A public benefit corporation is a public corporation chartered by a state designed to perform some public service. Public is of or pertaining to the people relating to or affecting a nation state or community opposed to private; as the public treasury a road or lake A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. A public authority is a type of public benefit corporation that takes on a more bureaucratic role, such as the maintenance of public infrastructure, that often has broad powers to regulate or maintain public property. Infrastructure typically refers to the technical structures that support a society such as Roads Water supply, Wastewater, Power grids
Authorities borrow from both municipal corporations law (that is, the laws responsible for the creation of cities, towns, and other forms of local government) and private corporations law. A township (or Municipality) is a settlement which has the status and powers of a unit of local government A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status A town is a type of settlement ranging from a few to several thousand (occasionally hundreds of thousands inhabitants although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a State. Other public benefit corporations resemble private non-profit organizations, and take on roles that private corporations might otherwise perform. These corporations often operate in heavily regulated industries, such as broadcasting and transportation.
Corporations such as these are often found in common law jurisdictions such as Commonwealth countries, including Canadian provinces and U.S. states. Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second largest country in total area. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government
Although ally associate corporations, sometimes negatively, with private business, corporations in theory began as means to serve public purposes. Corporate theory has its roots in primarily government and religious institutions, where the institution itself is identifiable independently of its membership's mortality. Death is the termination of the biological functions that define living Organisms It refers both to a specific For example, if the Pope dies, the Catholic Church continues to exist, just as it continues to exist as generations pass on and get replaced by new members. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete".
Public benefit corporations likely have their direct roots in mercantile capitalism. In the early days of European exploration and colonization, a government or monarch would sometimes grant a charter to an entity allowing it to incorporate and make potentially risky investments. The early modern period is a term initially used by historians to refer mainly to the period roughly from 1500 to 1800 in Western Europe ( Early modern Europe) Colonisation (also known as Colonization) occurs whenever any one or more species populates a new area A charter is the grant of authority or rights stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified While certainly not public benefit corporations by today's standards, entities such as the Massachusetts Bay Company, Hudson's Bay Company, and the Dutch East India Company arguably are early prototypes of publicly-chartered (in this case, crown-chartered) corporations successfully making risky investments. The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it was an English settlement on the east coast of North America The Dutch East India Company ( Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC in old-spelling Dutch, literally "United East Indian
The first public authority on record is the Port of London Authority, established 1908. The Port of London lies along the banks of the River Thames from London, England to the North Sea. According to the Port of London Acts The Authority is a public trust established to "administer, preserve and improve the Port of London. " The goal was to create an entity that would be run self-sufficiently like a private company yet remain under the control of the government. The name Authority is derived from the founding act of Parliament which repeatedly stated that "Authority is hereby given. The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories . . . "
The special status of this entity and the fact that it remained subject to administrative law was established by the UK courts in R v Port of London Authority: ex parte Kynoch  1 KB 176. Administrative law is the body of Law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of Government.
Public benefit corporations are generally governed by boards of directors, which are appointed, rather than elected, and, internally, reflect bureaucratic forms. Bureaucracy is the structure and set of regulations in place to control activity usually in large organizations and government The corporation is government-owned and performs a specific, narrow function for the public good.
Public benefit corporations are most often created by statute. A statute is a formal written enactment of a Legislative authority that governs a Country, State, City, or County. In many Commonwealth countries, public benefit corporations continue to receive charters from the British monarchy. In Political geography and International politics, a country is a Political division of a geographical entity See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands In the United States, they receive their charters usually from states, but possibly from the federal government.
Public authorities are usually created with a specific mandate, such as the construction of bridges, mass transit, etc. Unlike departments or ministries of the state, these corporations usually are enabled by statute to raise revenues through bond issues. A ministry is a specialised organisation responsible for a sector of Government Public administration, sometimes led by a minister, but usually a senior A statute is a formal written enactment of a Legislative authority that governs a Country, State, City, or County.
For more information, read below about individual jurisdictions.
The BBC is a public benefit crown corporation in the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Many universities have charters going back centuries, and these too are in theory corporations.
Public authorities include:
VIA Rail in Canada is an independent crown corporation offering intercity passenger rail services in Canada. The Port of London lies along the banks of the River Thames from London, England to the North Sea. Transport for London ( TfL) is the local government body responsible for most aspects of the Transport system in Greater London in England. VIA Rail Canada (also referred to as VIA Rail and VIA; ˈviːə 'vee-ah' is an independent Crown corporation offering intercity passenger rail Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page In the Commonwealth realms a Crown corporation is a State-controlled company or enterprise The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation is another example.
The Province of Ontario shares two international public benefit corporations with the U. The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second largest country in total area. Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec S. state of New York:
In Russia the law “On Noncommercial Organizations” describes the status state corporations. It is a special form of noncommercial partnership founded by the state to fulfill socially significant tasks. The activities of each corporation are described in a special federal law. Assets transferred to a state corporation are not state property from the legal point of view. Under the law “On Noncommercial Organizations,” property transferred to as the investment in a partnership is the property of the partnership. The partnership itself is no one's property. It manages its assets as described in its charter. The rights of the founder are considerable in the partnership, but they are still not ownership rights. There is only one founder in a state corporation, and it is the Russian Federation. That is why the state corporation is independent. It is a set of assets that are managed for purposes established in its charter by managers appointed by the founder. State corporations, as a rule, are subordinate not to the government, but to the Russian president, and act to accomplish some important goal. The state corporations can manage those assets as demanded by the sketchily described goals and tasks of the charters and as allowed by the supervisory council, on which there is no one the president does not trust.
Under the United States Constitution, per the United States Supreme Court, the United States federal government is an entity of limited sovereignty that can only exercise those powers conferred upon it by the Constitution (Amendment 10). The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. The states, on the other hand, have unlimited sovereignty. They can exercise any power that is not granted to the federal government under the terms of the U. S. Constitution, provided it is not prohibited to them under their own constitutions.
Since the U. S. Constitution does not explicitly or implicitly empower the Government of the United States to create corporations outside of the confines of the federal government, the power to define and create corporations (other than as agencies of the U. S. government) is reserved to the individual states.
Private corporations were not so common in the early United States as they are today; corporations were often founded to create a public purpose, such as the maintenance of a toll bridge. Today, public benefit corporations are popular in some states in the United States, perhaps especially New York State. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Many interstate compacts in the United States are public benefit corporations.
Examples of Federal public benefit corporations created, owned and operated by the U. S. Government include Amtrak, the United States Postal Service and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Doing business as Amtrak, is a Government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971 The Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB is a private non-profit corporation created by an act of the United States Congress and partially funded by the United States
Many public authorities in the United States are interstate compacts or local and regional entities covering multiple municipaliies on the county or state level.
which operates, funds and oversees bus and passenger rail service. The Delaware Transit Corporation, trading as DART First State is the primary public transportation system that operates throughout Delaware, USA The Delaware Transit Corporation, trading as DART First State is the primary public transportation system that operates throughout Delaware, USA
The Bi-State Development Agency is a bi-state agency managing public transportation between southern Illinois and Missouri. Miami-Dade Transit is the Public transit authority in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The Bi-State Development Agency is the formal name of an Interstate compact formed by Missouri and Illinois in 1949. The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. Missouri ( or) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee It serves the St. Louis metropolitan area.
See Bi-State Development Agency. The Maryland Transit Administration (MTA is a state-operated transit service in Maryland. The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority ( MBTA) is "a body politic and corporate and a political subdivision" of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Massachusetts Port Authority, or Massport, is a Port district in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The Massachusetts Turnpike (commonly shortened to the MassPike or The Pike) is the easternmost 138-mile (222 km stretch of Interstate 90. The Bi-State Development Agency is the formal name of an Interstate compact formed by Missouri and Illinois in 1949.
The New Jersey Turnpike Authority] (NJTA) is a public benefit corporation in New Jersey, created by the New Jersey Turnpike Authority Act of 1948. The New Jersey Turnpike (or simply The Turnpike as it is known to New Jersey residents is a Toll road in New Jersey and is one of the most heavily traveled New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States.
The Delaware River and Bay Authority controls the Delaware Memorial Bridge between Delaware and New Jersey, and is a bi-state agency. The Delaware River and Bay Authority or DRBA is a bi-state government agency of the State of New Jersey and the State of Delaware established by Interstate The Delaware Memorial Bridge is a set of twin Suspension bridges crossing the Delaware River. The Delaware River Port Authority is a bi-state agency of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The Delaware River Port Authority or DRPA is a bi-state Port district located within the State of New Jersey and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey is a bi-state agency shared with New York. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey ( PANYNJ) is a bi-state Port district, established in 1921 (as the Port of New York Authority) through
NJ Transit, formed in 1979 operates bus, light rail and passenger rail service in New Jersey and in neighboring states as well as funding and planning of bus and rail services and programs. The New Jersey Transit Corporation (usually shortened to New Jersey Transit, NJ Transit or NJT) is a statewide Public transportation system serving
Although "Public Benefit Corporation" is not a statutorily defined term under State laws (New Jersey Statutes or the New Jersey Administrative Code), such corporations are among those included within the statutorily defined term "State Agency".
The widespread use of public authorities in the United States was pioneered in New York State by Robert Moses. The Manchester Transit Authority, or MTA, is a Public transportation provider in Manchester New Hampshire. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Robert Moses ( December 18 1888 – July 29 1981) was the "master builder" of mid-20th century New York City, Long The approval of the New York State Public Authorities Control Board is required in some cases when creating an authority. The New York State Public Authorities Control Board is composed of five members appointed by the Governor, some upon the recommendation of members of the Legislature An authority may at times levy taxes and tolls; this means that they are not part of the usual state budgetary process, and gives them a certain independence. Furthermore, they may make contracts; because of public authorities' corporate status, there is, generally, no remedy against the chartering State for the breach of such contracts. A contract is an exchange of promises between two or more parties to do or refrain from doing an act which is enforceable in a court of law John Grace & Co. v. State University Constr. Fund, 44 N. Y. 2d 84, 375 N. E. 2d 377; 404 N. Y. S. 2d 316 (1978). On the other hand, as agents of the state, public authorities are not subject to many laws governing private corporations, and are not subject to municipal regulation. Employees of public authorities usually are not state employees, but are employees of the authority. Ciulla v. State, 191 Misc. 528; 77 N. Y. S. 2d 545; (NY Court of Claims, 1948). Public authorities can also often condemn property. See Generally 87 NY Jur PUBLIC AUTHORITIES Section 1 et. seq. .
Among the major public benefit corporations in New York State, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, an interstate compact, and the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, which manages most of the public transportation to, in, and around New York City, might be the most famous. New York State public benefit corporations and authorities operate like quasi-private corporations generally with boards appointed by elected officials The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey ( PANYNJ) is a bi-state Port district, established in 1921 (as the Port of New York Authority) through New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. The Metropolitan Transportation Authority ( MTA) is a Public benefit corporation responsible for Public transportation in the U The City of New York New York has hundreds of lesser-known public benefit corporations. The Urban Development Corporation, founded to provide public housing, now has other priorities, and it boasts no less than 107 subsidiaries with devolved powers. The Urban Development Corporation, doing business as Empire State Development Corporation is a public authority of the state of New York in the United One of these, the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation has been receiving a lot of press, in the wake of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation ( LMDC) was formed after the September 11 attacks to plan the reconstruction of Lower Manhattan and distribute Events 9 - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar.
New York likely has the most extensive number of public benefit corporations in the United States.
In this state, a Municipal Authority can have many similarities to a Public benefit corporation. New York State public benefit corporations and authorities operate like quasi-private corporations generally with boards appointed by elected officials A Municipal Authority is a special governmental unit in Pennsylvania.
The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) provides public transportation in and around Philadelphia. The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority ( SEPTA) is a regional public authority that operates various forms of public transit &mdash bus Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə
The Delaware River Port Authority is a bi-state agency of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The Delaware River Port Authority or DRPA is a bi-state Port district located within the State of New Jersey and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Tennessee is arguably the banner state for the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA's) operations, which span a region extending into seven states (most of Tennessee and parts of six others), but the TVA is actually a Federally-owned public authority. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA is a federally owned Corporation in the United States created by congressional charter in May 1933 to provide The TVA has been key in aiding the region's economic development, most notably in the 1930s during the Great Depression.
Like Maine, the state of Vermont defines public benefit corporations broadly. The Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County Texas (METRO operates Bus, Light rail, future Commuter rail, and METROLift (paratransit service in The Port of Houston is the Port of Houston Texas, the fourth-largest city in the United States. The State of Maine ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean Vermont ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. They include public benefit corporations founded by the state and by private entities. The Vermont Economic Development Authority is an example of a state-owned public benefit corporation.
More broadly, a public benefit corporation could be any corporation that exists for a charitable purpose, though these are generally called non-profit corporations if they aren't founded by a government. The Port of Seattle is a Port district that runs Seattle 's seaport and Airport. A non-profit organization ( abbreviated "NPO" also "not-for-profit" is a legally constituted Organization whose objective is to support or engage Some jurisdictions (the U.S. State of Maine, for instance) might define a public benefit corporation broadly. A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government The State of Maine ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean In California, public benefit corporations are one of several types of non-profit corporations. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean.