In all modern states, some land is held by central or local governments. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. This is called public land. The system of tenure of public land, and the terminology used, varies between countries. The following examples illustrate some of the range.
In several Commonwealth countries such as Australia, New Zealand and Canada, public lands are referred to as Crown lands. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Crown land is a designated area belonging to The Crown, the equivalent of an entailed estate that passed with the Monarchy and could not be Recent proposals to sell Crown lands have been highly controversial.
In France, public land (French: domaine public) may he held by communes, départements, or the central State. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. In the Terminology of Political geography and Historiography a National department (département departamento is an administrative A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population.
In the United States governmental entities including cities, counties, states, and the federal government all manage land which are referred to as either public lands or the public domain. Public domain is a term used to describe lands that were not under private or state ownership during the 18th and 19th centuries in the United States, as the country was expanding
The majority of public lands in the United States are held in trust for the American people by the federal government and managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the United States National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, or the Fish and Wildlife Service under the Department of the Interior, or the United States Forest Service under the Department of Agriculture. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior which administers America's Public lands totaling approximately The National Park Service ( NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation The Bureau of Reclamation (formerly the United States Reclamation Service) is an agency under the U The United States Department of the Interior ( DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally Other federal agencies that manage public lands include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the United States Department of Defense, which includes the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( NOAA) is a scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the The United States Department of Defense ( DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government The United States Army Corps of Engineers ( USACE) is a federal agency and a major Army command made up of some 34600 Civilian and 650 Military personnel
In general, Congress must legislate the creation of new public lands, such as national parks; however, under the 1906 Antiquities Act, the President may designate new national monuments without congressional authorization. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses The Antiquities Act of 1906 officially An Act for the Preservation of American Antiquities (16 USC 431-433 is an act passed by the United States The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by A National Monument in the United States is a Protected area that is similar to a National Park except that the President of the United States
Each western state also received federal "public land" as trust lands designated for specific beneficiaries, which the States are to manage as a condition to acceptance into the union. Those trust lands cannot any longer be considered public lands as allowing any benefits to the "public" would be in breach of loyalty to the specific beneficiaries. The trust lands (two sections, or about 1280 acres per township) are usually managed extractively (grazing or mining), to provide revenue for public schools. A township in the United States refers to a small geographic area All states have some lands under state management, such as state parks, state wildlife management areas, and state forests. State Park is a term used in the United States and in Mexico for an area of land preserved on account of its natural beauty historic interest recreation or other State forest is a term with differing meanings in different countries
Wilderness is a special designation for public lands which have been completely undeveloped. Wilderness is generally defined as a Natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by Human activity The concept of wilderness areas was legislatively defined by the 1964 Wilderness Act. Wilderness areas can be managed by any of the above Federal agencies, and some parks and refuges are almost entirely designated wilderness. A wilderness study area is a tract of land that has wilderness characteristics, and is managed as wilderness, but has not received a wilderness designation from Congress.
Typically each parcel is governed by its own set of laws and rules that explain the purpose for which the land was acquired, and how the land may be used.
Most state- and federally managed public lands are open for recreational use. Recreation opportunities depend on the managing agency, and run the gamut from the free-for-all, undeveloped wide open spaces of BLM lands to the highly developed and controlled national and state parks. Wildlife refuges and state wildlife management areas, managed primarily to improve habitat, are generally open to wildlife watching, hiking, and hunting, except for closures to protect mating and nesting, or to reduce stress on wintering animals. A habitat (which is Latin for "it inhabits" is an Ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular Species. National forests generally have a mix of maintained trails and roads, wilderness and undeveloped portions, and developed picnic and camping areas.
Historically in the western United States, most public land is leased for grazing by cattle or sheep. This includes vast tracts of National Forest and BLM land, as well as land on Wildlife Refuges. National Parks are the exception. This use became controversial in the late 20th century as it was examined by environmentalists.