Psychological testing is a field characterized by the use of samples of behavior in order to infer generalizations about a given individual. The technical term for the science behind psychological testing is psychometrics. Psychometrics is the field of study concerned with the theory and technique of Educational and Psychological Measurement, which includes the measurement By samples of behavior, one means observations over time of an individual performing tasks that have usually been prescribed beforehand, which often means scores on a test. A test score is a piece of information usually a number that conveys the performance of an examinee on a test. These responses are often compiled into statistical tables that allow the evaluator to compare the behavior of the individual being tested to the responses of a norm group. A norm-referenced test / NRT is a type of test, Assessment, or Evaluation which yields an estimate of the position of the tested individual in a predefined
Psychological testing is not the same as psychological assessment. A psychological evaluation or mental examination is an Examination into a person's Mental health by a mental health professional such as a Psychologist Psychological assessment is a process that involves the integration of information from multiple sources, such as psychological tests, and other information such as personal and medical history, description of current symptoms and problems by either self or others, and collateral information (interviews with other persons about the person being assessed). A symptom' (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident misfortune that which befalls" from συμπίπτω, "I befall" from A psychological test is one of the sources of data used within the process of assessment; usually more than one test is used. All psychologists do some level of assessment when providing services to clients or patients, and may use for example, simple checklists to assess some traits or symptoms, but psychological assessment is a more complex, detailed, in-depth process. Typical types of focus for psychological assessment are to provided a diagnosis, assess level of function or disability, help direct treatment, and assess treatment outcome. Diagnosis is the identification by Process of elimination, of the nature of anything 
A useful psychological measure must be both valid (i. In Psychology, validity has two distinct fields of application e. , actually measures what it claims to measure) and reliable (i. In Statistics, reliability is the consistency of a set of measurements or measuring instrument often used to describe a test. e. , internally consistent or give consistent results over time).
There are several broad categories of psychological tests:
Norms are statistical representations of a population. A norm-referenced test compares an individual's results on the test with the statistical representation of the population. In practice, rather than testing a population, a representative sample or group is tested. This provides a group norm or set of norms. One representation of norms is the Bell curve (also called "normal curve"). Norms are available for standardized psychological tests, allowing for an understanding of how an individual's scores compare with the group norms. Norm referenced testing is used to assess characteristics, e. g. , MMPI, achievement Graduate Record Examination (GRE). Graduate Record Examination or GRE is a commercially-run Standardized test that is an admissions requirement for many Graduate schools principally in the
IQ tests are measures of ability, while achievement tests are measures of the use and level of develop of use of the ability. IQ (or cognitive) tests and achievement tests are common norm-referenced tests. An Intelligence Quotient or IQ is a score derived from one of several different Standardized tests attempting to measure Intelligence. An achievement test is a test of developed skill or knowledge In these types of tests, a series of tasks is presented to the person being evaluated, and the person's responses are graded according to carefully prescribed guidelines. After the test is completed, the results can be compiled and compared to the responses of a norm group, usually comprised of people at the same age or grade level as the person being evaluated. IQ tests which contain a series of tasks typically divide the tasks into verbal (relying on the use of language) and performance, or non-verbal (relying on eye-hand types of tasks, or use of symbols or objects). Examples of verbal IQ test tasks are vocabulary and information (answering general knowledge questions). Non-verbal examples are timed completion of puzzles (object assembly), making designs out of coloured blocks (block design).
IQ tests (e. g. , WAIS-III, WISC-IV, Cattell Culture Fair III, K-BIT (Kaufman & Kaufman, 1990), Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test) and academic achievement tests (e. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS is a general test of intelligence ( IQ) published in February 1955 as a revision of the Wechsler - Bellevue test The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children ( WISC) developed by David Wechsler, is an Intelligence test for children between the ages of 6 and 16 inclusive In seeking to develop a culture-fair intelligence or IQ test that separated environmental and genetic factors Raymond B g. , WIAT, WRAT) are designed to be administered to either an individual (by a trained evaluator) or to a group of people (paper and pencil tests). The individually-administered tests tend to be more comprehensive, more reliable, more valid and generally to have better psychometric characteristics than group-administered tests. Psychometrics is the field of study concerned with the theory and technique of Educational and Psychological Measurement, which includes the measurement However, individually-administered tests are more expensive to administer because of the need for a trained administrator (psychologist, school psychologist, or psychometrician) and because of the limitation of working with just one client at a time. Mental health professional A psychologist is a practitioner of Psychology, the systematic investigation of the mind including Behavior, Cognition, School Psychology is a field that applies principles of Clinical psychology and Educational psychology to the diagnosis and treatment of children's and adolescents' Psychometrics is the field of study concerned with the theory and technique of Educational and Psychological Measurement, which includes the measurement
These tests consist of specifically designed tasks used to measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular brain structure or pathway. Neuropsychological tests are specifically designed tasks used to measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular Brain structure or pathway The brain is the center of the Nervous system in animals All Vertebrates and the majority of Invertebrates have a brain They are typically used to assess impairment after an injury or illness known to affect neurocognitive functioning, or when used in research, to contrast neuropsychological abilities across experimental groups. Neurocognitive is a term used to describe Cognitive functions closely linked to the function of particular areas Neural pathways or cortical networks in
Psychological measures of personality are often described as either objective tests or projective tests. A personality test aims to describe aspects of a person's character that remain stable throughout that person's lifetime the individual's character pattern of behavior thoughts and feelings Objective tests are Psychological tests that measure an individual's characteristics in a way that is independent of rater bias or the individual's own beliefs A projective test, in Psychology, is a Personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli presumably revealing hidden Emotions and internal Some projective tests are used less often today because they are more time consuming to administer.
Objective tests have a restricted response format, such as allowing for true or false answers or rating using an ordinal scale. See False for other meanings of false FALSE is an esoteric programming language designed by Wouter van Oortmerssen in Prominent examples of objective personality tests include the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (Millon, 1994), Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001), and the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck & Steer, 1996). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI is one of the most frequently used personality tests in Mental health. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III is a psychological assessment tool intended to provide information on Psychopathology, including specific disorders outlined The Beck Depression Inventory ( BDI, BDI-II) created by Dr Aaron T Objective personality tests can be designed for use in business for potential employees, such as the NEO-PI, the 16PF, and the Occupational Personality questionnaire, all of which are based on the Big Five taxonomy. A business (also called firm or an enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to In Psychology, the "Big Five" personality traits are five broad factors or dimensions of personality developed through lexical analysis The Big Five, or Five Factor Model of normal personality has gained acceptance since the early 1990s when some influential meta-analyses (e. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 g. , Barrick & Mount 1991) found consistent relationships among the Big Five personality factors (Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism [OCEAN])
Projective tests allow for a freer type of response. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. In Psychology, the "Big Five" personality traits are five broad factors or dimensions of personality developed through lexical analysis An example of this would be the Rorschach test, in which a person states what each of ten ink blots might be. Please do not add more images or reposition the current onePlease do not remove the image The terms "objective test" and "projective test" have recently come under criticism in the Journal of Personality Assessment. The more descriptive "rating scale or self-report measures" and "free response measures" are suggested, rather than the terms "objective tests" and "projective tests," respectively.
As improved sampling and statistical methods developed, much controversy regarding the utility and validity of projective testing has occurred. The use of clinical judgement rather than norms and statistics to evaluate people's characteristics has convinced many that projectives are deficient and unreliable (results are too dissimilar each time a test is given to the same person). However, many practitioners continue to rely on projective testing, and some testing experts (e. g. , Cohen, Anastasi) suggest that these measures can be useful in developing therapeutic rapport. They may also be useful in creating inferences to follow-up with other methods. Possibly they have lingered in usage because they have a mystical and fascinating reputation, and are more attractive to uninformed people than answering objective tests, e. g. , true/false questionnaires. The most widely used scoring system for the Rorschach is the Exner system of scoring (Exner & Erdberg, 2005). Another common projective test is the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943), which is often scored with Drew Westen's (1991) Social Cognition and Object Relations Scales and Phebe Cramer's Defense Mechanisms Manual (1991, 2002). Both "rating scale" and "free response" measures are used in contemporary clinical practice, with a trend toward the former.
Other projective tests include the House-Tree-Person Test, Robert's Apperception Test, and the Attachment Projective.
Although most psychological tests are "rating scale" or "free response" measures, psychological assessment may also involve the observation of people as they complete activities. This type of assessment is usually conducted with families in a laboratory, home or with children in a classroom. The purpose may be clinical, such as to establish a pre-intervention baseline of a child's hyperactive or aggressive classroom behaviors or to observe the nature of a parent-child interaction in order to understand a relational disorder. Direct observation procedures are also used in research, for example to study the relationship between intrapsychic variables and specific target behaviors, or to explore sequences of behavioral interaction.
The Parent-Child Interaction Assessment-II (PCIA; Holigrocki, Kaminski & Frieswyk, 1999) is an example of a direct observation procedure that is used with school-age children and parents. The Parent-Child Interaction Assessment-II ( PCIA-II; Holigrocki Kaminski & Frieswyk 1999 2002 is a direct observation procedure The parents and children are video recorded playing at a make-believe zoo. The Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment (Clark, 1999) is used to study parents and young children and involves a feeding and a puzzle task. The MacArthur Story Stem Battery (MSSB; Bretherton et al. , 1990) is used to elicit narratives from children. The Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System-II (Eyberg, 1981) tracks the extent to which children follow the commands of parents and vice versa and is well suited to the study of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorders and their parents. Oppositional defiant disorder is a psychiatric category listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders where it is described as an ongoing pattern of
An examiner may use data mining methods to draw inferences from existing records, texts, and datasets about the person. One such technique is the Abika Test. This test involves gathering data on the individual such as public records, behavior history records, consumer activities, shopping histories, memberships in various organizations, court records, demographic data, property deeds, media, public and private databases, newsgroups, opinions expressed in chat rooms, forums, message boards including other methods such as statistical comparisons with peer groups, polling and information submitted by friends, co-workers, relatives. Thus, this technique compiles personality and psychological profiles that are based on inferences developed from existing records.
Achenbach, T. M. , & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms and Profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families.
Beck, A. T. , Steer, R. A. , & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd ed. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. Pearson Assessment previously known as "Harcourt Assessment" is a company that publishes and distributes psychological assessment tools and therapy resources
Bretherton, I. , Oppenheim, D. , Buchsbaum, H. , Emde, R. N. , & the MacArthur Narrative Group. (1990). MacArthur Story-Stem battery. Unpublished manual.
Cramer, P. (2002). Defense Mechanism Manual, revised June 2002. Unpublished manuscript, Williams College. (Available from Dr. Phebe Cramer. )
Exner, J. E. & Erdberg, P. (2005) The Rorschach: A comprehensive system: advanced Interpretation (3rd Edition. Vol 2). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley and Sons.
Holigrocki, R. J, Kaminski, P. L. , & Frieswyk, S. H. (1999). Introduction to the Parent-Child Interaction Assessment. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 63(3), 413-428.
Kaufman, A. S. , & Kaufman, N. L. (1990). K-BIT: Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test manual. Circle Pines, Minnesota: American Guidance Service.
Millon, T. (1994). Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. Minneapolis, MN: National Computer Systems.
Murray, H. A. (1943). Thematic Apperception Test manual. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Westen, D. (1991). Social cognition and object relations. Psychological Bulletin, 109(3), 429-455.