A provirus is a virus genome that has integrated itself into the DNA of a host cell. A virus (from the Latin virus meaning Toxin or Poison) is a sub-microscopic infectious agent that is unable Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known The cell is the structural and functional unit of all known living Organisms It is the smallest unit of an organism that is classified as living and is often called One kind of virus that can become a provirus is a retrovirus. A retrovirus is any Virus belonging to the viral family Retroviridae. When a retrovirus invades a cell, the RNA of the retrovirus is transcribed into DNA by reverse transcriptase, then inserted into the host genome by an integrase. Ribonucleic acid ( RNA) is a Nucleic acid that consists of a long chain of Nucleotide units Transcription is the synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA In Biochemistry, a reverse transcriptase, also known as RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, is a DNA polymerase Enzyme that transcribes In classical genetics the genome of a Diploid Organism including Eukarya refers to a full set of chromosomes or genes in a Gamete, thereby Integrase is an enzyme produced by a Retrovirus (including HIV) that enables its genetic material to be integrated into the DNA of the infected cell
A provirus does not directly make new DNA copies of itself while integrated into a host genome in this way. Instead, it is passively replicated along with the host genome and passed on to the original cell's offspring; all descendants of the infected cell will also bear proviruses in their genomes. Integration can result in a latent infection or a productive infection. In a productive infection, the provirus is transcribed into messenger RNA which directly produces new virus, which in turn will infect other cells. A latent infection results when the provirus is transcriptionally silent rather than active. Chronic since 1992 ( talk) 2200 12 December 2007 (UTC --> Virus latency A latent infection may become productive in response to changes in the host's environmental conditions or health, the provirus may be activated and begin transcription of its viral genome. This can result in the destruction of its host cell because the cell's protein synthesis machinery is hijacked to produce more viruses. Protein synthesis is the creation of proteins using DNA and' RNA'.
Examples in humans include HIV and HTLV. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) is a Lentivirus (a member of the Retrovirus family that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV is a Human, single-stranded RNA Retrovirus that causes T-cell Leukemia and T-cell Lymphoma
A provirus not only refers to a retrovirus but is also used to describe other viruses that can integrate into the host chromosomes, another example being adeno-associated virus. A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and Protein that is found in cells. Adeno-associated virus (AAV is a small Virus which infects humans and some other primate species