The military forces of the Punic people are all military forces from the State of Carthage in North Africa and troops of Punic ethnicity after the destruction of Carthage in the Third Punic War. Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers The Punics, (from Latin pūnicus meaning Phoenician were a group of Western Semitic speaking peoples originating from Carthage The Third Punic War ( 149 BC to 146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage The polis Carthage had subdued a large region in the Maghreb, roughly resembling modern Tunisia, and controlled the coasts of Tripolitania and today's Morocco with bases along the rest of the Maghreb's shore. A polis ( πόλις, pronunciation, in English-- plural poleis ( πόλεις, pronunciation, in English --is a City, a The Maghreb (المغرب العربي al-Maġrib al-ʿArabī) also rendered Maghrib (or rarely Moghreb) meaning "place of Sunset Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. Tripolitaniajpg|thumb|250px|Tripolitania]] Tripolitania or Tripolitana ( Arabic: طرابلس, Transliterated: Tarābulus) is a historic Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa The remaining Numidian tribal kingdoms of the Maghreb felt Carthage's influence during its heyday. Numidia (202 BC – 46 BC was an ancient Berber kingdom in present-day Algeria and part of Tunisia ( North Africa) that later alternated However, with Roman support after the Second Punic War a short-lived united Numidian kingdom was established, taking over Carthage's former influence in the Maghreb with Punic know-how continuing to play an important role until the Roman conquest. The Second Punic War (referred to as "The War Against Hannibal" by the Romans lasted from 218 to 201 BC and involved combatants in the western  Overseas the Punic people's conquests and political influence covered most of Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia and the Iberian peninsula. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Corsica (Corse Corsican and Italian: Corsica) is the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily Sardinia (sɑrˈdɪnɪə Sardegna Sardigna or Sardinnya is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily) The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra Most records about Carthage's military are from conflicts in these regions. Contrary to the usual mode of warfare in Africa there was a stronger reliance on foreign mercenary forces for the land warfare while the fleet was manned with Africans.  From the Sicilian Wars and the Punic Wars the records about these troops are almost exclusively from their respective enemies. The Sicilian Wars were a series of conflicts fought between Carthage and the Greek city-states of Magna Grecia, headed by Syracuse, over The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC and were probably the largest wars yet of the ancient However, we do know that in the Pyrrhic War Carthage's navy helped their Roman allies. The Pyrrhic War ( 280 &ndash 275 BC) was a complex series of battles and shifting political alliances among the Greeks (specifically Epirus,
According to the historian A. Heuss:
"The central problem concerning Carthaginian political institutions is their relation to military aspects. " ("Das zentrale Problem des karthagischen Staatslebens ist sein Verhältnis zum Militärwesen. ")
Carthage was founded by nobles from the Phoenician city of Tyre and from Cyprus. Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers Phoenicia ( Phoenician: Phoenician nunsvg|12px|נ]]Phoenician nun Tyre ( Arabic صور Ṣūr, Phoenician Phoenician wawsvg|12px|ו]] Ṣur, Hebrew Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía From the start it was a complete and independent city on a spot with favorable access to important resources such as clay and sea salt. Carthage in North Africa then became the cradle and center of the Punic state which spread across the Mediterranean. Carthage's military traditions showed its Phoenician roots and reflected native Libyan and Greek influences.
It has traditionally been argued that Carthage was a peaceful city of merchants or a brutal colonial power and both theories were rather dependent upon modern perceptions.  Almost all approaches towards Carthage have in common the fact that they do not look at Carthaginian policy-making as such, but rather its structure in a fundamental contrast to that of Rome.  However, the polis Carthage was over the course of several centuries the dominant power in the Western Mediterranean and could establish its symmachy over large territories which were also deeply influenced by the Punic culture. A polis ( πόλις, pronunciation, in English-- plural poleis ( πόλεις, pronunciation, in English --is a City, a In International law, a protectorate is a autonomous territory that is "protected" by a stronger state or entity hense the protector which engages to protect It played a very important role in the urbanization of Northern Africa, where the Punic language was to persist until the 5th century AD. 
The idea that mercantile business and warlike spirit are contradictory dates to the Age of Enlightenment and is generally not shared by ancient sources such as Vergil, who writes in Aeneid 1,444f. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century on Carthage: sic nam fore bello / egregiam et facilem victu per saecula gentem Livy already points out that Carthage did house a body of professional soldiers until sometime after the Second Punic War. Other sources can be interpreted to refer to a high degree of military professionalism in the small Punic population whose constitution Aristotle groups along with those of Sparta and Crete. So there is an ongoing debate among historians about the extent of Carthage's military spirit.  It should be pointed out that the sources on the Punic forces are rare and not easily accessible because they are almost exclusively written by their opponents in war. . An inscription discovered in Carthage seems to confirm the doubts raised by the lack of sources concerning members of the nobility in the trading business. The translation (which is, like all translations from the Punic, disputed in details) only mentions in the existing parts merchants among the people with little money, while owners of producing facilities are mentioned among those with more money.  Similar doubts were raised earlier because our only source on a Punic in the trading business is the play Poenulus and the Carthaginian presented there is a rather humble merchant. Poenulus (or " The Little Carthaginian" or "The Puny Punic" a Latin -language play is one of Plautus ' comedies An important part of the Punic culture seems to have consisted in their devotion to the gods, and their well-known units, called Sacred Bands by our Greek sources, are regarded as the elite troops of their time. These consisted of infantry troops and cavalry units. The latter were formed by young nobles of the city devoting their life to military training.
Ancient authors such as Polybius tend to stress the reliance of Carthage on foreign mercenaries. Polybius (ca 203 &ndash 120 BC, Greek) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic Period noted for his book called The Histories A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national or a party to the conflict and is "motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by  However, the term 'mercenary' is in fact a little misleading and does not fully represent the unique Carthaginian arrangement that equally recruited subjects of Punic-ruled areas and foreigners. These units were mostly deployed in the expeditionary armies overseas, while in Africa Punic militias formed the backbone of the troops.
Units were generally segregated by ethnicity which was also a criterion for the respective specialisation. While within a unit communication in the native tongue was possible, between the units Greek and Punic helped to establish communication. According to Polybius this enabled the insurgents during the Mercenary War, which is also the only recorded large mutiny of Carthage's troops, to communicate with each other on higher levels. The Mercenary War ( c[[ 40 BC]] — also called the Libyan War and the Truceless War by Polybius — was an uprising of Mercenary
The reported causes for this conflict were that following the First Punic War against Rome, payment of the mercenaries was delayed for over a year. The First Punic War ( 264 to 241 BC) was the first of three major wars fought between Carthage and the Roman Republic. When finally arrangements for payment were made the mistrust between the mercenaries and their employer helped to kindle the war. The native African Lybians, the largest contingent of the 'mercenaries', objected to being paid last while their comrades had been shipped home. Fear had spread that this might be a trap of the Carthaginians to exterminate them without payment and save their silver, after having crippled their army of the specialized supportive arms units. The conditions for the payment were rejected, although their former commander, Gisco, had provided them with his own person and 500 other nobles as hostages to reassure them of Carthage's sincere and honest intentions. The mercenaries and supporting native insurgents began attacking Carthaginian targets and urging the Lybian natives to rise. According to our sources the war was conducted in a particularly brutal fashion and ended, after three years, with the total destruction of the mercenary and insurgent forces.
It would be difficult to say precisely what a typical make-up of Carthage's armies would be, but in the Punic wars, they are reported to have included Iberians, Celtic people(Gauls and Celtiberians), Balearic slingers, Italians (e. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC and were probably the largest wars yet of the ancient The Iberians were a set of peoples that Greek and Roman sources (among others Hecataeus of Miletus, Avienus, Herodot and Strabo g. Ligures), native Sicilian tribesmen, Black Africans, Numidians, Lybians and Lybophoenicians (also called Africans), Greeks, and naturally Punics from Carthage and its external settlements. The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English: Ligurians, Greek:) were an ancient people who gave their name to Liguria Numidia (202 BC – 46 BC was an ancient Berber kingdom in present-day Algeria and part of Tunisia ( North Africa) that later alternated
The Greek sources referred to the commander of Punic forces as strategos or boetarch. For the board game see Stratego. "Strategus" redirects here The former could at the same time also be a military governor and is known to have had the authority to sign treaties. In areas of conflict we find often dual command and not all of these strategoi seem to be concerned with governing provinces. It seems that Carthage's nobles could afford and were legally allowed to sustain their own armies. Furthermore we tend to find evidence that many individuals from the leading families of Carthage served in the military forces.
Notably the hired units were deployed with their own command structure. As Carthage sent out specific recruiters who bargained contracts with each soldier/corps of soldiers it is possible that these also served as officers responsible for the integration of their units into the army. Polybius noted for the mercenary war that the mercenaries were told to ask their commanding officers for payment, what frustrated them to such an extend that they elected new ones. In the army payment was done per unit with subordinates responsible for the further distribution.
We have no written records of Carthage's military activities from the Punics, only from Greek and Roman writers and these are limited to a few wars.
The navy of Carthage was the city's primary security, and it was the preeminent force patrolling the Mediterranean in Carthage's golden age. The Jugurthine War takes its name from Jugurtha, nephew and later adopted son of Micipsa, King of Numidia. This was due to its central location, control of the pathway between Sicily and Tunisia, through which all ships must travel in order to cross the Mediterranean, and the skill with which its ships were designed and built.
Originally based on Tyrian designs with two or three levels of rowers that were perfected by generations of Phoenician seamanship, it also included quadriremes and quinquiremes, warships with four and five ranks of rowers on no more than 3 levels (see galleys). Galleys redirects here For other uses see Galley (disambiguation. These latter ships were much larger than their predecessors. Archaeological investigations confirm the presence of ship-sheds on the island in the circular harbour reported by ancient sources.
A large part of the sailors on the fleet were recruited from the lower class citizenry, the navy offering a profession and financial security. This helped to contribute to the city's political stability, since the unemployed, debt ridden poor in other cities were frequently inclined to support revolutionary leaders in the hope of improving their own lot. 
Polybius wrote in the sixth book of his History that the Carthaginians were, "more exercised in maritime affairs than any other people. Polybius (ca 203 &ndash 120 BC, Greek) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic Period noted for his book called The Histories " Their navy included some 300 to 350 warships that continuously patrolled the expanse of the Mediterranean. But the Carthaginian hegemony was never so great. The Romans, unable to defeat them through conventional maritime tactics, were forced to simply board the ships and fight in hand to hand combat.
The former (the Romans - editor's note) bestow their whole attention upon this department (upon military service on land - editor's note): whereas the Carthaginians wholly neglect their infantry, though they do take some slight interest in the cavalry. The reason of this is that they employ foreign mercenaries, the Romans native and citizen levies. It is in this point that the latter polity is preferable to the former. They have their hopes of freedom ever resting on the courage of mercenary troops: the Romans on the valour of their own citizens and the aid of their allies.