Christian punk (or Christ punk) is a form of Christian music and a subgenre of Punk rock with some degree of Christian A Nazi punk is a neo-Nazi who is part of the Punk subculture. The music sub-genre known as anti-folk (or antifolk) takes the earnestness of politically charged 1960s music and subverts it into something else Celtic punk is Punk rock mixed with traditional Celtic music. Chicano rock is a rock music performed by Mexican American ( Chicano) groups or music with themes derived Cowpunk or Country punk is a subgenre of Punk rock that began in Southern California in the 1980s especially Los Angeles. Deathrock (or Death Punk) is a term used to identify a fusion of Punk rock and Gothic rock which incorporates elements of horror and spooky atmospheres Folk punk is a fusion of Folk music and Punk rock. Folk punk in the United Kingdom has existed almost as long as punk rock itself Gypsy punk is the term used to describe a hybrid musical genre that crosses traditional Roma music with Punk rock and other brands of rebel music Pop punk (also known as punk pop and other names is a Fusion genre that combines elements of Punk rock with Pop music, to varying Psychobilly is a genre of Rock music that mixes elements of Punk rock, Rockabilly, and other genres Punk blues (or blues punk) denotes a Rock music fusion of Punk rock and Blues. Ska punk is a fusion Music genre that combines Ska and Punk rock. 2 Tone (or Two Tone) is a Music genre created in England in the late 1970s by fusing elements of Ska, Punk rock, Rocksteady Punk jazz describes the amalgamation of elements of the jazz tradition (usually the Free jazz and Jazz fusion of the 1960s and '70s with the instrumentation Argentine punk is Punk rock from Argentina. 1976–1983 Military dictatorship years 1976 is the year in which punk music started to emerge in See also Australian rock, Punk rock Australian musicians played and recorded some of the earliest punk rock. This is a list of topics related to Punk rock in Belgium. Bands The Agitators (Antwerp Back Lavatory (Namur Billy Bolley The origin of Punk rock and Hardcore punk in Brazil was around the end of the 1970s by the influence of bands like Sex Pistols, The Clash The California punk scene is a regional Punk music scene that started in the late 1970s and still exists today French punk is punk-rock from France. History Formed in 1976, Métal Urbain and Stinky Punk rock and Punk subculture have created a popular scene in Germany since punk music became popular in the 1970s Although Uruguayan punk rock seems to be born in the recent years - between the 80's and 90's decades - when talking about Uruguayan rock and roll lots of earlier bands must be placed in The Brisbane Punk rock scene between 1975 and 1984 is generally regarded as producing “some of the most anarchistic bands of the Australian punk rock The groundwork for the Toronto Punk rock scene was laid by the Protopunk band Dishes, along with the promotion team known as The Garys and a core group The DIY ethic ( Do it yourself ethic refers to the ethic of being self-reliant by completing tasks oneself as opposed to having others who are likely more experienced complete This is a list of notable early Punk rock Queercore is a cultural and social movement that began in the mid-1980s as an offshoot of punk. Punk fashion is the styles of Clothing, Hairstyles, Cosmetics, Jewelry, and Body modifications of the Punk subculture. This is a list of Protopunk bands and individuals who were influential in the development of Punk rock. Punk ideologies are a group of varied social and political beliefs associated with the Punk subculture. This is a list of films related to the Punk subculture. 0-9 1991 The Year Punk Broke (1992 24 Hour Party People A punk zine (or punkzine) is a Zine devoted to punk culture most often Punk rock music bands or the DIY punk ethic. The punk subculture is based around Punk rock. It emerged from the larger Rock music scene in the mid-to-late-1970s in the United Kingdom, the United This is a timeline of Punk rock, from its beginnings in the early 1960s to the present time This is a list of bands that are considered part of the second wave of Punk rock, beginning in the 1980s Straight Edge refers to a lifestyle that started within the Hardcore punk subculture whose adherents make a commitment to refrain from using alcohol, Tobacco Lists of punk bands can be found at List of punk bands 0–K, for bands beginning with 0–9 through K List of punk bands L–Z, for bands A number of overlapping punk rock genres have developed since the emergence of Punk rock (often shortened to punk) in the mid 1970s An anti-establishment view or belief is one which stands in opposition to the conventional social political and economic principles of a society Rock music is a genre of Popular music often though not necessarily employing Electric guitar, Bass guitar, and Drums. Preceded by a variety of what is now known as proto-punk music of the 1960s and early 1970s, punk rock developed between 1974 and 1976 in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Bands such as the Ramones, in New York City, and the Sex Pistols and The Clash, in London, were recognized as the vanguard of a new musical movement. The Ramones were an American rock band often regarded as the first Punk rock group The Sex Pistols are an English Punk rock band that formed in London in 1975 For the debut album by The Clash see The Clash (album The Clash were By 1977, punk was spreading around the world.
Punk rock bands eschewed the perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock, and created fast, hard music, typically with short songs, stripped-down instrumentation, and often political and anti-government lyrics. The associated punk subculture expresses youthful rebellion and is characterized by distinctive clothing styles, a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies, and a DIY (do it yourself) attitude. The punk subculture is based around Punk rock. It emerged from the larger Rock music scene in the mid-to-late-1970s in the United Kingdom, the United Punk fashion is the styles of Clothing, Hairstyles, Cosmetics, Jewelry, and Body modifications of the Punk subculture. Punk ideologies are a group of varied social and political beliefs associated with the Punk subculture. The DIY ethic ( Do it yourself ethic refers to the ethic of being self-reliant by completing tasks oneself as opposed to having others who are likely more experienced complete
Punk rock quickly, though briefly, became a major cultural phenomenon in the United Kingdom. For the most part, punk took root in local scenes that tended to reject association with the mainstream. By the beginning of the 1980s, even faster, more aggressive styles such as hardcore and Oi! had become the predominant mode of punk rock. Hardcore punk (now usually referred to as simply hardcore) is a subgenre of Punk rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s Oi! is a Working class street-level subgenre of Punk rock that originated in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk also pursued a broad range of other variations, giving rise to the alternative rock movement. Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock or simply alternative; known primarily in the UK as indie) is a genre of By the turn of the century, new pop punk bands such as Green Day were bringing the genre widespread popularity decades after its inception. Pop punk (also known as punk pop and other names is a Fusion genre that combines elements of Punk rock with Pop music, to varying Green Day is an American rock trio
The first wave of punk rock aimed to be aggressively modern, distancing itself from the bombast and sentimentality of early 1970s rock.  According to Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone, "In its initial form, a lot of [1960s] stuff was innovative and exciting. The Ramones were an American rock band often regarded as the first Punk rock group Tommy Ramone (born Erdélyi Tamás, January 29, 1952 in Budapest, Hungary) is a Hungarian Record producer Unfortunately, what happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the likes of Hendrix started noodling away. James Marshall Hendrix (born Johnny Allen Hendrix) (November 27 1942 – September 18 1970 was an American Guitarist, Singer and Songwriter Soon you had endless solos that went nowhere. By 1973, I knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock 'n' roll. " John Holmstrom, founding editor of Punk magazine, recalls feeling "punk rock had to come along because the rock scene had become so tame that [acts] like Billy Joel and Simon and Garfunkel were being called rock and roll, when to me and other fans, rock and roll meant this wild and rebellious music. John Holmstrom is an American underground Cartoonist and Writer. PUNK magazine was a Fanzine created by cartoonist John Holmstrom, publisher Ged Dunn and "resident punk" Legs McNeil William Martin Joel (born May 9 1949 is an American Pianist and Singer-songwriter. Simon & Garfunkel are an American Singer-songwriter duo of Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel. " In critic Robert Christgau's description, "It was also a subculture that scornfully rejected the political idealism and Californian flower-power silliness of hippie myth. Robert Christgau (born April 18 1942) is an American Essayist, Music journalist, and the self-declared "Dean of American " Patti Smith, in contrast, suggests in the documentary 25 Years of Punk that the hippies and the punk rockers were linked by a common anti-establishment mentality. Patricia Lee Smith ( born December 30 1946 is an American Singer-songwriter and poet
Throughout punk rock history, technical accessibility and a DIY spirit have been prized. In the early days of punk rock, this ethic stood in marked contrast to what those in the scene regarded as the ostentatious musical effects and technological demands of many mainstream rock bands.  Musical virtuosity was often looked on with suspicion. According to Holmstrom, punk rock was "rock and roll by people who didn't have very much skills as musicians but still felt the need to express themselves through music".  In December 1976, the English fanzine Sideburns famously published an illustration of three chords, captioned "This is a chord, this is another, this is a third. A fanzine (see also Zine) is a nonprofessional publication produced by fans of a particular cultural phenomenon (such as a literary or musical genre for the pleasure Now form a band. " The title of a 1980 single by New York punk band The Stimulators, "Loud Fast Rules!", inscribed a catchphrase for punk's basic musical approach. 
Some of British punk rock's leading figures made a show of rejecting not only contemporary mainstream rock and the broader culture it was associated with, but their own most celebrated predecessors: "No Elvis, Beatles or the Rolling Stones in 1977", declared The Clash song "1977". The Beatles were a pop and rock band from Liverpool, England formed in 1960 For the debut album by The Clash see The Clash (album The Clash were  The previous year, when the punk rock revolution began in Great Britain, was to be both a musical and a cultural "Year Zero".  Even as nostalgia was discarded, many in the scene adopted a nihilistic attitude summed up by the Sex Pistols slogan "No Future". The Sex Pistols are an English Punk rock band that formed in London in 1975  Others found positive, liberating meaning in the movement. As a Clash associate describes singer Joe Strummer's outlook, "Punk rock is meant to be our freedom. John Graham Mellor (21 August 1952 – 22 December 2002 better known as Joe Strummer, was the co-founder lyricist Rhythm guitarist and lead singer of the We're meant to be able to do what we want to do. "
Punk rock bands often emulate the bare musical structures and arrangements of 1960s garage rock.  Typical punk rock instrumentation includes one or two electric guitars, an electric bass, and a drum kit, along with vocals. Punk rock songs tend to be shorter than those of other popular genres—on the Ramones' debut album, for instance, half of the fourteen tracks are under two minutes long. Ramones is the debut Album by Punk rock band the Ramones. Widely cited as having the distinction of being the first punk rock group the Ramones Most early punk rock songs retained a traditional rock 'n' roll verse-chorus form and 4/4 time signature. Verse-chorus form is a Musical form common in Popular music and predominant in rock since the 1960s The time signature (also known as " meter signature" is a notational convention used in Western Musical notation to specify how many beats However, punk rock bands in the movement's second wave and afterward have often broken from this format. In critic Steven Blush's description, "The Sex Pistols were still rock'n'roll. . . like the craziest version of Chuck Berry. Charles Edward Anderson "Chuck" Berry (born October 18 1926 in St Hardcore was a radical departure from that. Hardcore punk (now usually referred to as simply hardcore) is a subgenre of Punk rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s It wasn't verse-chorus rock. It dispelled any notion of what songwriting is supposed to be. It's its own form. "
Punk rock vocals sometimes sound nasal, and lyrics are often shouted instead of sung in a conventional sense, particularly in hardcore styles.  The vocal approach is characterized by a lack of variety; shifts in pitch, volume, or intonational style are relatively infrequent—the Sex Pistols' Johnny Rotten constituting a significant exception. John Joseph Lydon (born 31 January 1956 in London England also known as Johnny Rotten, is a British Rock musician best known as lead vocalist for the Punk  Complicated guitar solos are considered self-indulgent and unnecessary, although basic guitar breaks are common.  Guitar parts tend to include highly distorted power chords or barre chords, creating a characteristic sound described by Christgau as a "buzzsaw drone". In Music, a power chord (also fifth chord) is a note plus the note a fifth above usually played on Electric guitar. Barre chords (also known as barré chords and bar chords, but more commonly spelled as "barre" are a type of Guitar chord where  Some punk rock bands take a surf rock approach with a lighter, twangier guitar tone. Surf rock is a style of music that originated in the USA that mixes elements of Surf music and Rock music, and partially due to the number of Mexican Others, such as Robert Quine, lead guitarist of seminal punk rock band The Voidoids, employ a wild, "gonzo" attack, a style that stretches back through The Velvet Underground to the 1950s recordings of Ike Turner. Robert W Quine ( December 30, 1942 – May 31, 2004) was an American Guitarist, known for his innovative Guitar solos The Voidoids, also known as Richard Hell and The Voidoids, were a New York City Punk rock band of the late 1970s and early "Gonzo" redirects here For other uses see Gonzo (disambiguation Gonzo journalism is a style of Journalism which is written This article is about the band For their self-titled album see The Velvet Underground (album; for the book see The Velvet Underground (book Ike Wister Turner ( November 5 1931 &ndash December 12 2007) was an American Musician, Bandleader,  Bass guitar lines are often uncomplicated; the quintessential approach is a relentless, repetitive "forced rhythm", although some punk rock bass players—such as Mike Watt of The Minutemen and fIREHOSE—emphasize more technical bass lines. Michael David Watt (born December 20, 1957 in Portsmouth Virginia) is an American Bass guitarist singer and Songwriter. The Minutemen were an American Punk rock band formed in San Pedro, California in 1980 Firehose (stylized as fIREHOSE) was an Alternative rock band consisting of Mike Watt (bass vocals Ed Crawford (guitar vocals Bassists often use a plectrum due to the rapid succession of notes, which makes fingerpicking impractical. Often called a pick or plec, a plectrum is a small flat tool used to pluck or strum a stringed instrument. Fingerstyle guitar is the technique of playing the Guitar by plucking the strings directly with the fingertips fingernails or picks attached to fingers as opposed to Drums typically sound heavy and dry, and often have a minimal set-up. Compared to other forms of rock, syncopation is much less the rule. In Music, syncopation includes a variety of Rhythms which are in some way unexpected in that they deviate from the strict succession of regularly spaced  Hardcore drumming tends to be especially fast.  Production tends to be minimalistic, with tracks sometimes laid down on home tape recorders.  The typical objective is to have the recording sound unmanipulated, "real", reflecting the commitment and "authenticity" of a live performance. 
Punk rock lyrics are typically frank and confrontational; compared to other popular music genres, they frequently comment on social and political issues. For the debut album by The Clash see The Clash (album The Clash were  Trend-setting songs such as The Clash's "Career Opportunities" and Chelsea's "Right to Work" deal with unemployment and the grim realities of urban life. See Career Opportunities (film for the movie of this same title Chelsea are an English Punk rock band formed in London in 1976  Especially in early British punk, a central goal was to outrage and shock the mainstream.  The Sex Pistols classics "Anarchy in the U.K." and "God Save the Queen" openly disparage the British political system and social mores. " Anarchy in the UK " is the title of the first single by Sex Pistols, released on November 26 1976. " God Save the Queen " was the second single released by the Punk rock band Sex Pistols. There is also a characteristic strain of anti-sentimental depictions of relationships and sex, exemplified by "Love Comes in Spurts", written by Richard Hell and recorded by him with The Voidoids. Richard Hell (born Richard Meyers; October 2, 1949) is an American Singer, Songwriter, Bass guitarist Anomie, variously expressed in the poetic terms of Hell's "Blank Generation" and the bluntness of the Ramones' "Now I Wanna Sniff Some Glue", is a common theme. Anomie, in contemporary English language is a sociological term that signifies in individuals an erosion diminution or absence of personal norms standards or values Identifying punk with such topics aligns with the view expressed by Search and Destroy founder V. Vale: "Punk was a total cultural revolt. RE/Search Publications is a United States magazine and book publisher based in San Francisco, founded and edited by V V Vale is a Writer and Publisher. He is the publisher and primary contributor to books and magazines published by his company RE/Search Publications. It was a hardcore confrontation with the black side of history and culture, right-wing imagery, sexual taboos, a delving into it that had never been done before by any generation in such a thorough way. " However, many punk rock lyrics deal in more traditional rock 'n' roll themes of courtship, heartbreak, and hanging out; the approach ranges from the deadpan, aggressive simplicity of Ramones standards such as "I Wanna Be Your Boyfriend" to the more unambiguously sincere style of many later pop punk groups.
The classic punk rock look among male U. S. musicians harkens back to the T-shirt, motorcycle jacket, and jeans ensemble favored by American greasers of the 1950s associated with the rockabilly scene and by British rockers of the 1960s. Greasers are a Working class Youth subculture that originated in the 1950s among young eastern and Southern United States Street Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of Rock and roll music and emerged in the early 1950s The cover of the Ramones' 1976 debut album, featuring a shot of the band by Punk photographer Roberta Bayley, set forth the basic elements of a style that was soon widely emulated by rock musicians both punk and nonpunk.  Richard Hell's more androgynous, ragamuffin look—and reputed invention of the safety-pin aesthetic—was a major influence on Sex Pistols impresario Malcolm McLaren and, in turn, British punk style. A safety pin is a simple fastening device a variation of the regular pin which includes a simple spring mechanism and a clasp Malcolm McLaren (born Malcolm Robert Andrew Edwards on January 22 1946 in London) is an English Impresario and musician  Early female punk musicians displayed styles ranging from Siouxsie Sioux's bondage gear to Patti Smith's "straight-from-the-gutter androgyny". Susan Janet Ballion  The former proved much more influential on female fan styles.  Over time, tattoos, piercings, and metal-studded and -spiked accessories became increasingly common elements of punk fashion among both musicians and fans. Body piercing is the practice of puncturing or cutting a part of the Human body, creating an opening in which jewelry may be worn Punk fashion is the styles of Clothing, Hairstyles, Cosmetics, Jewelry, and Body modifications of the Punk subculture. The typical male punk haircut was originally short and choppy; the Mohawk later emerged as a characteristic style. The Mohawk (or mohican in British English) is a Hairstyle which consists of shaving both sides of the head leaving a strip of noticeably longer hair  Those in hardcore scenes often adopt a skinhead look. A skinhead is a member of a Subculture that originated among Working class youths in the United Kingdom in the 1960s and then spread to other parts of
The characteristic stage performance style of male punk musicians does not deviate significantly from the macho postures classically associated with rock music.  Female punk musicians broke more clearly from earlier styles. Scholar John Strohm suggests that they did so by creating personas of a type conventionally seen as masculine: "They adopted a tough, unladylike pose that borrowed more from the macho swagger of sixties garage bands than from the calculated bad-girl image of bands like The Runaways. The Runaways was a teenage American all-girl Rock band that performed in the 1970s " Scholar Dave Laing describes how bassist Gaye Advert adopted fashion elements associated with male musicians only to generate a stage persona readily consumed as "sexy". Gaye Advert (born Gaye Black, 29 August 1956, Bideford, Devon, England) is an English Punk rock  Laing focuses on more innovative and challenging performance styles, seen in the various erotically destabilizing approaches of Siouxsie Sioux, The Slits' Ari Up, and X-Ray Spex's Poly Styrene. The Slits are a UK Punk rock band The quartet was formed in 1976 by members of the bands The Flowers of Romance and The Castrators Ari Up (born January 17, 1962) is the Stage name for the lead vocalist of the English punk group, The Slits X-Ray Spex are an English punk band from London that formed in 1976. Poly Styrene is the Stage name of Marian Joan Elliott Said, Singer in the English Punk rock band X-Ray Spex. 
The lack of emphatic syncopation led punk dance to "deviant" forms. Punk dance is the variety of Dance popular among fans of Punk rock and related styles The characteristic style was originally the pogo. The pogo is a Dance where the dancers jump up and down while remaining in the same location the dance takes its name from its resemblance to the use of a Pogo stick  Sid Vicious, before he became the Sex Pistols' bassist, is credited as initiating the pogo in Britain as an attendee at one of their concerts. John Simon Ritchie (born May 10, 1957, died February 2, 1979) better known as Sid Vicious, was an English Punk  Moshing is typical at hardcore shows. Moshing or slamming refers to the activity in which audience members at live music performances aggressively push or slam into each other The lack of conventional dance rhythms was a central factor in limiting punk's mainstream commercial impact. 
Breaking down the distance, and even the distinction, between performer and audience is central to the punk ethic.  Fan participation at concerts is thus important; during the movement's first heyday, it was often provoked in an adversarial manner—apparently perverse, but appropriately "punk". First-wave British punk bands such as the Pistols and The Damned insulted and otherwise goaded the audience into intense reactions. The Damned are an English band formed in London in 1976 notable for being the first Punk rock band from England to release a single (" New Rose " an Laing has identified three primary forms of audience physical response to goading: can throwing, stage invasion, and spitting or "gobbing".  In the hardcore realm, stage invasion is often a prelude to stage diving. Stage diving is the act of leaping from a Concert stage onto the crowd below a stage antic whose origin is variously credited to Iggy Pop or Peter Gabriel In addition to the numerous fans who have started or joined punk bands, audience members also become important participants via the scene's many amateur periodicals—in England, according to Laing, punk "was the first musical genre to spawn fanzines in any significant numbers. A fanzine (see also Zine) is a nonprofessional publication produced by fans of a particular cultural phenomenon (such as a literary or musical genre for the pleasure "
In the early and mid-1960s, garage rock bands that came to be recognized as punk rock's progenitors began springing up in many different locations around North America. The Kingsmen, a garage band from Portland, Oregon, had a breakout hit with their 1963 cover of "Louie, Louie," cited as "punk rock's defining ur-text. The Kingsmen were a 1960s Garage rock / Frat rock band from Portland, Oregon. " Louie Louie " is an American rock 'n' roll song written by Richard Berry in 1955 For uses of the term not related to editions of music see Urtext. " The minimalist sound of many garage rock bands was influenced by the harder-edged wing of the British Invasion. The British Invasion was the term applied by the news media — and subsequently by consumers — to the influx of Rock and roll, beat and pop performers The Kinks' hit singles of 1964, "You Really Got Me" and "All Day and All of the Night," have been described as "predecessors of the whole three-chord genre—the Ramones' 1978 'I Don't Want You,' for instance, was pure Kinks-by-proxy. The Kinks were an English pop and rock group formed in 1963 and categorised in the US as a British Invasion band " You Really Got Me " is a rock Song written by Ray Davies and performed by his band The Kinks. " All Day and All of the Night " is a song by the British band The Kinks from 1964 " In 1965, The Who quickly progressed from its debut single, "I Can't Explain", a virtual Kinks clone, to "My Generation". The Who are an English rock band formed in 1964. The primary lineup consisted of guitarist Pete Townshend " I Can't Explain " is a song released by English rock band The Who in 1965, written by Pete Townshend and produced by Shel " My Generation " is a song by the British rock group The Who, which became a hit and one of their most recognizable songs Though it had little impact on the American charts, The Who's mod anthem presaged a more cerebral mix of musical ferocity and rebellious posture that characterized much early British punk rock: John Reed describes The Clash's emergence as a "tight ball of energy with both an image and rhetoric reminiscent of a young Pete Townshend—speed obsession, pop-art clothing, art school ambition. Peter Dennis Blandford Townshend (born 19 May 1945 in Chiswick, London) is an English rock Guitarist, Singer, " The Who and fellow mods The Small Faces were among the few rock elders acknowledged by the Sex Pistols. Small Faces were an English rock group from East London, heavily influenced by American Rhythm and blues.  By 1966, mod was already in decline. U. S. garage rock began to lose steam within a couple of years, but the aggressive musical approach and outsider attitude of "garage psych" bands like The Seeds were picked up and emphasized by groups that were later seen as the crucial figures of protopunk. Psychedelic rock is a style of Rock music that attempts to replicate the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs. The Seeds were a rock band who are best known for their hit single "Pushin' Too Hard" released in 1966
In 1969, debut albums by two Michigan-based bands appeared that are commonly regarded as the central protopunk records. Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. In January, Detroit's MC5 released Kick Out the Jams. The MC5 ( Motor City Five) was an American Hard rock band formed in Lincoln Park Michigan in 1964 and active until Kick Out the Jams is the first album by Detroit Protopunkers MC5, released in 1969 "Musically the group is intentionally crude and aggressively raw", wrote critic Lester Bangs in Rolling Stone:
Most of the songs are barely distinguishable from each other in their primitive two-chord structures. Leslie Conway Bangs ( December 13, 1948 &ndash April 30, 1982) was an American music journalist, author and musician Rolling Stone is a United States -based Magazine devoted to Music, Politics, and Popular culture that is published You've heard all this before from such notables as the Seeds, Blue Cheer, Question Mark and the Mysterians, and the Kingsmen. Blue Cheer is a San Francisco -based rock group that initially performed and recorded in the late 1960s and early 1970s and again from the mid-1980s to the present Question Mark and the Mysterians (or ? and the Mysterians) were an American Rock and roll band formed in Bay City Michigan, in 1962 The difference here. . . is in the hype, the thick overlay of teenage-revolution and total-energy-thing which conceals these scrapyard vistas of clichés and ugly noise. . . . "I Want You Right Now" sounds exactly (down to the lyrics) like a song called "I Want You" by the Troggs, a British group who came on with a similar sex-and-raw-sound image a couple of years ago (remember "Wild Thing"?)
That August, The Stooges, from Ann Arbor, premiered with a self-titled album. The Troggs are an English rock band from the 1960s that had a number of hits in Britain and the USA, including their most famous song " " Wild Thing " is a hit song written by New York -born songwriter Chip Taylor and originally recorded by The Wild Ones in 1965 ( United James Newell Osterberg Jr (born April 21, 1947) better known by his Stage name Iggy Pop, is an American rock singer Songwriter The Stooges are an American rock band that was active from 1967 to 1974 then reformed in 2003 Ann Arbor is a city in the US state of Michigan and the county seat of Washtenaw County. The Stooges is the self-titled debut of the Protopunk band The Stooges. According to critic Greil Marcus, the band, led by singer Iggy Pop, created "the sound of Chuck Berry's Airmobile—after thieves stripped it for parts". Greil Marcus (born 1945 is an American Author, music Journalist and cultural Critic. James Newell Osterberg Jr (born April 21, 1947) better known by his Stage name Iggy Pop, is an American rock singer Songwriter Charles Edward Anderson "Chuck" Berry (born October 18 1926 in St  The album was produced by John Cale, a former member of New York's experimental rock group The Velvet Underground. John Davies Cale (born March 9, 1942) better known as John Cale, is a Welsh Musician, Composer, Singer-songwriter This article is about the band For their self-titled album see The Velvet Underground (album; for the book see The Velvet Underground (book Having earned a "reputation as the first underground rock band", VU inspired, directly or indirectly, many of those involved in the creation of punk rock. 
In the early 1970s, the New York Dolls updated the original wildness of 1950s rock 'n' roll in a fashion that later became known as glam punk. For the self-titled debut album see New York Dolls (album The New York Dolls are an American Glam rock band formed in Glam punk (or glitter punk) is a Music genre that mixes elements of Glam rock with Protopunk or Punk rock (and sometimes Garage  The New York duo Suicide played spare, experimental music with a confrontational stage act inspired by that of The Stooges. Suicide is an American Rock music group intermittently active since 1971 and composed of Alan Vega ( Vocals) and Martin Rev ( Synthesizers At the Coventry club in the New York borough of Queens, The Dictators used rock as a vehicle for wise-ass attitude and humor. The Dictators are a Rock and roll band formed in New York City in 1973  In Boston, The Modern Lovers, led by Velvet Underground devotee Jonathan Richman, gained attention with a minimalistic style. The Modern Lovers were an American rock band led by Jonathan Richman in the 1970s and 1980s Jonathan Richman (born 16 May 1951) is an American singer songwriter and guitarist In 1974, an updated garage rock scene began to coalesce around the newly opened Rathskeller club in Kenmore Square. The Rathskeller (known as The Rat for short was a Kenmore Square Live music venue in Boston Massachusetts that opened in 1974 Kenmore Square is a square in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, consisting of the intersection of several main avenues (including Among the leading acts were the Real Kids, founded by former Modern Lover John Felice; Willie Alexander and the Boom Boom Band, whose frontman had been a member of the Velvet Underground for a few months in 1971; and Mickey Clean and the Mezz. The Real Kids were a Boston Punk rock band led by guitarist singer and songwriter John Felice The Real Kids were a Boston Punk rock band led by guitarist singer and songwriter John Felice For the football player of the same name see Willie Alexander (football player.  In Ohio, a small but very influential underground rock scene emerged, led by Devo in Akron and Kent and Cleveland's The Electric Eels, Mirrors, and Rocket from the Tombs. Devo (pronounced DEE-vo (IPA /'diːvoʊ/) or dee-VO (IPA /diː'voʊ/) often spelled "DEVO" or "DEV-O" is an American Akron is a city in the US state of Ohio and the County seat of Summit County. Kent is a city in Portage County, Ohio, United States. It is located along the Cuyahoga River in the northeastern part of Ohio and the Not to be confused with the Japanese rock band Electric Eel Shock The electric eels (lowercase "e"s in reference to E e cummings Rocket From the Tombs (or RFTT) was an American Rock music band originally active from mid- 1974 to mid-1975 in Cleveland Ohio. In 1975, Rocket from the Tombs split into Pere Ubu and Frankenstein. Pere Ubu are an Experimental rock music group formed in Cleveland Ohio, in 1975 The Dead Boys were an American Punk rock band from Cleveland Ohio. The Electric Eels and Mirrors both broke up, and The Styrenes emerged from the fallout. 
Britain's Deviants, in the late 1960s, played in a range of psychedelic styles with a satiric, anarchic edge and a penchant for situationist-style spectacle presaging the Sex Pistols by almost a decade. The Situationist International ( SI) was a small group of international political and artistic Agitators with roots in Marxism, Lettrism and the  In 1970, the act evolved into the Pink Fairies, which carried on in a similar vein. The Pink  With his Ziggy Stardust persona, David Bowie made artifice and exaggeration central—elements, again, that were picked up by the Pistols and certain other punk acts. David Bowie (ˈboʊiː born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947 is an English Musician, actor producer, and arranger.  Bands in London's pub rock scene stripped the music back to its basics, playing hard, R&B-influenced rock 'n' roll. Pub rock was a mid- to late-1970s musical movement largely centred around North London and South East Essex, particularly Canvey Island and Southend By 1974, the scene's top act, Dr. Feelgood, was paving the way for others such as The Stranglers and Cock Sparrer that would play a role in the punk explosion. Dr Feelgood are a British pub rock band, which was formed in mid 1971 The Stranglers are an English rock music group formed on 11 September 1974 in Guildford, Surrey. Cock Sparrer (initially Cock Sparrow) are a Punk rock band formed in 1974 in the East End of London, England. Among the pub rock bands that formed that year was The 101'ers, with lead singer Joe Strummer. The 101'ers were a pub rock band from the 1970s, notable as being the band that Joe Strummer left to join The Clash. John Graham Mellor (21 August 1952 – 22 December 2002 better known as Joe Strummer, was the co-founder lyricist Rhythm guitarist and lead singer of the  Bands anticipating the forthcoming movement were appearing as far afield as Düsseldorf, West Germany, where "punk before punk" band NEU! formed in 1971, building on the Krautrock tradition of groups such as Can. Düsseldorf (ˈdʏsəldɔɐf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Krautrock is a generic name for the Experimental music scene that appeared in Germany in the late 1960s and gained popularity throughout the 1970s especially in Britain Can was a musical group formed in West Germany in 1968 One of the most important Krautrock groups Can had a style grounded in the Experimental rock of  In Japan, the anti-establishment Zunō Keisatsu (Brain Police) mixed garage psych and folk. The combo regularly faced censorship challenges, their live act at least once including onstage masturbation. 
A new generation of Australian garage rock bands, inspired mainly by The Stooges and MC5, was coming even closer to the sound that would soon be called "punk": In Brisbane, The Saints also recalled the raw live sound of the British Pretty Things, who had made a notorious tour of Australia and New Zealand in 1965. Brisbane ( is the state capital of Queensland. Brisbane is the third most populous city in Australia and the most populous city of Queensland The Saints are an Australian Rock band, formed in Brisbane in 1974 The Pretty Things are a Rock and roll band from London. They pioneered a raw approach to Rhythm and blues that influenced a number of key  Radio Birdman, cofounded by Detroit expatriate Deniz Tek in 1974, was playing gigs to a small but fanatical following in Sydney. Radio Birdman was one of the first punk bands in Australia Deniz Tek and Rob Younger formed the group in Sydney, Australia Deniz Tek is a Singer, Guitarist and Songwriter and a founding member of Australian group Radio Birdman who broke up for the last Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4
Preceding the mid-1970s, punk, a centuries-old word of obscure etymology, was commonly used to describe "a young male hustler, a gangster, a hoodlum, or a ruffian". Etymology is the study of the History of Words &mdash when they entered a language from what source and how their form and meaning have changed over time  As Legs McNeil explains, "On TV, if you watched cop shows, Kojak, Baretta, when the cops finally catch the mass murderer, they'd say, 'you dirty Punk. Roderick Edward "Legs" McNeil (b 1956 in Cheshire Connecticut) is the co-founder and a writer for Punk Magazine. Kojak refers to two separate but related American Crime drama Television series, with the original airing on CBS and the second series Baretta is a American detective Television series which ran on ABC from 1975 to 1978. ' It was what your teachers would call you. It meant that you were the lowest. " The first known use of the phrase "punk rock" appeared in the Chicago Tribune on March 22, 1970, attributed to Ed Sanders, cofounder of New York's anarcho-prankster band The Fugs. The Chicago Tribune is a major daily Newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, and owned by the Tribune Company Events 238 - Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor. Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Ed Sanders (born August 17 1939 is an American Poet, Singer, Social activist, Environmentalist, Author and Publisher The Fugs are a band formed in New York City in 1965 by poets Ed Sanders and Tuli Kupferberg, with Ken Weaver on drums Sanders was quoted describing a solo album of his as "punk rock—redneck sentimentality. " In the December 1970 issue of Creem, Lester Bangs, mocking more mainstream rock musicians, made ironic reference to Iggy Pop as "that Stooge punk". Creem (whose trademark is capitalized CREEM) "America's Only Rock 'n' Roll Magazine" was a monthly Rock 'n' roll Publication started  Suicide's Alan Vega credits this usage with inspiring his duo to bill its gigs as a "punk mass" for the next couple of years. Alan Vega (born Alan Bermowitz) is the vocalist for 1970s and 80s No wave duo Suicide. 
Dave Marsh was the first music critic to employ the term punk rock—in the May 1971 issue of Creem, he described ? and the Mysterians as giving a "landmark exposition of punk rock. Patricia Lee Smith ( born December 30 1946 is an American Singer-songwriter and poet Dave Marsh (born March 1, 1950 Detroit Michigan) is an American Music critic who briefly attended Wayne State University Question Mark and the Mysterians (or ? and the Mysterians) were an American Rock and roll band formed in Bay City Michigan, in 1962 " In June 1972, the fanzine Flash included a "Punk Top Ten" of 1960s albums.  That year, Lenny Kaye used the term in the liner notes of the anthology album Nuggets to refer to 1960s garage rock bands such as The Standells, The Sonics, and The Seeds. Lenny Kaye (born December 27, 1946) is an American Guitarist, Composer and Writer who is best known as a member of The Standells were a 1960's Garage rock band from Los Angeles, California. See Seattle SuperSonics for the basketball team The Sonics are an American Garage rock band that were part of the Pacific  The fanzine Bomp! also used punk in this sense. Who Put The Bomp was a rock music Fanzine edited and published by Greg Shaw from 1970-79  In May 1973, Billy Altman launched the short-lived punk magazine.  Bassist Jeff Jensen of Boston's Real Kids reports of a 1974 show, "A reviewer for one of the free entertainment magazines of the time caught the act and gave us a great review, calling us a 'punk band. '. . . [W]e all sort of looked at each other and said, 'What's punk?'"
By 1975, punk was being used to describe acts as diverse as the Patti Smith Group—with lead guitarist Lenny Kaye—the Bay City Rollers, and Bruce Springsteen. Patricia Lee Smith ( born December 30 1946 is an American Singer-songwriter and poet The Bay City Rollers were a Scottish Pop/rock band of the 1970s  As the scene at New York's CBGB club attracted notice, a name was sought for the developing sound. CBGB ( Country, Blue Grass, and Blues) was a music club at 315 Bowery at Bleecker Street in the borough of Manhattan Club owner Hilly Kristal called the movement "street rock"; John Holmstrom credits Aquarian magazine with using punk "to describe what was going on at CBGBs". Hilly Kristal ( September 23 1931 &ndash The Aquarian Weekly is a regional alternative weekly newspaper based in New Jersey.  Holmstrom, McNeil, and Ged Dunn's magazine Punk, which debuted at the end of 1975, was crucial in codifying the term. PUNK magazine was a Fanzine created by cartoonist John Holmstrom, publisher Ged Dunn and "resident punk" Legs McNeil  "It was pretty obvious that the word was getting very popular," Holmstrom later remarked. "We figured we'd take the name before anyone else claimed it. We wanted to get rid of the bullshit, strip it down to rock 'n' roll. We wanted the fun and liveliness back. "
The origins of New York's punk rock scene can be traced back to such sources as late 1960s trash culture and an early 1970s underground rock movement centered around the Mercer Arts Center in Greenwich Village, where the New York Dolls performed. Trash Culture is a derogatory term for Modern culture in the UK and USA. Underground music refers to a variety of post-1960s rock pop or dance subgenres that developed a Cult following despite their lack of Mainstream appeal visibility Greenwich Village (ˌgrɛnɪtʃ ˈvɪlɪdʒ often simply called the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern Manhattan  In early 1974, a new scene began to develop around the CBGB club, also in lower Manhattan. CBGB ( Country, Blue Grass, and Blues) was a music club at 315 Bowery at Bleecker Street in the borough of Manhattan Lower Manhattan (or downtown Manhattan) is the southernmost part of the island of Manhattan, the main island and center of business and government of the At its core was Television, described by critic John Walker as "the ultimate garage band with pretensions". Television, formed in New York City in 1973 is an American Rock music band  Their influences ranged from garage psych pioneer Roky Erickson to jazz innovator John Coltrane. Psychedelic rock is a style of Rock music that attempts to replicate the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs. Roky Erickson (born Roger Kynard Erickson on July 15 1947) is an American Singer, Songwriter, Harmonica The band's bassist/singer, Richard Hell, created a look with cropped, ragged hair, ripped T-shirts, and black leather jackets credited as the basis for punk rock visual style. Richard Hell (born Richard Meyers; October 2, 1949) is an American Singer, Songwriter, Bass guitarist  In April 1974, Patti Smith, a member of the Mercer Arts Center crowd and a friend of Hell's, came to CBGB for the first time to see the band perform. Patricia Lee Smith ( born December 30 1946 is an American Singer-songwriter and poet  A veteran of independent theater and performance poetry, Smith was developing an intellectual, feminist take on rock 'n' roll. On June 5, she recorded the single "Hey Joe"/"Piss Factory", featuring Television guitarist Tom Verlaine; released on her own Mer Records label, it heralded the scene's do it yourself (DIY) ethic and has often been cited as the first punk rock record. Events 70 - Titus and his Roman Legions breach the middle wall of Jerusalem in the Siege of Jerusalem Hey Joe (disambiguation "Hey Joe" is an American Popular song from the 1960s that has become a rock standard and as such has been performed in " Piss Factory " is a Protopunk song written by Patti Smith and Richard Sohl, and released as a B-side on Smith's debut single " Tom Verlaine (born Thomas Miller, December 13 1949, in Morristown New Jersey) is a Singer, Songwriter and Guitarist  By August, Smith and Television were gigging together at another downtown New York club, Max's Kansas City. Max's Kansas City was a Nightclub (upstairs and Restaurant (downstairs at 213 Park Avenue South between 17th and 18th Streets in New York City. 
Out in Forest Hills, Queens, several miles from lower Manhattan, the members of a newly formed band adopted a common surname. Forest Hills is a neighborhood in the central part of the New York City borough of Queens. Drawing on sources ranging from the Stooges to The Beatles and The Beach Boys to Herman's Hermits and 1960s girl groups, the Ramones condensed rock 'n' roll to its primal level: "'1-2-3-4!' bass-player Dee Dee Ramone shouted at the start of every song, as if the group could barely master the rudiments of rhythm. The Beatles were a pop and rock band from Liverpool, England formed in 1960 The Beach Boys is an American rock band Formed in 1961 the group gained popularity for its close vocal harmonies and lyrics reflecting a California Youth culture Herman's Hermits were an English Pop band, formed in Manchester in 1963 as 'Herman & The Hermits' A girl group is a Popular music act featuring several young Female Singers who generally harmonize together The Ramones were an American rock band often regarded as the first Punk rock group Dee Dee Ramone ( Douglas Glenn Colvin) ( September 18, 1951 - June 5, 2002) was a German American Songwriter " The band played its first gig at CBGB on August 16, 1974. Events 1384 - The Hongwu Emperor of Ming China, Emperor Dong hears a case of a couple who tore paper money bills while fighting Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. Another new act, Blondie, also debuted at the club that month. Blondie is an American rock band that first gained fame in the late 1970s and has so far sold over 60 million records By the end of the year, the Ramones had performed seventy-four shows, each about seventeen minutes long.  "When I first saw the Ramones," critic Mary Harron later remembered, "I couldn't believe people were doing this. The dumb brattiness. " The Dictators, with a similar "playing dumb" concept, were recording their debut album. The Dictators Go Girl Crazy! came out in March 1975, mixing absurdist originals such as "Master Race Rock" and loud, straight-faced covers of cheese pop like Sonny & Cher's "I Got You Babe". The Dictators Go Girl Crazy! was the influential 1975 debut album of the New York -based Proto-punk band The Dictators. Sonny & Cher were an American Pop music duo made up of husband and wife team Sonny Bono and Cher in the 1960s and 1970s " I Got You Babe " is a 1965 number-one hit single by American Rock music duo Sonny & Cher. 
That spring, Smith and Television shared a two-month-long weekend residency at CBGB that brought major attention to the club.  During this time, Richard Hell wrote "Blank Generation", which would become the scene's emblematic anthem.  Soon after, Hell left Television and founded a band featuring a more stripped-down sound, The Heartbreakers, with former New York Dolls Johnny Thunders and Jerry Nolan. This article is about the punk group For information on Tom Petty's backing band see The Heartbreakers. Johnny Thunders, born John Anthony Genzale Jr ( July 15, 1952 - April 23, 1991) was an Italian American Rock and roll Jerry Nolan ( May 7, 1946 &ndash January 14, 1992) was an American Punk rock Drummer, best known for playing with The pairing of Hell and Thunders, in one critical assessment, "inject[ed] a poetic intelligence into mindless self-destruction".  In August, Television—with Fred Smith, former Blondie bassist, replacing Hell—recorded a single, "Little Johnny Jewel", for the tiny Ork label. In the words of John Walker, the record was "a turning point for the whole New York scene" if not quite for the punk rock sound itself—Hell's departure had left the band "significantly reduced in fringe aggression". 
Other bands were becoming regulars at CBGB, such as Mink DeVille and Talking Heads, which moved down from Rhode Island. CBGB ( Country, Blue Grass, and Blues) was a music club at 315 Bowery at Bleecker Street in the borough of Manhattan This article is about the rock band Mink DeVille For information about the band’s frontman and composer see Willy DeVille. Talking head Talking Heads was an American New Wave band formed in 1974 in New York City and active until 1991 More closely associated with Max's Kansas City were Suicide and the band led by drag queen Wayne County, another Mercer Arts Center alumna. Jayne County, formerly known as Wayne County, is an influential Transsexual performer musician and actress whose career has spanned several decades The first album to come out of this downtown scene was released in November 1975: Smith's debut, Horses, produced by John Cale for the major Arista label. Horses is the debut album by Patti Smith, released in 1975 on Arista Records. Arista Records (ˈɛərɪstə is an American Record label. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony Music Entertainment and operates under the  The inaugural issue of Punk appeared in December.  The new magazine tied together earlier artists such as Velvet Underground lead singer Lou Reed, the Stooges, and the New York Dolls with the editors' favorite band, The Dictators, and the array of new acts centered around CBGB and Max's. Lewis Allan Reed (born March 2 1942 is an American rock Singer-songwriter and Guitarist.  That winter, Pere Ubu came in from Cleveland and played at both spots. 
Early in 1976, Hell left The Heartbreakers; he soon formed a new group that would become known as The Voidoids, "one of the most harshly uncompromising bands" on the scene. The Voidoids, also known as Richard Hell and The Voidoids, were a New York City Punk rock band of the late 1970s and early  That April, the Ramones' debut album was released by Sire Records; the first single was "Blitzkrieg Bop", opening with the rally cry "Hey! Ho! Let's go!" According to a later description, "Like all cultural watersheds, Ramones was embraced by a discerning few and slagged off as a bad joke by the uncomprehending majority. Sire Records Company is an American record label owned by Warner Music Group and distributed through Warner Bros " Blitzkrieg Bop " is a song by Punk rock band the Ramones. Ramones is the debut Album by Punk rock band the Ramones. Widely cited as having the distinction of being the first punk rock group the Ramones " At the instigation of Ramones lead singer Joey Ramone, the members of Cleveland's Frankenstein moved east to join the New York scene. Joey Ramone ( May 19 1951 – April 15 2001) born as Jeffrey Ross Hyman, was a vocalist and Songwriter best Reconstituted as the Dead Boys, they played their first CBGB gig in late July. The Dead Boys were an American Punk rock band from Cleveland Ohio.  In August, Ork put out an EP recorded by Hell with his new band that included the first released version of "Blank Generation". An extended play ( EP) is a Vinyl record, CD, or Music download which contains more music than a single, but is too short to qualify 
The term punk initially referred to the scene in general, more than the sound itself—the early New York punk bands represented a broad variety of influences. Among them, the Ramones, The Heartbreakers, Richard Hell and The Voidoids, and the Dead Boys were establishing a distinct musical style; even where they diverged most clearly, in lyrical approach—the Ramones' apparent guilelessness at one extreme, Hell's conscious craft at the other—there was an abrasive attitude in common. Their shared attributes of minimalism and speed, however, had not yet come to define punk rock. 
At the same time, a similar music-based subculture was beginning to take shape in various parts of Australia. A scene was developing around Radio Birdman and its main performance venue, the Oxford Tavern (later the Oxford Funhouse), located in Sydney's Darlinghurst suburb. Darlinghurst is an inner-city eastern Suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. In December 1975, the group won the RAM (Rock Australia Magazine)/Levi's Punk Band Thriller competition.  By 1976, The Saints were hiring Brisbane local halls to use as venues, or playing in "Club 76", their shared house in the inner suburb of Petrie Terrace. The meanings attributed to the word hall have varied over the centuries as social practices have changed The Brisbane Central business district (CBD or 'the City' is located on a point on the northern bank of the Brisbane River. The band soon discovered that musicians were exploring similar paths in other parts of the world. Ed Kuepper, coleader of The Saints, later recalled:
One thing I remember having had a really depressing effect on me was the first Ramones album. Ed Kuepper (born Edmund Kuepper in Bremen, West Germany, 20 December 1955) is an Australian guitarist singer and songwriter When I heard it [in 1976], I mean it was a great record. . . but I hated it because I knew we’d been doing this sort of stuff for years. There was even a chord progression on that album that we used. A chord progression (also chord sequence and harmonic progression or sequence) is a series of chords played in order . . and I thought, "Fuck. We’re going to be labeled as influenced by the Ramones," when nothing could have been further from the truth. 
On the other side of Australia, in Perth, germinal punk rock act the Cheap Nasties, featuring singer-guitarist Kim Salmon, formed in August. Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. The Manikins were a Protopunk and new wave band from Perth Australia. Kim Salmon is a renowned and influential Australian Indie rock musician and songwriter  In September, The Saints became the first punk rock band outside the U. S. to release a recording, the single "(I'm) Stranded". As with Patti Smith's debut, the band self-financed, packaged, and distributed the single.  "(I'm) Stranded" had limited impact at home, but the British music press recognized it as a groundbreaking record.  At the insistence of their superiors in the UK, EMI Australia signed The Saints. The EMI Group is a British music company comprising the major record company EMI Music – which operates several labels and is based in Kensington in Meanwhile, Radio Birdman came out with a self-financed EP, Burn My Eye, in October. Burn My Eye was the debut EP recorded by Sydney Punk rock band Radio Birdman, in October 1976  Trouser Press critic Ian McCaleb later described the record as the "archetype for the musical explosion that was about to occur. A trouser press is an Electrical appliance used to smooth the Wrinkles from a pair of Trousers ( pants in Australia, "
After a brief period unofficially managing the New York Dolls, Englishman Malcolm McLaren returned to London in May 1975, inspired by the new scene he had witnessed at CBGB. Malcolm McLaren (born Malcolm Robert Andrew Edwards on January 22 1946 in London) is an English Impresario and musician He opened Sex, a clothing store specializing in outrageous "anti-fashion". SEX was a Boutique run by Malcolm McLaren & Vivienne Westwood at 430 King's Road London.  Among those who frequented the shop were members of a band called The Swankers. In August, the group was seeking a new lead singer. Another Sex habitué, Johnny Rotten, auditioned for and won the job; McLaren became the band's manager. John Joseph Lydon (born 31 January 1956 in London England also known as Johnny Rotten, is a British Rock musician best known as lead vocalist for the Punk Adopting a new name, the group played its first gig as the Sex Pistols on November 5, 1975, at St. Martin's School of Art and soon attracted a small but ardent following. The Sex Pistols are an English Punk rock band that formed in London in 1975 Events 1499 - Publication of the Catholicon in Treguier ( Brittany) Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design ( St) (often abbreviated as Central Saint Martins, Saint Martins or CSM) is widely regarded  In February 1976, the band received its first significant press coverage; guitarist Steve Jones declared that the Pistols were not so much into music as they were "chaos. Stephen Phillip Jones (born 3 September, 1955 in Shepherds Bush, London) is an English rock Guitarist " The band often provoked its crowds into near-riots. Rotten announced to one audience, "Bet you don't hate us as much as we hate you!" McClaren envisioned the Pistols as central players in a new youth movement, "hard and tough".  As described by critic Jon Savage, the band members "embodied an attitude into which McClaren fed a new set of references: late-sixties radical politics, sexual fetish material, pop history,. . . youth sociology. "
Bernard Rhodes, a sometime associate of McLaren's and friend of the Pistols', was similarly trying to make stars of the band London SS. Bernard Rhodes is the former manager of legendary English Punk rock band The Clash. London SS were an early British Punk rock group founded in March 1975 by guitarist Mick Jones and bassist Tony James. In spring 1976, the group broke up, spinning off two new bands: The Damned and The Clash, which was joined by Joe Strummer, The 101'ers former lead singer. The Damned are an English band formed in London in 1976 notable for being the first Punk rock band from England to release a single (" New Rose " an For the debut album by The Clash see The Clash (album The Clash were John Graham Mellor (21 August 1952 – 22 December 2002 better known as Joe Strummer, was the co-founder lyricist Rhythm guitarist and lead singer of the  On June 4, 1976, the Sex Pistols played Manchester's Lesser Free Trade Hall in what came to be regarded as one of the most influential rock shows ever. Events 781 BC - The first historic Solar eclipse is recorded in China. Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Free Trade Hall in Manchester, England, was for many years a focal point for public debate and cultural activity in the city Among the approximately forty audience members were the three locals who had organized the gig—they soon began performing as the Buzzcocks. Buzzcocks are an English Punk rock band formed in Manchester in 1975 Others in the small crowd went on to form Joy Division, The Fall, and—in the 1980s—The Smiths. Joy Division were an English rock band formed in 1976 in Salford, Greater Manchester. The Fall are an English Post-punk band formed in Prestwich, Greater Manchester in 1976 The Smiths were an English rock band formed in Manchester in 1982 
In July, the Ramones crossed the Atlantic for two London shows that helped spark the nascent UK punk scene, an impact that was later exaggerated by the band's members.  On July 4, they played with the Flamin' Groovies and The Stranglers before a crowd of 2,000 at the Roundhouse. Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples The Flamin' Groovies were an American Rock music band of the 1960s and '70s The Stranglers are an English rock music group formed on 11 September 1974 in Guildford, Surrey. The Roundhouse is an arts venue in London, England. The Roundhouse has hosted notable performers Morrissey, The Stranglers, Sonic Youth  That same night, The Clash debuted, opening for the Sex Pistols in Sheffield. Sheffield ( is a city and Metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England On July 5, members of both bands attended a Ramones club gig. Events 1295 - Scotland and France form an alliance the beginnings of the Auld Alliance, against England.  The following night, The Damned played their first show, as a Pistols opening act in London. In critic Kurt Loder's description, the Pistols purveyed a "calculated, arty nihilism, [while] the Clash were unabashed idealists, proponents of a radical left-wing social critique of a sort that reached back at least to. Kurt Loder (born May 5 1945 is an American Film critic, Author, and Television personality. . . Woody Guthrie in the 1940s. Woodrow Wilson "Woody" Guthrie (July 14 1912–October 3 1967 was an American Singer-songwriter and Folk musician Guthrie's musical legacy " The Damned built a reputation as "punk's party boys. " This London scene's first fanzine appeared a week later. A fanzine (see also Zine) is a nonprofessional publication produced by fans of a particular cultural phenomenon (such as a literary or musical genre for the pleasure Its title, Sniffin' Glue, derived from a Ramones song. Sniffin' Glue is the name of a famous and pioneering monthly Punk zine started by Mark Perry in July 1976 and released for about a year Its subtitle affirmed the connection with what was happening in New York: "+ Other Rock 'n' Roll Habits for Punks!"
Another Sex Pistols gig in Manchester on July 20, with the Buzzcocks debuting in support, gave further impetus to the scene there.  In August, the self-described "First European Punk Rock Festival" was held in Mont de Marsan in the southwest of France. Eddie and the Hot Rods, a London pub rock group, headlined, while the Sex Pistols were excluded for "going too far" and The Clash backed out in solidarity. Eddie and the Hot Rods is a pub rock band from Essex founded in 1975. The only band from the new punk movement to appear was The Damned. 
Over the next several months, many new punk rock bands formed, often directly inspired by the Pistols.  In London, women were at the center of the scene—among the initial wave of bands were the female-fronted Siouxsie & the Banshees and X-Ray Spex and the all-female The Slits. Siouxsie & the Banshees were a British rock band which formed in 1976 X-Ray Spex are an English punk band from London that formed in 1976. The Slits are a UK Punk rock band The quartet was formed in 1976 by members of the bands The Flowers of Romance and The Castrators The Adverts had a female bassist. The Adverts were an English Punk rock band who formed in 1976 and broke up in late 1979 Other groups included Subway Sect, Eater, The Subversives, the aptly named London, and Chelsea, which soon spun off Generation X. Subway Sect were one of the original British punk bands whose posthumous reputation suffered due to their comparatively small output This article is about the punk band Eater, for the Hard science fiction novel written by Gregory Benford, see Eater (novel The UK Subs are an English punk band, the mainstay of which is vocalist Charlie Harper, originally a Singer in Britain's This article is about the English band London For the American band with the same name see London. Chelsea are an English Punk rock band formed in London in 1976 Generation X (aka Gen X) were an English Punk rock band, formed on 21 November 1976 by Billy Idol, Farther afield, Sham 69 began practicing in the southeastern town of Hersham. Sham 69 are an English punk band that formed in Hersham in 1975. Hersham is a Village in Surrey, England, lying on the A244 between Esher and Weybridge. In Durham, there was Penetration, with lead singer Pauline Murray. Durham (ˈdʌrəm in RP, locally ˈdʏrəm is a small city and main settlement of the City of Durham district of County Durham, England Penetration were a Punk rock band from County Durham originally formed in 1976 Pauline Murray (born 8 March 1958 in Waterhouses, County Durham, England) was the lead singer of Punk rock band Penetration On September 20–21, the 100 Club Punk Festival in London featured the four primary British groups (London's big three and the Buzzcocks), as well as Paris's female-fronted Stinky Toys, arguably the first punk rock band from a non-Anglophone country. Stinky Toys were a punk band from Rennes, France which started in 1976 and featured Elli Medeiros, Denis Quilliard An Anglophone (or anglophone) is someone who speaks the English language. Siouxsie & the Banshees and Subway Sect debuted on the festival's first night; that same evening, Eater debuted in Manchester. 
Some new bands, such as London's Alternative TV and Edinburgh's Rezillos, identified with the scene even as they pursued more experimental music. Alternative TV (often referred to by fans as ATV) were an influential British Punk rock and Post-punk band, formed in London The Rezillos are a punk / new wave band, who formed in Edinburgh in 1976 and are still playing gigs around the world in a reformed Others of a comparatively traditional rock 'n' roll bent were also swept up by the movement: The Vibrators, formed as a pub rock–style act in February 1976, soon adopted a punk look and sound. The Vibrators are an original and long-lived British Punk rock band that formed in 1976.  A few even longer-active bands including Surrey neo-mods The Jam and pub rockers The Stranglers and Cock Sparrer also became associated with the punk rock scene. Surrey is a county in the South East of England and is one of the Home Counties. The Jam were an English Mod revival band active during the late 1970s and early 1980s Cock Sparrer (initially Cock Sparrow) are a Punk rock band formed in 1974 in the East End of London, England. Alongside the musical roots shared with their American counterparts and the calculated confrontationalism of the early Who, journalist Clinton Heylin describes how the British punks also reflected the influence of the "glam bands who gave noise back to teenagers in the early Seventies—T.Rex, Slade and Roxy Music. Glam rock (also known as glitter rock) is a sub-genre of Rock music that developed in the UK in the post- Hippie early 1970s which was "performed by TRex (occasionally spelled T Rex or T-Rex) were an English rock band fronted by guitarist singer and songwriter Marc Bolan. Slade are an English Glam rock band Slade were one of the most recognizable acts of the glam rock movement and were at their peak the most commercially popular Roxy Music is an English Art rock group founded in the early 1970s by art school graduate Bryan Ferry ( vocals and keyboards) " One of the groups openly acknowledging that influence were The Undertones, from Derry in Northern Ireland. The Undertones are a Northern Irish Punk rock / Power pop band formed in Derry in 1975  Another punk band formed to the south, Dublin's The Radiators From Space. The Radiators From Space are an Irish Punk rock band. The band formed in 1976 in Dublin, consisting of Philip Chevron (who was later
In October, The Damned became the first UK punk rock band to release a single, the romance-themed "New Rose". The Sex Pistols are an English Punk rock band that formed in London in 1975 " Anarchy in the UK " is the title of the first single by Sex Pistols, released on November 26 1976. The Union Flag, also known as the Union Jack, is the national flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. " New Rose " was the first single by British Punk rock group The Damned, released on October 22 1976.  The Sex Pistols followed the next month with "Anarchy in the U.K."—with its debut single the band succeeded in its goal of becoming a "national scandal". " Anarchy in the UK " is the title of the first single by Sex Pistols, released on November 26 1976.  Jamie Reid's "anarchy flag" poster and his other design work for the Pistols helped establish a distinctive punk visual aesthetic. Jamie Reid (born 1947 is a British artist and Anarchist with connections to the Situationists. Punk visual art is artwork which often graces Punk rock Album covers Flyers for punk shows and Punk zines It  On December 1, an incident took place that sealed punk rock's notorious reputation: On Thames Today, an early evening London TV show, Sex Pistols guitarist Steve Jones was goaded into a verbal altercation by the host, Bill Grundy. Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican William "Bill" Grundy ( February 20, 1923 - February 9, 1993) was a British television presenter and the host of Thames Television Jones called Grundy a "dirty fucker" on live television, triggering a media controversy.  Two days later, the Pistols, The Clash, The Damned, and The Heartbreakers set out on the Anarchy Tour, a series of gigs throughout the UK. Many of the shows were cancelled by venue owners in response to the media outrage following the Grundy confrontation. 
In 1975, Suicide Commandos formed in Minneapolis—one of the first U. The Suicide Commandos were an American Punk rock trio from Minneapolis, Minnesota. S. bands outside of New York to play in the Ramones-style harder-louder-faster mode that would define punk rock.  As the punk movement expanded rapidly in the United Kingdom in 1976, a few bands with similar tastes and attitude appeared around the United States. The first West Coast punk scenes emerged in San Francisco, with the bands Crime and The Nuns, and Seattle, where the Telepaths, Meyce, and The Tupperwares played a groundbreaking show on May 1. Crime was an early US punk band from San Francisco. The band was formed in 1976 by Johnny Strike (voc The Nuns were a Punk rock / new wave band in San Francisco in the late 1970s and have periodically reformed and played to the present day The Screamers were a Punk rock group active in the Los Angeles California area in the late 1970s Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor.  Rock critic Richard Meltzer cofounded VOM (short for "vomit") in Los Angeles. Richard Meltzer (born May 11, 1945) was one of the earliest rock Music critics His first book was The Aesthetics of Rock, which evolved VOM was conceived in 1976 a self-described beat combo featuring the renowned writer and critic Richard Meltzer on vocals with Gregg Turner on 2nd vocals and "Metal" In Washington, D. C. , raucous roots-rockers The Razz helped along a nascent punk scene featuring Overkill, the Slickee Boys, and The Look. The Slickee Boys were a Washington DC area punk - psychedelic - Garage rock band whose most-remembered lineup consisted of guitarist Marshall Around the turn of the year, White Boy began giving notoriously crazed performances.  In Boston, the scene at the Rathskeller—affectionately known as the Rat—was also turning toward punk, though the defining sound retained a distinct garage rock orientation. Among the city's first new acts to be identified with punk rock was DMZ. DMZ was a first-wave punk band from Boston, Massachusetts, strongly influenced by 1960s Garage rock.  In Bloomington, Indiana, The Gizmos played in a jokey, raunchy, Dictators-inspired style later referred to as "frat punk". The Gizmos were a Proto-punk band that formed in Bloomington Indiana in 1975 
Like their garage rock predecessors, these local scenes were facilitated by enthusiastic impresarios who operated nightclubs or organized concerts in venues such as schools, garages, or warehouses, advertised via inexpensively printed flyers and fanzines. In some cases, punk's do it yourself ethic reflected an aversion to commercial success, as well as a desire to maintain creative and financial autonomy.  As Joe Harvard, a participant in the Boston scene, describes, it was often a simple necessity—the absence of a local recording industry and well-distributed music magazines left little recourse but DIY. 
By 1977, a second wave of the punk rock movement was breaking in the three countries where it had emerged, as well as in many other places. Bands from the same scenes often sounded very different from each other, reflecting the eclectic state of punk music during the era.  While punk rock remained largely an underground phenomenon in North America, Australia, and the new spots where it was emerging, in the UK it briefly became a major sensation. 
The California punk scene was in full swing by early 1977. The California punk scene is a regional Punk music scene that started in the late 1970s and still exists today In Los Angeles, there were The Zeros, The Germs, The Weirdos, X, The Dickies, The Bags, and the relocated Tupperwares, now dubbed The Screamers. The Zeros, aka "the Mexican Ramones" were an American Punk rock band formed in 1976 in Chula Vista California. The Germs is an influential Punk rock band from Los Angeles formed in the late 1970s The Weirdos were a Punk rock band from Los Angeles California. The Dickies are a Punk rock group formed in Los Angeles California in 1977 The Bags were one of the first generation of Punk rock bands to emerge out of Los Angeles, California. The Screamers were a Punk rock group active in the Los Angeles California area in the late 1970s  San Francisco's second wave included The Avengers, Negative Trend, The Mutants, and The Sleepers. The Avengers were a San Francisco -based punk band in the first wave of American punk Negative Trend was an early San Francisco Punk rock band active from 1977–1979 The Mutants are an important band in the history of San Francisco Punk rock and new wave music.  The Dils, from Carlsbad, moved between the two major cities. The Dils were an American Punk rock band of the late 1970s originally from Carlsbad California, and fronted by brothers Chip Kinman and Tony Kinman Carlsbad is a seaside resort-town in the North County section of San Diego County California.  The Wipers formed in Portland, Oregon. For the town in Belgium which was called 'Wipers' by British soldiers during World War One, see Ypres. In Seattle, there was The Lewd.  Often sharing gigs with the Seattle punks were bands from across the Canadian border. A major scene developed in Vancouver, spearheaded by the Furies and Victoria's all-female Dee Dee and the Dishrags.  The Skulls spun off into D.O.A. and The Subhumans. The Skulls were an early Vancouver punk rock band whose members would later found two of the area's most influential bands D The Subhumans are a punk band from Vancouver British Columbia, Canada that formed in 1978. The K-Tels (later known as the Young Canadians) and Pointed Sticks were among the area's other leading punk acts. Young Canadians (originally The K-Tels) were a Vancouver Punk rock band active for just under two years Pointed Sticks were a Canadian Punk rock / Power pop band from Vancouver, first active from 1978 to 1981 and reunited to perform in 2006 
In eastern Canada, the Toronto protopunk band Dishes had laid the groundwork for another sizable scene, and a September 1976 concert by the touring Ramones had catalyzed the movement. Early Ontario punk bands included The Diodes, The Viletones, The Demics, Forgotten Rebels, Teenage Head, The Poles, and The Ugly. The Viletones were a Canadian punk band from Toronto, led by Steven Leckie a The Demics were a Canadian Punk rock band active in the late 1970s The Forgotten Rebels are a Punk rock band from Hamilton Ontario, Canada. Teenage Head is a Canadian rock group from Hamilton Ontario and was one of the most popular Canadian Punk rock bands during the early 1980s Along with the Dishrags, Toronto's The Curse and B Girls were North America's first all-female punk acts.  In July 1977, the Viletones, Diodes, and Teenage Head headed down to New York City to play a four-day showcase at CBGB. Punk rock was already beginning to give way there to the anarchic sound of what became known as No Wave, although several original punk bands continued to perform. No Wave was a short-lived but influential Art music, Film, Performance art, Video and Contemporary art scene that had its beginnings Leave Home, the Ramones' second album, had come out in January. Leave Home is the Ramones ' second album It features the classic Ramones songs "Pinhead" and "Gimme Gimme Shock Treatment September saw Richard Hell and The Voidoids' first full-length, Blank Generation.  The Heartbreakers' debut, L.A.M.F., and the Dead Boys', Young, Loud and Snotty, appeared in October; the Ramones' third, Rocket to Russia, in November. LAMF is the only studio album by the Punk rock band Heartbreakers, which included such musicians as Walter Lure Billy Rath and Johnny Thunders Young Loud and Snotty is a 1977 Album by The Dead Boys. Track listing All tracks composed by Stiv Bators, Cheetah Chrome & Jimmy Rocket to Russia is the third album by American punk group the Ramones. The Cramps, whose core members were from Sacramento by way of Akron, had debuted at CBGB in November 1976, opening for the Dead Boys. The Cramps are an American Punk rock band formed in 1976. Their line-up has rotated much over the years with lead singer Lux Interior and lead guitarist They were soon playing regularly at Max's Kansas City.  The Misfits formed in nearby New Jersey; by 1978, they had developed a style known as horror punk. The Misfits are an American Horror punk is a Music genre that was defined by the bands The Misfits, The Cramps and seminally influential group The Damned, blending
The Ohio protopunk bands were joined by Cleveland's The Pagans, Akron's Bizarros and Rubber City Rebels, and Kent's Human Switchboard. The Pagans were a late 70's punk band from Cleveland Ohio that were part of the second wave of Cleveland proto-punk and post-punk bands (such as Pere Ubu and The Rubber City Rebels are an American Protopunk band from Akron Ohio, that formed in 1976 ' The Human Switchboard' The Human Switchboard formed in 1977 when Bob Pfeifer met Myrna Marcarian at Syracuse University Bloomington, Indiana, had MX-80 Sound and Detroit had The Sillies. The Sillies were formed early 1977 by auto assembly line worker Ben Waugh The Feederz formed in Arizona. The Feederz were a Punk rock band from Arizona. They are infamous for their song Jesus Entering from the Rear which featured on Alternative Tentacles Atlanta had The Fans. In North Carolina, there was Chapel Hill's H-Bombs and Raleigh's Th' Cigaretz.  The Chicago scene began not with a band but with a group of DJs transforming a gay bar, La Mere Vipere, into what became known as America's first punk dance club. Tutu and the Pirates and Silver Abuse were among the city's first punk bands.  In Boston, the scene at the Rat was joined by the Nervous Eaters, Thrills, and Human Sexual Response. The Nervous Eaters were a punk band from Boston Massachusetts in the 1970s  In Washington, D. C. , the Controls played their first gig in spring 1977, but the city's second wave really broke the following year with acts such as Urban Verbs, Half Japanese, D'Chumps, Rudements, and Shirkers. This article is about the band called Half Japanese, for people of mixed Japanese and non-Japanese descent see Hafu Half Japanese  By early 1978, the D. C. jazz-fusion group Mind Power had transformed into Bad Brains, one of the first bands to be identified with hardcore punk. Bad Brains are an American Hardcore punk band formed in Washington D Hardcore punk (now usually referred to as simply hardcore) is a subgenre of Punk rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s 
In February 1977, EMI released The Saints' debut album, (I'm) Stranded, which the band recorded in two days.  The Saints had relocated to Sydney; in April, they and Radio Birdman united for a major gig at Paddington Town Hall. Paddington is an inner-city eastern Suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia.  Last Words had also formed in the city. The Last Words were an early punk band from Sydney, Australia. The following month, The Saints relocated again, to Great Britain. In June, Radio Birdman released the album Radios Appear on its own Trafalgar label. Radios Appear was the first full length studio album by Sydney punk-rock band Radio Birdman. 
The Victims became a short-lived leader of the Perth scene, self-releasing the classic "Television Addict". The Victims was a punk band from Perth Western Australia, active in 1977 - 79. "Television Addict" was the A-side of the debut single by The Victims, an early Punk rock band from Perth Western Australia. They were joined by The Scientists, Kim Salmon's successor band to the Cheap Nasties. The Scientists are an influential Post-punk band from Perth, Australia, led by Kim Salmon. Kim Salmon is a renowned and influential Australian Indie rock musician and songwriter Among the other bands constituting Australia's second wave were the Hellcats and Psychosurgeons (later known as the Lipstick Killers) in Sydney; The Leftovers, The Survivors, and Razar in Brisbane; and La Femme, The Negatives, and The Babeez (later known as The News) in Melbourne. Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3  Melbourne's art rock–influenced Boys Next Door featured singer Nick Cave, who would become one of the world's most celebrated post-punk artists. Art rock is a term describing a subgenre of Rock music that tends to have "experimental or avant-garde influences" and emphasizes "novel sonic texture The Birthday Party was an Australian Post-punk group active from 1977 to 1983 Nicholas Edward Cave (born 22 September 1957 in Warracknabeal, Victoria) is an Australian Musician, Songwriter, Author Post-punk was a popular musical movement in the mid to late 1970s following on the heels of the initial Punk rock explosion of the early 1970s
The Pistols' live TV skirmish with Bill Grundy was the signal moment in British punk's transformation into a major media phenomenon, even as some stores refused to stock the records and radio airplay was hard to come by.  Press coverage of punk misbehavior grew intense: On January 4, 1977, the Evening News of London ran a front-page story on how the Sex Pistols "vomited and spat their way to an Amsterdam flight. Events 46 BC - Titus Labienus defeats Julius Caesar in the Battle of Ruspina. Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays The Evening News was an evening newspaper published in London from 1881 to 1980 reappearing briefly in 1987 " In February 1977, the first album by a British punk band appeared: Damned Damned Damned reached number 36 on the UK charts. Damned Damned Damned is the debut Album by British Punk rock band The Damned, released on 18 February 1977 The EP Spiral Scratch, self-released by Manchester's Buzzcocks, was a benchmark for both the DIY ethic and regionalism in the country's punk movement. Spiral Scratch was a four-track EP by the punk band Buzzcocks, recorded in 1976 and released in January 1977  The Clash's self-titled debut album came out two months later and rose to number 12; the single "White Riot" entered the top 40. The Clash is the first album-length recording released by the English punk band The Clash. " White Riot " was the first single put out by seminal punk band The Clash, in 1977. In May, the Sex Pistols achieved new heights of controversy (and number 2 on the singles chart) with "God Save the Queen". " God Save the Queen " was the second single released by the Punk rock band Sex Pistols. The band had recently acquired a new bassist, Sid Vicious, who was seen as exemplifying the punk persona. John Simon Ritchie (born May 10, 1957, died February 2, 1979) better known as Sid Vicious, was an English Punk 
New groups continued to form around the country: Crass, from Essex, merged a vehement, straight-ahead punk rock style with a committed anarchist mission. For information about the Anarchist writer see Chris Crass Crass were an English Anarcho-punk band formed Essex is a county in the East of England. The County town is Chelmsford, and the highest point of the county is Chrishall Common Sham 69, London's Menace, and the Angelic Upstarts from South Shields in the Northeast combined a similarly stripped-down sound with populist lyrics, a style that became known as streetpunk. The Angelic Upstarts are an anti-fascist, socialist Working class Oi! punk and Skinhead band formed in South Shields South Shields is a coastal town in Tyne and Wear, England, located at the mouth of the River Tyne. Oi! is a Working class street-level subgenre of Punk rock that originated in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s These expressly working-class bands contrasted with others in the second wave that presaged the post-punk phenomenon. Post-punk was a popular musical movement in the mid to late 1970s following on the heels of the initial Punk rock explosion of the early 1970s Such groups expressed punk rock's energy and aggression, while expanding its musical range with a wider variety of tempos and often more complex instrumentation. London's Wire took minimalism and brevity to an extreme. Wire are an English rock band formed in London in October 1976 (and intermittently active to the present by Colin Newman (vocals guitar London's Tubeway Army, Belfast's Stiff Little Fingers, and Dunfermline, Scotland's The Skids infused punk rock with elements of synth and noise music. Tubeway Army (1977–1979 was a London -based punk and new wave band led by Gary Webb (now better known by his stage name Gary Numan Belfast ( is the capital city of Northern Ireland and the seat of government in Northern Ireland. Stiff Little Fingers are a punk band from Belfast, Northern Ireland, formed in 1977 Dunfermline (Scottish Gaelic Dùn Phàrlain is a town and former Royal Burgh in Fife. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. The Skids were an Art-punk / Punk rock and new wave band from Dunfermline, Scotland, founded in 1977 by Stuart Synthpop is a subgenre of New Wave and Pop music in which the Synthesizer is the dominant musical instrument  Liverpool's first punk group, the theatrical Big in Japan, didn't last long, but it spun off several well-known post-punk acts. For the 1984 song by Alphaville see "Big in Japan" for the song by Tom Waits see his album Mule Variations from 1999 
Alongside thirteen original songs that would define classic punk rock, The Clash's debut had included a cover of the recent Jamaican reggae hit "Police and Thieves". Wire are an English rock band formed in London in October 1976 (and intermittently active to the present by Colin Newman (vocals guitar Pink Flag is the first album by the band Wire, released in 1977 Reggae is a Music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s " Police & Thieves " is a well known Reggae Song first recorded in the Jamaican reggae version with the falsetto singer Junior Murvin from 1976  Other first wave bands such as The Slits and new entrants to the scene like The Ruts and The Police interacted with the reggae and ska subcultures, incorporating their rhythms and production styles. The Ruts were a Reggae -influenced British Punk rock band, notable for the 1979 Top 10 hit "Babylon's Burning" The Police were a three-piece rock band consisting of Sting ( vocals, Bass guitar) Andy Summers ( Guitar, Ska ( pronounced /ska/ or in Jamaican Patois /skja/ is a Music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1950s and which was the precursor The punk rock phenomenon helped spark a full-fledged ska revival movement known as 2 Tone, centered around bands such as The Specials, The Beat, Madness, and The Selecter. 2 Tone (or Two Tone) is a Music genre created in England in the late 1970s by fusing elements of Ska, Punk rock, Rocksteady The Specials (sometimes called The Special AKA) are an English 2 Tone Ska revival band formed in 1977 in Coventry. The Beat (known in North America as The English Beat) are a 2 Tone Ska revival band founded in England in 1978 Madness are an English pop / Ska band from Camden Town, London, that formed in 1976 The Selecter were a 2 Tone Ska revival band from Coventry, England, formed in the late 1970s 
June 1977 saw the release of two more charting punk records: The Vibrators' Pure Mania and the Sex Pistols' third single, "Pretty Vacant", which reached number 6. " Pretty Vacant " was the third single released by the Punk rock band Sex Pistols. In July, The Saints had a top 40 hit with "This Perfect Day". This Perfect Day ( 1970) by Ira Levin, is a Heroic Science fiction novel of a technocratic Utopia Recently arrived from Australia, the band was now considered insufficiently "cool" to qualify as punk by much of the British media, though they had been playing a similar brand of music for years.  In August, The Adverts entered the top 20 with "Gary Gilmore's Eyes". The following month, the Pistols hit number 8 with "Holidays in the Sun", while Generation X and The Clash reached the top 40 with, respectively, "Your Generation" and "Complete Control". The "Holidays in the Sun" punk festivals are now known as "Wasted Festivals" " Complete Control " is a song by The Clash, released as a 7" single and featured on the U  In October, the Sex Pistols released their first and only "official" album, Never Mind the Bollocks, Here's the Sex Pistols. Never Mind the Bollocks Here's the Sex Pistols is the first and only album recorded by the Sex Pistols, a highly influential and controversial English Inspiring yet another round of controversy, it topped the British charts. In December, one of the first books about punk rock was published: The Boy Looked at Johnny, by Julie Burchill and Tony Parsons. Julie Burchill (born 3 July 1959 in Frenchay, Bristol) is an English Writer, renowned for her invective and often contentious Tony Parsons is the name of several individuals Tony Parsons (Canadian journalist: news anchor for Global TV in Vancouver  Declaring the punk rock movement to be already over, it was subtitled The Obituary of Rock and Roll. In January 1978, the Sex Pistols broke up while on American tour.
Meanwhile, punk rock scenes were emerging around the globe. In France, les punks, a Parisian subculture of Lou Reed fans, had already been around for years.  Following the lead set by Stinky Toys, Métal Urbain played its first concert in December 1976. Stinky Toys were a punk band from Rennes, France which started in 1976 and featured Elli Medeiros, Denis Quilliard Métal Urbain were one of the first French punk groups Career They were heavily influenced by The Clash and The Sex Pistols on one The new punk band's brief set included a cover of the Stooges' "No Fun", also a staple of the Sex Pistols' live show.  Métal Urbain's debut single, "Panik", released in May 1977, was perhaps the first non-English-language punk rock record; with its "near motorik beat. Motorik is a term coined by music Journalists to describe the 4/4 beat often used by some so-called " Krautrock " bands such as Neu! and . . gruff guitar riffs, shouted lyrics, and the occasionally swooping synth line," it is also one of the earliest examples anywhere of a style that would become identified with post-punk.  Other French punk acts such as Oberkampf and Starshooter soon formed. Oberkampf were a French punk rock band formed in 1979 by Joe Hell ( vocals) Pat Kebra ( Guitar) Buck-Dali ( bass) and Dominik 
In West Germany, bands primarily inspired by British punk came together in the Neue Deutsche Welle (NDW) movement. Neue Deutsche Welle ( New German Wave, often abbreviated NDW) was a genre of German music originally derived from Punk rock Ätzttussis, the Nina Hagen Band, and S. Nina Hagen (born Catharina Hagen on March 11, 1955) is a singer from Berlin, Germany. Y. P. H. featured "raucous vocals and militant posturing", according to writer Rob Burns.  Before turning in a mainstream direction in the 1980s, NDW attracted a politically conscious and diverse audience, including both participants of the left-wing alternative scene and neo-Nazi skinheads. White power skinheads are a racist, and often also anti-semitic, offshoot of the Skinhead Subculture that originated in Great Britain These opposing factions were mutually attracted by a view of punk rock as "'against the system' politically as well as musically. " Briard jump-started Finnish punk with its 1977 single "I Really Hate Ya"/"I Want Ya Back"; other early Finnish punk acts included Eppu Normaali and singer Pelle Miljoona. Antti Hulkko (born October 11, 1962 in Pelkosenniemi, Finland) better known as Andy McCoy, is a Finnish Musician. Eppu Normaali is one of the most popular bands in Finland. The band was formed in 1976 in the small town of Ylöjärvi, near Tampere. Pelle Miljoona, real name Petri Samuli Tiili (born February 10, 1955 in Hamina, Finland) is a Finnish Punk rock In Yugoslavia, punk rock acts emerged in Croatia (Paraf), Slovenia (Pankrti), and Serbia (Pekinška patka). Paraf is a Punk rock and later Post punk band from Rijeka, Croatia. Pankrti ( Bastards in Slovenian) were a Punk rock band from Ljubljana, Slovenia, active in the late 1970s and during the 1980s Pekinška patka ( Serbian Cyrillic: Пекиншка патка trans In Japan, a punk movement developed around bands playing in an art/noise style such as Friction, and "psych punk" acts like Gaseneta and Kadotani Michio. Friction (フリクション furikushon) is an influential rock band from Japan formed in 1978  In New Zealand, Auckland's Scavengers and Suburban Reptiles were followed by The Enemy of Dunedin. The Poo and Ben Walshe were the first punk bands to form in New Zealand. The Enemy were a band from Dunedin, New Zealand, that are often seen as the starting point of the Dunedin Sound rock movement  Punk rock scenes also grew in other countries such as Belgium (The Kids, Chainsaw), the Netherlands (The Suzannes, The Ex), Sweden (Ebba Grön, KSMB), and Switzerland (Nasal Boys, Kleenex). Chainsaw is the name of a Punk rock band from Brussels, Belgium, formed in 1976 and split in 1978. The Ex is an anarchist band from the Netherlands. They formed in 1979 at the height of the original punk explosion and have released more than This article is about Ebba Grön the Swedish punk band For the codeword used by the police see Operation Leo. KSMB ( Kurt-Sunes med Berit) was a Swedish Punk rock band from 1977 to 1982 LiLiPUT were a Swiss female post-punk / new wave band active from 1978 to 1983. 
By late 1978, the hardcore punk movement was emerging in southern California. Hardcore punk (now usually referred to as simply hardcore) is a subgenre of Punk rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s Southern California, or So Cal, is defined as the southern portion of the U A rivalry developed between adherents of the new sound and the older punk rock crowd. Hardcore, appealing to a younger, more suburban audience, was perceived by some as anti-intellectual, overly violent, and musically limited. In Los Angeles, the opposing factions were often described as "Hollywood punks" and "beach punks", referring to Hollywood's central position in the original L. A. punk rock scene and to hardcore's popularity in the shoreline communities of South Bay and Orange County. South Bay is a Region in the southwest peninsula of Los Angeles County, California, United States. Orange County is a county in Southern California, United States. 
As hardcore became the dominant punk rock style, many bands of the older California punk rock movement split up, although X went on to mainstream success and The Go-Go's, part of the Hollywood punk scene when they formed in 1978, adopted a pop sound and became major stars. For the 1960s band see The Go-Go's (1960s. The Go-Go’s are an all-female American Pop band formed in 1978  Across North America, many other first and second wave punk bands also dissolved, while younger musicians inspired by the movement explored new variations on punk. Some early punk bands transformed into hardcore acts. A few, most notably the Ramones, Richard Hell and The Voidoids, and Johnny Thunders and The Heartbreakers, continued to pursue the style they had helped create. Crossing the lines between "classic" punk, post-punk, and hardcore, San Francisco's Flipper was founded in 1979 by former members of Negative Trend and The Sleepers. Post-punk was a popular musical movement in the mid to late 1970s following on the heels of the initial Punk rock explosion of the early 1970s Flipper is an influential punk band formed in San Francisco, California in 1979 continuing in often erratic fashion until the mid-1990s then reuniting  They became "the reigning kings of American underground rock, for a few years. "
Radio Birdman broke up in June 1978 while touring the UK, where the early unity between bohemian, middle-class punks (many with art school backgrounds) and working-class punks had disintegrated. The term bohemian, of French origin was first used in the English language in the nineteenth century to describe the untraditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished Artists Working class is a term used in academic Sociology and in ordinary conversation to describe depending on context and speaker those employed in specific fields or types  In contrast to North America, more of the bands from the original British punk movement remained active, sustaining extended careers even as their styles evolved and diverged. Meanwhile, the Oi! and anarcho-punk movements were emerging. Oi! is a Working class street-level subgenre of Punk rock that originated in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s Anarcho-punk is a faction of the Punk subculture that consists of bands groups and individuals promoting anarchist politics Musically in the same aggressive vein as American hardcore, they addressed different constituencies with overlapping but distinct anti-establishment messages. As described by Dave Laing, "The model for self-proclaimed punk after 1978 derived from the Ramones via the eight-to-the-bar rhythms most characteristic of The Vibrators and Clash. . . . It became essential to sound one particular way to be recognized as a 'punk band' now. " In February 1979, former Sex Pistols bassist Sid Vicious died of a heroin overdose in New York. If the Pistols' breakup the previous year had marked the end of the original UK punk scene and its promise of cultural transformation, for many the death of Vicious signified that it had been doomed from the start. 
By the turn of the decade, the punk rock movement had split deeply along cultural and musical lines, leaving a variety of derivative scenes and forms. On one side were New Wave and post-punk artists; some adopted more accessible musical styles and gained broad popularity, while some turned in more experimental, less commercial directions. New Wave is a Rock music genre that existed during the late 1970s and the 1980s On the other side, hardcore punk, Oi!, and anarcho-punk bands became closely linked with underground cultures and spun off an array of subgenres. Underground culture, or just underground, is a term to describe various Alternative cultures which either consider themselves different from the Mainstream A genre (ˈʒɑːnrə also /ˈdʒɑːnrə/ from French "kind" or "sort" from Latin: genus (stem gener-) is a loose set  Somewhere in between, pop punk groups created blends like that of the ideal record, as defined by Mekons cofounder Kevin Lycett: "a cross between Abba and the Sex Pistols". Pop punk (also known as punk pop and other names is a Fusion genre that combines elements of Punk rock with Pop music, to varying The Mekons are a British rock band Formed in the late 1970s they are one of the longest-running and most prolific of the first-wave British Punk rock  A range of other styles emerged, many of them fusions with long-established genres. A fusion genre is a music genre which combines two or more genres Exemplifying the breadth of classic punk's legacy was The Clash album London Calling, released in December 1979. London Calling is the third album by English Punk rock band The Clash, released 14 December 1979 on CBS Records in the UK and in January 1980 Combining punk rock with reggae, ska, R&B, and rockabilly, it went on to be acclaimed as one of the best rock records ever.  At the same time, as observed by Flipper singer Bruce Loose, the relatively restrictive hardcore scenes diminished the variety of music that could once be heard at many punk gigs.  If early punk, like most rock scenes, was ultimately male-oriented, the hardcore and Oi! scenes were significantly more so, marked in part by the slam dancing and moshing with which they became identified. Moshing or slamming refers to the activity in which audience members at live music performances aggressively push or slam into each other 
In 1976—first in London, then in the United States—"New Wave" was introduced as a complementary label for the formative scenes and groups also known as "punk"; the two terms were essentially interchangeable.  Over time, "New Wave" acquired a distinct meaning: Bands such as Blondie and Talking Heads from the CBGB scene; The Cars, who emerged from the Rat in Boston; The Go-Go's in Los Angeles; and The Police in London that were broadening their instrumental palette, incorporating dance-oriented rhythms, and working with more polished production were specifically designated "New Wave" and no longer called "punk". The Cars were an American rock band that emerged from the early New Wave music scene in the late 1970s Dave Laing suggests that some punk-identified British acts pursued the New Wave label in order to avoid radio censorship and make themselves more palatable to concert bookers. 
Bringing elements of punk rock music and fashion into more pop-oriented, less "dangerous" styles, New Wave artists became very popular on both sides of the Atlantic.  New Wave became a catch-all term, encompassing disparate styles such as 2 Tone ska, the mod revival based around The Jam, the sophisticated pop-rock of Elvis Costello and XTC, the New Romantic phenomenon typified by Duran Duran, synthpop groups like Human League and Depeche Mode, and the sui generis subversions of Devo, who had gone "beyond punk before punk even properly existed. 2 Tone (or Two Tone) is a Music genre created in England in the late 1970s by fusing elements of Ska, Punk rock, Rocksteady The mod revival was a Music genre and Subculture that started in the United Kingdom in 1978 and later spread to other countries (to a lesser degree The Jam were an English Mod revival band active during the late 1970s and early 1980s Elvis Costello (born Declan Patrick MacManus 25 August 1954 is an English Musician and Singer-songwriter, with Irish ancestry XTC was a New Wave band from Swindon, England, active between 1976 and 2005 New Romantic was a short- lived Fashion and music movement that occurred primarily in the United Kingdom and Ireland during the very early 1980s Duran Duran are an English Pop rock band famous for a long series of popular singles, albums and vivid Music videos for which they've won two Synthpop is a subgenre of New Wave and Pop music in which the Synthesizer is the dominant musical instrument Depeche Mode (dəˌpɛʃˈmoʊd are an English Electronic music band formed in 1980 in Basildon, Essex. " New Wave became a pop culture sensation with the debut of the cable television network MTV in 1981, which put many New Wave videos into regular rotation. MTV ( Music Television) is an American Cable television network based in New York City. However, the music was often derided at the time as being silly and disposable. 
During 1976–77, in the midst of the original UK punk movement, bands emerged such as Manchester's Joy Division, The Fall, and Magazine, Leeds' Gang of Four, and London's The Raincoats that became central post-punk figures. Joy Division were an English rock band formed in 1976 in Salford, Greater Manchester. The Fall are an English Post-punk band formed in Prestwich, Greater Manchester in 1976 Magazine were an English Post-punk group active between 1977 and 1981 Gang of Four are an English Post-punk group from Leeds. Original personnel were singer Jon King, guitarist Andy Gill, bass guitarist The Raincoats are a Post-punk band and were formed in 1977 by Ana da Silva ( vocals, Guitar) and Gina Birch (vocals Some bands classified as post-punk, such as Throbbing Gristle and Cabaret Voltaire, had been active well before the punk scene coalesced; others, such as The Slits and Siouxsie & The Banshees, transitioned from punk rock into post-punk. Throbbing Gristle are a British Avant-garde music and Visual arts group that evolved from the Performance art group COUM Transmissions Cabaret Voltaire were a British music group from Sheffield, England. A few months after the Sex Pistols' breakup, John Lydon (no longer "Rotten") cofounded Public Image Ltd. John Joseph Lydon (born 31 January 1956 in London England also known as Johnny Rotten, is a British Rock musician best known as lead vocalist for the Punk Public Image Ltd ( PiL) were an English musical group formed in 1978 by vocalist John Lydon, Guitarist Keith Levene Lora Logic, formerly of X-Ray Spex, founded Essential Logic. Essential Logic was a UK Post-punk band formed by Saxophonist Lora Logic after leaving X-Ray Spex. Killing Joke formed in 1979. Killing Joke are an English Post-punk rock band formed in 1979 These bands were often musically experimental, like certain New Wave acts; defining them as "post-punk" was a sound that tended to be less pop and more dark and abrasive—sometimes verging on the atonal, as with Subway Sect and Wire—and an anti-establishment posture directly related to punk's. Atonality in its broadest sense describes Music that lacks a tonal center, or key. Post-punk reflected a range of art rock influences from Captain Beefheart to David Bowie and Roxy Music to Krautrock and, once again, the Velvet Underground. Art rock is a term describing a subgenre of Rock music that tends to have "experimental or avant-garde influences" and emphasizes "novel sonic texture Don Van Vliet (born Donald Glen Vliet on January 15 1941, in Glendale California, U David Bowie (ˈboʊiː born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947 is an English Musician, actor producer, and arranger. Roxy Music is an English Art rock group founded in the early 1970s by art school graduate Bryan Ferry ( vocals and keyboards) Krautrock is a generic name for the Experimental music scene that appeared in Germany in the late 1960s and gained popularity throughout the 1970s especially in Britain 
Post-punk brought together a new fraternity of musicians, journalists, managers, and entrepreneurs; the latter, notably Geoff Travis of Rough Trade and Tony Wilson of Factory, helped to develop the production and distribution infrastructure of the indie music scene that blossomed in the mid-1980s. Public Image Ltd ( PiL) were an English musical group formed in 1978 by vocalist John Lydon, Guitarist Keith Levene Metal Box is the second Album by Public Image Ltd, released in 1979 by Virgin Records. Geoff Travis is the founder of both Rough Trade Records and the Rough Trade chain of record shops Travis is an alumnus of Churchill College Cambridge Rough Trade Records began as an Independent record label, based in London, England. Anthony Howard Wilson (20 February 1950 &ndash 10 August 2007 was an English Record label owner radio presenter TV show host Nightclub manager Impresario Factory Records was a Manchester based British Independent record label, started in 1978, which featured several prominent musical acts on its In Popular music, independent music, often abbreviated as indie, is a term used to describe independence from major commercial record labels and an autonomous  Smoothing the edges of their style in the direction of New Wave, several post-punk bands such as New Order (descended from Joy Division), The Cure, and U2 crossed over to a mainstream U. New Order are an English rock group formed in 1980 by Bernard Sumner ( vocals, Guitars Synthesizers, Peter Hook The Cure are an English rock band that formed in Crawley, West Sussex in 1976 S. audience. Bauhaus was one of the formative gothic rock bands. ("House of Building" or "Building School" is the common term for the, a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts and was famous This article is about the musical style of gothic rock For the goth scene in general see Goth subculture. Others, like Gang of Four, The Raincoats and Throbbing Gristle, who had little more than cult followings at the time, are seen in retrospect as significant influences on modern popular culture. 
A number of U. S. artists were retrospectively defined as post-punk; Television's debut record Marquee Moon, released in 1977, is frequently cited as a seminal album in the field. Marquee Moon is Television 's 1977 debut Album (see 1977 in music)  The No Wave movement that developed in New York in the late 1970s, with artists like Lydia Lunch, is often treated as the phenomenon's U. No Wave was a short-lived but influential Art music, Film, Performance art, Video and Contemporary art scene that had its beginnings Lydia Lunch (born Lydia Koch on June 2, 1959 in Rochester New York) is an American Singer, Poet, S. parallel.  The later work of Ohio protopunk pioneers Pere Ubu is also commonly described as post-punk.  One of the most influential American post-punk bands was Boston's Mission of Burma, who brought abrupt rhythmic shifts derived from hardcore into a highly experimental musical context. Mission of Burma is an American Post-punk band formed in Boston Massachusetts in 1979  In 1980, Australia's Boys Next Door moved to London and changed their name to The Birthday Party, which evolved into Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds. The Birthday Party was an Australian Post-punk group active from 1977 to 1983 Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds are an Australian rock band with multinational personnel fronted by Nick Cave. King Snake Roost and other Australian bands would further explore the possibilities of post-punk. Overview King Snake Roost, also known as KSR were one of a number of Australian and International bands who emerged from Punk rock in the mid 1980's to Later art punk and alternative rock musicians found diverse inspiration among these predecessors, New Wave and post-punk alike. Art rock is a term describing a subgenre of Rock music that tends to have "experimental or avant-garde influences" and emphasizes "novel sonic texture Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock or simply alternative; known primarily in the UK as indie) is a genre of
A distinctive style of punk, characterized by superfast, aggressive beats, screaming vocals, and often politically aware lyrics, began to emerge in 1978 among bands scattered around the United States. The first major scene of what came to be known as hardcore punk developed in southern California in 1978–79; the movement soon spread around North America and internationally.  According to author Steven Blush, "Hardcore comes from the bleak suburbs of America. Parents moved their kids out of the cities to these horrible suburbs to save them from the 'reality' of the cities and what they ended up with was this new breed of monster". 
Among the earliest hardcore bands, regarded as having made the first recordings in the style, were southern California's Black Flag and Middle Class. Black Flag was a Hardcore punk band formed in 1977 in southern California, largely as the brainchild of Greg Ginn: the guitarist The Middle Class from Santa Ana California, were one of the first Hardcore punk bands in history  Bad Brains—all of whom were black, a rarity in punk of any era—launched the D.C. scene. Bad Brains are an American Hardcore punk band formed in Washington D Washington DC had one of the first and most influential Hardcore punk scenes in the United States during the 1980s  Austin, Texas's Big Boys, San Francisco's Dead Kennedys, and Vancouver's D.O.A. were among the other initial hardcore groups. The Big Boys were a pioneering band who are credited with helping introduce the new style of Hardcore punk that became popular in the 1980s Dead Kennedys was an American Hardcore punk band from San Francisco, California. Vancouver (vænˈkuːvɚ is a coastal They were soon joined by bands such as the Minutemen, The Descendents, Circle Jerks, The Adolescents, and TSOL in southern California; D. The Minutemen were an American Punk rock band formed in San Pedro, California in 1980 This article is about the band For other uses see Descendant. The Circle Jerks are a Hardcore punk band formed circa 1979 in Hermosa Beach California. The Adolescents are a Hardcore punk band formed in 1980 in Fullerton, California. C. 's Teen Idles, Minor Threat, and State of Alert; and Austin's MDC and The Dicks. The Teen Idles were an American Hardcore punk band that formed in Washington D Minor Threat was an American Hardcore punk band that formed in Washington D State of Alert (or SOA) was a Hardcore punk group from Washington D MDC is an American Hardcore punk band formed in Austin, Texas in 1979. The Dicks are an American Punk rock band considered influential in introducing the sound of Hardcore punk, particularly in their home By 1981, hardcore was the dominant punk rock style not only in California, but much of the rest of North America as well.  A New York hardcore scene grew, including the relocated Bad Brains, New Jersey's Misfits and Adrenalin O.D., and local acts such as the Nihilistics, The Mob, Reagan Youth, and Agnostic Front. New York Hardcore ( NYHC) refers to Hardcore punk and Metalcore music created in New York City and to the Subculture associated with The Misfits are an American Adrenalin OD was a popular Hardcore punk band from New Jersey that existed from 1981 to 1990. For the UK band see The Mob (band The Mob was an early 1980s Hardcore punk band from Jackson Heights New York, and Reagan Youth was a band started by singer Dave Rubinstein (Dave Insurgent and his friend and guitarist Paul Bakija in Queens in early 1980 Agnostic Front is an American band that formed Beastie Boys, who would become famous as a hip-hop group, debuted that year as a hardcore band. They were followed by The Cro-Mags, Murphy's Law, and Leeway. The Cro-Mags were a Hardcore punk band from New York City. The band which had a strong Cult following, released many records their first two considered Murphy's Law is a Hardcore punk band from New York. While vocalist Jimmy Gestapo remains the only founding member of the band the constantly changing lineup Leeway was formed in Astoria New York, USA in 1984 by guitarist A  By 1983, Minneapolis's Hüsker Dü and Chicago's Naked Raygun were taking the hardcore sound in experimental and ultimately more melodic directions. The Minneapolis area has been a fertile ground for the Hardcore punk scene for many years For other uses see Husker Du. Hüsker Dü was an American Alternative rock band formed in Minneapolis-St Naked Raygun was a highly influential Chicago -based Rock music group Hardcore would constitute the American punk rock standard throughout the decade. 
The lyrical content of hardcore songs, typified by Dead Kennedys' "Holiday in Cambodia", is often critical of commercial culture and middle-class values. " Holiday in Cambodia " was the second single by the Dead Kennedys.  Straight edge bands like Minor Threat, Boston's SS Decontrol, and Reno, Nevada's 7 Seconds rejected the self-destructive lifestyles of many of their peers, and built a movement based on positivity and abstinence from cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs. Straight Edge refers to a lifestyle that started within the Hardcore punk subculture whose adherents make a commitment to refrain from using alcohol, Tobacco Boston Hardcore is the influential Hardcore punk scene of Boston Massachusetts. SSD ( Society System Decontrol) were a Straight edge Hardcore punk (and later heavy metal) band from Boston. You may also be looking for 7 Seconds of Love. 7 Seconds is a Hardcore punk band from Reno Nevada.  In the early 1980s, bands from the American southwest and California such as JFA, Agent Orange, and The Faction helped create a rhythmically distinctive style of hardcore known as skate punk. JFA ( Jodie Foster 's Army) is a Punk rock band formed in 1981, with roots in Arizona and in Southern California Skateboard Agent Orange is a punk band from Placentia, California. They are a surf-punk band from the 1980s who first gained attention with their song Bloodstains The Faction was a Punk rock band from San Jose California who were closely linked to the underground Skateboarding culture Skate punk is a sub-genre of Punk rock which was named because of its popularity among skateboarders, and the fact that many members of skate punk bands Skate punk innovators also pointed in other directions: Big Boys helped establish funkcore, while Venice, California's Suicidal Tendencies had a formative effect on the heavy metal–influenced crossover thrash style. Funk rock (also typed as funk-rock) is a music genre that fuses Funk and rock elements Venice is a district in western Los Angeles California. It is known for its Canals Beaches and Circus -like Ocean Front Walk, Suicidal Tendencies (also known as ST or Suicidal) is an American Hardcore punk and heavy metal band Thrash metal (sometimes referred to simply as thrash) is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal that is characterized by its fast tempo and aggression Toward the end of the decade, crossover thrash spawned the metalcore fusion style and the superfast thrashcore subgenre developed in multiple locations. Metalcore is an umbrella term used to describe fusion genres that incorporate elements of the Hardcore punk and heavy metal genres Thrashcore (also known as fastcore) is a fast tempo subgenre of Hardcore punk that emerged in the early 1980s
Following the lead of first-wave British punk bands Cock Sparrer and Sham 69, in the late 1970s second-wave units like Cockney Rejects, Angelic Upstarts, The Exploited, and The 4-Skins sought to realign punk rock with a working class, street-level following. Cock Sparrer (initially Cock Sparrow) are a Punk rock band formed in 1974 in the East End of London, England. Sham 69 are an English punk band that formed in Hersham in 1975. Cockney Rejects are an Oi! punk band that formed in the East End of London in 1979 The Angelic Upstarts are an anti-fascist, socialist Working class Oi! punk and Skinhead band formed in South Shields The Exploited is a punk band from the second wave of UK punk, formed in 1979 The 4-Skins are a Working class Oi! Punk rock band from the East End of London, England.  Their style was originally called real punk or streetpunk; Sounds journalist Garry Bushell is credited with labelling the genre Oi! in 1980. Oi! is a Working class street-level subgenre of Punk rock that originated in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s Sounds was a British Music paper, published weekly from October 10, 1970 &ndash April 6, 1991 Garry Bushell (born May 13, 1955 in Woolwich, South East London) is a Newspaper Columnist Rock music The name is partly derived from the Cockney Rejects' habit of shouting "Oi! Oi! Oi!" before each song, instead of the time-honored "1,2,3,4!" Oi! bands' lyrics sought to reflect the harsh realities of living in Margaret Thatcher's Britain in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925  A subgroup of Oi! bands dubbed "punk pathetique"—including Splodgenessabounds, Peter and the Test Tube Babies, and Toy Dolls—had a more humorous and absurdist bent. Punk pathetique is a Subgenre of British Punk rock (principally active circa 1980-1982 that involved humour and Working class cultural Splodgenessabounds is an English Punk rock band formed in Keston, Bromley. Peter and the Test Tube Babies are a Punk rock / Oi! band formed around Brighton, England in 1978 by Del Strangefish and The Toy Dolls are an English Punk rock band. They formed in 1979 playing their first Concert at Millview Social Club Sunderland
The Oi! movement was fueled by a sense that many participants in the early punk rock scene were, in the words of The Business guitarist Steve Kent, "trendy university people using long words, trying to be artistic. The British Movement ( BM) was a British neo-Nazi political party founded by Colin Jordan in 1968 Nicola Vincenzio "Nicky" Crane ( May 21, 1958 - December 8, 1993) was a British neo-Nazi skinhead activist with The Business is an English Oi! / punk band formed in the late 1970s in Lewisham, South London. . . and losing touch".  The Oi! credo held that the music needed to remain unpretentious and accessible.  According to Bushell, "Punk was meant to be of the voice of the dole queue, and in reality most of them were not. In the United Kingdom Jobseeker's Allowance ( JSA) colloquially known as The Dole, is a form of Unemployment benefit that is paid by the But Oi was the reality of the punk mythology. In the places where [these bands] came from, it was harder and more aggressive and it produced just as much quality music. "
Although most Oi! bands in the initial wave were apolitical or left wing, many of them began to attract a white power skinhead following. White power skinheads are a racist, and often also anti-semitic, offshoot of the Skinhead Subculture that originated in Great Britain  Racist skinheads sometimes disrupted Oi! concerts by shouting fascist slogans and starting fights, but some Oi! bands were reluctant to endorse criticism of their fans from what they perceived as the "middle-class establishment".  In the popular imagination, the movement thus became linked to the far right. Far right, extreme right, ultra-right, or radical right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or quantitative position a group  Strength Thru Oi!, an album compiled by Bushell and released in May 1981, stirred controversy, especially when it was revealed that the belligerent figure on the cover was a neo-Nazi jailed for racist violence (Bushell claimed ignorance). The term neo-Nazism refers to post- World War II Political movements Social movements and ideologies seeking to revive Nazism,  On July 3, a concert at Hamborough Tavern in Southall featuring The Business, The 4-Skins, and The Last Resort was firebombed by local Asian youths who believed that the event was a neo-Nazi gathering. Events 324 - Battle of Adrianople Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium. Southall is a suburb in the London Borough of Ealing, West London.  Following the Southall riot, press coverage increasingly associated Oi! with the extreme right, and the movement soon began to lose momentum. 
Anarcho-punk developed alongside the Oi! and American hardcore movements. With a primitive, stripped-down musical style and ranting, shouted vocals, British bands such as Crass, Subhumans, Flux of Pink Indians, Conflict, Poison Girls, and The Apostles attempted to transform the punk rock scene into a full-blown anarchist movement. For information about the Anarchist writer see Chris Crass Crass were an English Anarcho-punk band formed Subhumans are an Anarcho-punk band formed in the Trowbridge and Melksham area of Wiltshire, England in 1980 Flux Of Pink Indians were an Anarcho-punk / Post punk band that originated from Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, England. Conflict are a Punk rock band originally based around Eltham in South London. The Poison Girls were an English Anarcho-punk band The female singer/guitarist Vi Subversa, was a middle-aged mother of two at the band's inception The Apostles are an experimental punk rock band who developed within the confines of the 1980s Anarcho Punk scene in the UK, but did not necessarily adhere to As with straight edge, anarcho-punk is based around a set of principles, including prohibitions on wearing leather, and promoting a vegetarian or vegan diet. 
The movement spun off several subgenres of a similar political bent. Discharge, founded back in 1977, established D-beat in the early 1980s. Discharge is a British Hardcore punk band formed in 1977 by Terry "Tez" Roberts and Roy "Rainy" Wainwright D-beat (also known as Discore) is a style of Street punk developed in the early 1980s by imitators of Discharge, for whom the genre is named Other groups in the movement, led by Amebix and Antisect, developed the extreme style known as crust punk. Amebix, formed in England in 1978 as "The Band with No Name" were a band that many consider to have started the sub genre Crust punk. Antisect were an Anarcho-punk (and later on Crust punk) band formed in 1982 in Daventry, Northamptonshire, UK. Crust punk (sometimes simply crust) is one of the evolutions of Anarcho-punk and Hardcore punk, mixed with distorted Extreme metal guitar Several of these bands rooted in anarcho-punk such as The Varukers, Discharge, and Amebix, along with former Oi! groups such as The Exploited and bands from father afield like Birmingham's Charged GBH, became the leading figures in the UK 82 hardcore movement. The Varukers are a UK anarchist hardcore punk band formed in 1979 by vocalist Anthony "Rat" Martin which produced its most influential recordings Charged GBH are an English Punk rock band formed by vocalist Collin Abrahall& guitarist Colin 'Jock' Blyth The anarcho-punk scene also spawned bands such as Napalm Death, Carcass, and Extreme Noise Terror that in the mid-1980s defined the grindcore form, incorporating extremely fast tempos and death metal–style guitarwork. Napalm Death are Carcass are a Grindcore / Death metal act based in Liverpool, England. Extreme Noise Terror (often abbreviated to ENT) are a Crust punk and Grindcore band originally from Ipswich, England. For the fictional character with this name see Grindcore (Transformers. Death metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal. It typically employs fast tempos heavily distorted guitars deep growling vocals morbid lyrics  Led by Dead Kennedys, a U. S. anarcho-punk scene developed around such bands as Austin's MDC and southern California's Another Destructive System. MDC is an American Hardcore punk band formed in Austin, Texas in 1979. 
With their love of the Beach Boys and late 1960s bubblegum pop, the Ramones paved the way to what became known as pop punk. The Beach Boys is an American rock band Formed in 1961 the group gained popularity for its close vocal harmonies and lyrics reflecting a California Youth culture Bubblegum pop (also known as bubblegum rock, bubblegum music, or simply bubblegum) is a genre of Pop music whose classic period ran from 1967  In the late 1970s, UK bands such as Buzzcocks and The Undertones combined pop-style tunes and lyrical themes with punk's speed and chaotic edge. Buzzcocks are an English Punk rock band formed in Manchester in 1975 The Undertones are a Northern Irish Punk rock / Power pop band formed in Derry in 1975 Pop music as a genre features a noticeable rhythmic element catchy melodies and hooks, a mainstream style and conventional structure  In the early 1980s, some of the leading bands in southern California's hardcore punk rock scene emphasized a more melodic approach than was typical of their peers. According to music journalist Ben Myers, Bad Religion "layered their pissed off, politicized sound with the smoothest of harmonies"; Descendents "wrote almost surfy, Beach Boys–inspired songs about girls and food and being young(ish). Ben Myers (born 1976 in Durham) is an English author poet and music journalist Bad Religion is an American Punk rock band founded in Southern California in 1980 by Jay Bentley (bass Greg Graffin (vocals Brett This article is about the band For other uses see Descendant. " Epitaph Records, founded by Brett Gurewitz of Bad Religion, was the base for many future pop punk bands, including NOFX, with their third wave ska–influenced skate punk rhythms. Epitaph Records is a Hollywood California based Record label owned by Bad Religion guitarist Brett Gurewitz. Brett Gurewitz (born May 12, 1962, Los Angeles California) nicknamed Mr NOFX (pronounced "no ef-ex") is an American Punk rock band that was formed in Los Angeles California (now based in San Francisco Third wave ska is a Music genre that was a revival of Jamaican Ska with various additional American and British styles of music such Skate punk is a sub-genre of Punk rock which was named because of its popularity among skateboarders, and the fact that many members of skate punk bands Bands that fused punk with light-hearted pop melodies, such as The Queers and Screeching Weasel, began appearing around the country, in turn influencing bands like Green Day, who brought pop punk wide popularity and major record sales. The Queers are an American Pop punk band formed in 1982 by Portsmouth New Hampshire native Joe King (A Screeching Weasel was an American punk band from Chicago, Illinois. Green Day is an American rock trio Bands such as The Vandals and Guttermouth developed a style blending pop melodies with humorous and offensive lyrics. The Vandals are an American Punk rock band formed in 1980 in Huntington Beach California and currently recording for Kung Fu Records. Guttermouth is an American Punk rock band formed in 1988 in Huntington Beach California and currently recording for Volcom Entertainment The mainstream pop punk of latter-day bands such as Blink-182 is criticized by many punk rock devotees; in critic Christine Di Bella's words, "It's punk taken to its most accessible point, a point where it barely reflects its lineage at all, except in the three-chord song structures. Blink-182 was an American Pop "
From 1977 forward, punk rock crossed lines with many other popular music genres. Los Angeles punk rock bands laid the groundwork for a wide variety of styles: The Flesh Eaters with deathrock; The Plugz with Chicano punk; and Gun Club with punk blues. The Flesh Eaters is a Los Angeles Punk rock band whose peak of popularity was in the late 1970s and early 80's Deathrock (or Death Punk) is a term used to identify a fusion of Punk rock and Gothic rock which incorporates elements of horror and spooky atmospheres The Plugz were a Mexican-American Punk rock band from Los Angeles California that formed in 1978. Chicano rock is a rock music performed by Mexican American ( Chicano) groups or music with themes derived For information on "gun clubs" see Shooting ranges ' The Gun Club was an American Punk blues band from Los Angeles Punk blues (or blues punk) denotes a Rock music fusion of Punk rock and Blues. The Meteors, from South London, and The Cramps, who moved from New York to Los Angeles in 1980, were innovators in the psychobilly fusion style. The Meteors are a Psychobilly band Originally from the United Kingdom, they are often credited with giving the genre its distinctive sound South London is the southern part of London, England. The area it covers is defined differently for a range of purposes The Cramps are an American Punk rock band formed in 1976. Their line-up has rotated much over the years with lead singer Lux Interior and lead guitarist Psychobilly is a genre of Rock music that mixes elements of Punk rock, Rockabilly, and other genres  Milwaukee's Violent Femmes jumpstarted the American folk punk scene, while The Pogues did the same on the other side of the Atlantic, influencing many Celtic punk bands. The Violent Femmes, formed in Milwaukee Wisconsin, in 1980 are an American Alternative rock band noted for laying the groundwork for Folk punk. Folk punk is a fusion of Folk music and Punk rock. Folk punk in the United Kingdom has existed almost as long as punk rock itself The Pogues are a band of mixed Irish and English background playing Traditional Irish music with influences from Punk rock, formed in 1982 and fronted by Shane Celtic punk is Punk rock mixed with traditional Celtic music. The Mekons, from Leeds, combined their punk rock ethos with country music, greatly influencing the later alt-country movement. Leeds ( is located on the River Aire in West Yorkshire, England Alternative country is a term used to describe a number of Country music subgenres that tend to differ from mainstream or pop country music In the United States, varieties of cowpunk played by bands such as Nashville's Jason & the Scorchers and Arizona's Meat Puppets had a similar effect. Cowpunk or Country punk is a subgenre of Punk rock that began in Southern California in the 1980s especially Los Angeles. Jason & The Scorchers, originally Jason and the Nashville Scorchers were a Rock / Country rock band formed in 1981 and led by singer/songwriter Jason Ringenberg "Meat Puppet" redirects here For other uses see Meat puppet.
Other bands pointed punk rock toward future rock styles or its own foundations. New York's Suicide, who had played with the New York Dolls at the Mercer Arts Center, L. Suicide is an American Rock music group intermittently active since 1971 and composed of Alan Vega ( Vocals) and Martin Rev ( Synthesizers A. 's The Screamers and Nervous Gender, and Germany's DAF were pioneers of synthpunk. The Screamers were a Punk rock group active in the Los Angeles California area in the late 1970s Nervous Gender is a punk band founded in Los Angeles California in 1978 by Gerardo Velazquez Edward Stapleton, Phranc and Michael DAF is an influential German Electropunk / NDW band from Düsseldorf, formed in 1978 featuring Gabriel "Gabi" Delgado-López Synthpunk (also known as electropunk) is a Music genre invented by Damian Ramsey in 1999 as an attempt to retroactively identify a small sub-genre of punk Chicago's Big Black was a major influence on noise rock, math rock, and industrial rock. Big Black was a Noise rock band founded in Chicago Illinois, United States that was active between 1982 and 1987. Noise rock (also known as noise punk) describes one variety of Post-punk Rock music that became prominent in the 1980s Math rock is a rhythmically complex guitar-based style of experimental rock music that emerged in the late 1980s Industrial rock is a Musical genre that fuses Industrial music and Punk rock. Garage punk bands from all over—such as Medway's Thee Mighty Caesars, Chicago's Dwarves, and Adelaide's Exploding White Mice—pursued a version of punk rock that was close to its roots in 1960s garage rock. Garage punk is a Rock music Fusion of Garage rock and Punk rock. History The Medway area has a long and varied history dominated Thee Mighty Caesars were a primitive Garage punk group formed by Billy Childish in 1985 after the demise of The Milkshakes. The Dwarves are an American Punk rock band formed in Chicago Illinois, as The Suburban Nightmare in the late 1980s Adelaide is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of South Australia, and is the fifth largest city in Australia with a Exploding White Mice were a Punk-pop band from Adelaide Australia in the 1980s Seattle's Mudhoney, one of the central bands in the development of grunge, has been described as "garage punk". Mudhoney is an American Grunge band Formed in Seattle Washington in 1988 following the demise of Green River, Mudhoney has for the most of its recording 
The underground punk rock movement inspired countless bands that either evolved from a punk rock sound or brought its outsider spirit to very different kinds of music. The original punk explosion also had a long-term effect on the music industry, spurring the growth of the independent sector.  During the early 1980s, British bands like New Order and The Cure that straddled the lines of post-punk and New Wave developed both new musical styles and a distinctive industrial niche. Though commercially successful over an extended period, they maintained an underground-style, subcultural identity. For the term in biology see Subculture (biology. For the song by New Order see Sub-culture (song.  In the United States, parallel developments were occurring, though with less impact on the record charts: Critically celebrated but still hitless bands such as Minneapolis's Hüsker Dü and their protégés The Replacements bridged the gap between punk rock styles like hardcore and the various nonmainstream sounds collectively referred to as "college rock" at the time. For other uses see Husker Du. Hüsker Dü was an American Alternative rock band formed in Minneapolis-St The Replacements were an American Alternative rock band formed in Minneapolis, Minnesota in 1979 College rock was a term used in the United States to describe 1980s Alternative rock before the term "alternative" came into common usage 
A 1985 Rolling Stone feature on the Minneapolis scene and innovative California hardcore acts such as Black Flag and Minutemen declared, "Primal punk is passé. Rolling Stone is a United States -based Magazine devoted to Music, Politics, and Popular culture that is published The best of the American punk rockers have moved on. They have learned how to play their instruments. They have discovered melody, guitar solos and lyrics that are more than shouted political slogans. Some of them have even discovered the Grateful Dead. The Grateful Dead was an American rock band formed in 1965 in the San Francisco Bay Area. " By the end of the 1980s, such bands were being classified as "alternative rock" in the U. S. media; the analogous term in the UK was "indie". These were broad categories, including groups such as R.E.M. and XTC whose music had little apparent connection to punk. REM is an American rock band formed in Athens, Georgia, in 1980 by Michael Stipe ( lead vocals) Peter Buck ( Guitar Even among those bands whose debt to punk was more obvious, the alternative label encompassed styles as diverse as British gothic rock and the structural experimentalism of New England's Dinosaur Jr and Throwing Muses. This article is about the musical style of gothic rock For the goth scene in general see Goth subculture. Throwing Muses are an Alternative rock band formed in 1981 in Newport Rhode Island, that toured and recorded extensively until 1997 when its members began concentrating 
As American alternative bands like Sonic Youth, who had grown out of the No Wave scene, and Boston's Pixies started to gain larger audiences, major labels sought to capitalize on the underground market that had been sustained by hardcore punk for years. Sonic Youth is an American Alternative rock band formed in New York City in 1981 Kim Althea Gordon (born April 28, 1953) is an American musician vocalist and artist Sonic Youth is an American Alternative rock band formed in New York City in 1981 Pixies are an American Alternative rock band formed in Boston Massachusetts in 1986  In 1991, Nirvana emerged from Washington State's grunge music scene, achieving huge commercial success with its second album, Nevermind. Nirvana was an American rock band that was formed by singer/guitarist Kurt Cobain and bassist Krist Novoselic in Aberdeen Washington. Nevermind is the second studio album by the American rock band Nirvana, released on September 24 1991 The band's members cited punk rock as a key influence on their style.  "Punk is musical freedom," wrote singer Kurt Cobain. Kurt Donald Cobain (February 20 1967 – c April 5 1994 was an American musician who served as lead singer, Guitarist, and songwriter for the Seattle "It’s saying, doing, and playing what you want. " The widespread popularity of Nirvana and other punk-influenced bands such as Pearl Jam and Red Hot Chili Peppers fueled the alternative rock boom of the early and mid-1990s. Pearl Jam is an American rock band that formed in Seattle, Washington in 1990 Red Hot Chili Peppers are  The resulting shift in popular taste is chronicled in the film 1991: The Year Punk Broke, which features Nirvana, Dinosaur Jr, and Sonic Youth. 1991 The Year Punk Broke is a 1992 documentary directed by Dave Markey. 
In its original, mid-1980s incarnation, emo was a less musically restrictive style of punk developed by participants in the Washington, D. C. area hardcore scene. It was originally referred to as "emocore", an abbreviation of "emotive hardcore". Notable early emo bands included Rites of Spring, Embrace, and One Last Wish. Rites of Spring was an early American Hardcore punk band from Washington D For the UK indie rock band see Embrace (band. Embrace was a short-lived Post-hardcore band from Washington D One Last Wish was a short-lived Post-hardcore band from Washington D The term derived from the tendency of some of these bands' members to become strongly emotional during performances. Fugazi, formed out of the dissolution of Embrace, inspired a second, much broader based wave of emo bands beginning in the mid-1990s. Fugazi are an American alternative / post-hardcore band that formed in Washington D Groups like San Diego's Antioch Arrow generated new, more intense subgenres like screamo, while others developed a more melodic style closer to indie rock. Antioch Arrow, from San Diego, California, was on the seminal hardcore / emo label Gravity Records, responsible for putting San Screamo is a sub genre of Rock music which evolved from Hardcore punk and Emo in the early 1990s Bands such as Seattle's Sunny Day Real Estate and Mesa, Arizona's Jimmy Eat World broke out of the underground, attracting national attention. Sunny Day Real Estate was an Indie rock band formed in Seattle Washington. Mesa ( "MACE-uh") is a city in Maricopa County, in the U Jimmy Eat World is an American Alternative rock band from Mesa, Arizona, formed in 1993. By the turn of the century, emo had arguably surpassed hardcore, its parent genre, as the roots-level standard for U. S. punk, though some music fans claim that typical latter-day emo bands like Panic! At The Disco and Fall Out Boy don't even qualify as punk at all. Panic at the Disco (formerly known as Panic! at the Disco) is a Rock band that originated in Las Vegas Nevada, USA. Fall Out Boy is an American Pop punk band from Wilmette, Illinois (a suburb of Chicago) that formed in 2001 
In the 1990s, the queercore movement developed around a number of punk bands with gay and lesbian members such as Fifth Column, God Is My Co-Pilot, Pansy Division, Team Dresch, and Sister George. In the English language, gay is an Adjective that in modern usage refers to Homosexuality. A lesbian is a Woman who is romantically or sexually attracted only to other women Fifth Column is an all-women experimental Post punk band from Toronto, which came about God Is My Co-Pilot is a Queercore band from New York City that has been recording and playing since 1991. Pansy Division is an American rock / punk band that formed in San Francisco, California in 1991 Team Dresch is an American punk band that performed and recorded in the 1990s and made a significant impression on the DIY Queercore movement Sister George was an influential Queercore band from London that was formed in 1994 Inspired by openly gay punk musicians of an earlier generation, queercore embraces a variety of punk and other alternative music styles. Queercore lyrics often treat the themes of prejudice, sexual identity, gender identity, and individual rights. Sexual identity is a term that like sex, has two distinctively different meanings Gender identity (or core gender identity) is a person's own sense of Identification as Male or Female. The movement has continued to expand in the twenty-first century, supported by festivals such as Queeruption. Queeruption is an annual international Queercore festival and gathering where alternative/radical/disenfranchised Queers can exchange information network organize
In 1991, a concert of female-led bands at the International Pop Underground Convention in Olympia, Washington, heralded the emerging riot grrrl phenomenon. Olympia is the Capital of Washington and is the County seat of Thurston County. Billed as "Love Rock Revolution Girl Style Now," the concert's lineup included Bikini Kill, Bratmobile, Heavens to Betsy, L7, and Mecca Normal. Bikini Kill were an American Punk rock band formed in Olympia Washington in October of 1990. Bratmobile was an American punk band Growing from the Northwest and Washington DC underground and influenced by Indie pop in the United States as well as Britpop Heavens to Betsy was a punk band from Olympia Washington. The members were Tracy Sawyer on Drums and occasionally Bass guitar, and L7 (pronounced /ɛl ˈsɛvən/ was a band from Los Angeles that was active from 1985 to 2000 Formed by Jean Smith and David Lester in 1984 Mecca Normal is a two-piece Indie rock band from Vancouver, Canada.  Singer-guitarists Corin Tucker of Heavens to Betsy and Carrie Brownstein of Excuse 17, bands active in both the queercore and riot grrrl scenes, cofounded the celebrated indie/punk band Sleater-Kinney in 1994. Corin Lisa Tucker (born November 9 1972) is a singer and guitarist best known for her work with rock band Sleater-Kinney. Carrie Rachel Brownstein (born September 27 1974) is an American musician and actress Excuse 17 is a Queercore punk band from Olympia Washington that performed and recorded in the mid 1990s Sleater-Kinney was an American Indie rock band that existed from 1995 to 2006 Bikini Kill's lead singer, Kathleen Hanna, the iconic figure of riot grrrl, moved on to form the art punk group Le Tigre in 1998. Kathleen Hanna (born 12 November 1968) is an American Musician, Activist, and Zine writer Art rock is a term describing a subgenre of Rock music that tends to have "experimental or avant-garde influences" and emphasizes "novel sonic texture Le Tigre ( French for "The Tiger" is an American Dance-punk band formed by Kathleen Hanna (formerly of Bikini Kill 
Along with Nirvana, many of the leading alternative rock artists of the early 1990s acknowledged the influence of earlier punk rock acts. With Nirvana's success, the major record companies once again saw punk bands as potentially profitable.  In 1993, California's Green Day and Bad Religion were both signed to major labels. Green Day is an American rock trio Bad Religion is an American Punk rock band founded in Southern California in 1980 by Jay Bentley (bass Greg Graffin (vocals Brett The next year, Green Day released Dookie, which became a huge hit, selling 8 million albums in just over two years. Dookie is the third studio album and the Major label debut by American Punk rock band Green Day.  Bad Religion's Stranger Than Fiction was certified gold. Stranger Than Fiction is the eighth full-length studio album (tenth release overall by Bad Religion, released in 1994 (see 1994 in music) In the United States, the Recording Industry Association of America awards certification based on the number of Albums and singles sold through retail and  Other California punk bands on indie label Epitaph, run by Bad Religion guitarist Brett Gurewitz, also began garnering mainstream success. Epitaph Records is a Hollywood California based Record label owned by Bad Religion guitarist Brett Gurewitz. Brett Gurewitz (born May 12, 1962, Los Angeles California) nicknamed Mr In 1994, Epitaph put out Let's Go by Rancid, Punk In Drublic by NOFX, and Smash by The Offspring, each eventually certified gold or better. Let's Go is a 1994 album by the Punk rock band Rancid. Released on the influential indie label Epitaph Records, Let's Go Rancid is a punk band formed in 1991 in Albany California, by Matt Freeman and Tim Armstrong. Punk in Drublic (a Spoonerism of Drunk in Public) is a Studio album by Punk rock band NOFX. NOFX (pronounced "no ef-ex") is an American Punk rock band that was formed in Los Angeles California (now based in San Francisco Smash is the third studio Album by American Punk rock band The Offspring. The Offspring (sometimes referred to simply as Offspring) are a popular and influential American Smash went on to sell over 11 million copies, becoming the best-selling independent-label album of all time.  MTV and radio stations such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM played a major role in these bands' crossover success, though NOFX refused to let MTV air its videos. MTV ( Music Television) is an American Cable television network based in New York City. KROQ-FM is a commercial Radio station located in Los Angeles California, broadcasting on 106  Green Day and Dookie's enormous sales paved the way for a host of bankable North American pop punk bands in the following decade.  The Vans Warped Tour and the mall chain store Hot Topic brought punk even further into the U. The Warped Tour' is a touring music and Extreme sports festival Hot Topic ( is an American Chain store. It has over 690 locations across the United States and Puerto Rico the majority of which are located in Shopping S. mainstream.
Following the lead of Boston's Mighty Mighty Bosstones and two California bands, Berkeley's Operation Ivy and Long Beach's Sublime, ska punk and ska-core became widely popular in the mid-1990s. The Mighty Mighty Bosstones are a Ska-core band from Boston, Massachusetts. Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California, in the United States. Operation Ivy was an influential Ska punk and Hardcore punk band formed in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area. Long Beach is a city located in southern California, USA, on the Pacific coast Sublime was a hip-hop influenced American Ska-punk and Reggae band that originated in Long Beach California. Ska punk is a fusion Music genre that combines Ska and Punk rock. The original 2 Tone bands had emerged amid punk rock's second wave, but their music was much closer to its Jamaican roots—"ska at 78 rpm". 2 Tone (or Two Tone) is a Music genre created in England in the late 1970s by fusing elements of Ska, Punk rock, Rocksteady A gramophone  Ska punk bands in the third wave of ska created a true musical fusion with punk and hardcore. Third wave ska is a Music genre that was a revival of Jamaican Ska with various additional American and British styles of music such ...And Out Come the Wolves, the 1995 album by Rancid—which had evolved out of Operation Ivy—became the first record in this ska revival to be certified gold; Sublime's self-titled 1996 album was certified platinum early in 1997. Sublime is the third and final album released by Ska-punk band Sublime. 
By 1998, the punk revival had commercially stalled, but not for long. Pop punk band Blink-182's 1999 release, Enema of the State, reached the Billboard Top 10 and sold 4 million copies in less than a year. Blink-182 was an American Pop Enema of the State, Blink-182 's third and most successful studio album was released June 1, 1999, on MCA Records and features  New pop punk bands such as Sum 41, Simple Plan, Yellowcard, and Good Charlotte achieved major sales in the first decade of the 2000s. Sum 41 (sometimes referred to as The Sums) is a Canadian Pop punk band from Ajax Ontario. Simple Plan is a French Canadian Pop punk band based in Montreal, Quebec. Yellowcard is a Pop punk band from Jacksonville Florida. Their music features a rare contribution to the genre incorporating the use of a Violin. Good Charlotte is an American rock band from Waldorf Maryland that formed in 1996 In 2004, Green Day's American Idiot went to number 1 on both the U. American Idiot (also known as Green Day presents American Idiot is the seventh studio album by American Punk rock band Green Day, released on September S. and UK charts. Jimmy Eat World, which had taken emo in a radio-ready pop punk direction, had Top 10 albums in 2004 and 2007; in a similar style, Fall Out Boy hit number 1 with 2007's Infinity on High. Infinity on High is Fall Out Boy 's fourth Studio album. It is the follow up to their 2005 album From Under the Cork Tree The revival was broad-based: AFI, with roots in hardcore, had great success with 2003's Sing the Sorrow and topped the U. AFI (abbreviated from A F ire I nside and formerly A sking F or i t A bunch of F ucking I Sing the Sorrow was the first major-label release by the Alternative rock band AFI, released in 2003 S. chart with Decemberunderground in 2006. Decemberunderground is the seventh Studio album from Californian Alternative rock band AFI, and their first album to Ska punk groups such as Reel Big Fish and Less Than Jake continued to attract new fans. Reel Big Fish is an American Ska punk band from Huntington Beach California, best known for the 1997 hit " Sell Out. Less Than Jake is an American Ska punk band from Gainesville Florida. Celtic punk, with U. S. bands such as Flogging Molly and Dropkick Murphys merging the sound of Oi! and The Pogues, reached wide audiences. Flogging Molly is a seven-piece Irish American Celtic punk band that formed in Los Angeles California and is currently signed to SideOneDummy Dropkick Murphys are a Celtic punk band formed in Quincy, Massachusetts, U The Australian punk rock tradition was carried on by groups such as Frenzal Rhomb, The Living End, and Bodyjar. Frenzal Rhomb is an Australian Punk rock band that formed in 1991, based in the city of Sydney. The Living End are an Australian rock band based in Melbourne, Victoria. Bodyjar is an Australian Punk rock / Pop punk band based in Melbourne, which has been together since 1994 when they changed their name from
With punk's renewed visibility came concerns among some in the punk community that the music was being co-opted by the mainstream. NOFX (pronounced "no ef-ex") is an American Punk rock band that was formed in Los Angeles California (now based in San Francisco  They argued that by signing to major labels and appearing on MTV, punk bands like Green Day were buying into a system that punk was created to challenge.  Such controversies have been part of the punk culture since 1977, when The Clash was widely accused of "selling out" for signing with CBS Records. Columbia Records is an American Record label founded in 1888 Columbia is the oldest surviving Brand name in pre-recorded sound being the first record company  The effect of commercialization on the music itself was an even more contentious issue. As observed by scholar Ross Haenfler, many punk fans "'despise corporate punk rock', typified by bands such as Sum 41 and Blink 182. " By the 1990s, punk rock was so sufficiently ingrained in Western culture that punk trappings were often used to market highly commercial bands as "rebels". Marketers capitalized on the style and hipness of punk rock to such an extent that a 1993 ad campaign for an automobile, the Subaru Impreza, claimed that the car was "like punk rock". The Subaru Impreza' is a Compact car that was first introduced by Subaru in 1993  Although the commercial mainstream has exploited many elements of punk, numerous underground punk scenes still exist around the world.