In chemistry, protonation, is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion. Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 An ion is an Atom or Molecule which has lost or gained one or more Valence electrons giving it a positive or negative electrical charge History See also Atomic theory, Atomism The concept that matter is composed of discrete units and cannot be divided into arbitrarily tiny In Chemistry, a molecule is defined as a sufficiently stable electrically neutral group of at least two Atoms in a definite arrangement held together by An ion is an Atom or Molecule which has lost or gained one or more Valence electrons giving it a positive or negative electrical charge Protonation is possibly the most fundamental chemical reaction and is a step in many stoichiometric and catalytic processes. Stoichiometry (sometimes called reaction stoichiometry to distinguish it from composition stoichiometry is the Calculation of Quantitative (measurable Catalysis is the process in which the rate of a Chemical reaction is increased by means of a Chemical substance known as a catalyst Some ions and molecules can undergo more than one protonations or deprotonations; such species are labeled polybasic. Most biological macromolecules are polybasic.
Upon protonating a substrate, the mass and the charge of the species each increase by one unit. Protonating or deprotonating a molecule or ion alters many chemical properties beyond the change in the charge and mass: hydrophilicity, reduction potential, optical properties, among others. Hydrophile, from the Greek (hydros "water" and φιλια (philia "friendship" refers to a physical property of a Molecule Reduction potential (also known as redox potential, oxidation / reduction potential or ORP) is the tendency of a Chemical species to acquire Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry ( UV/ VIS) involves the Spectroscopy of Photons in the UV-visible Protonation is also an essential step in certain analytical procedures such as electrospray mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique that identifies the chemical composition of a compound or sample based on the Mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles
Protonation and deprotonation occur in most acid-base reactions; they are the core of most acid-base reaction theories. A Bronsted-Lowry acid is defined as a chemical substance that protonates another substance. A chemical substance is a Material with a definite chemical composition.
Protonations are often rapid, in part because of the high mobility of protons in water. The rate of protonation is related to the acidity of the protonated species. The reaction rate or rate of reaction for a Reactant or product in a particular reaction is intuitively defined as how fast a reaction takes Weak acids deprotonate more slowly than strong acids. The rates of protonation and deprotonation can be especially slow when protonation induces significant structural changes.
Usually, protonations are reversible and the conjugate base is unchanged by being protonated. In some cases, however, protonation causes isomerization. Cis-alkenes can be converted to trans-alkenes using a catalytic amount of protonating agent. In Organic chemistry, an alkene, olefin, or olefine is an unsaturated Chemical compound containing at least one Carbon Many enzymes, such as the serine hydrolases operate by mechanisms that involve reversible protonations of substrates. The serine hydrolase superfamily is one of the largest known enzyme families comprising approximately 1% of the genes in the human genome
Formally, the term "hydronation" is recommended by the IUPAC, just as "hydron" is recommended in place of "proton" because only 99. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry ( IUPAC) (aɪjuːpæk or ay-yoo-pec) is an international Non-governmental organization 999% of natural hydrogen nuclei are protons; the rest are deuterons and rare tritons (tritium). Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 The proton ( Greek πρῶτον / proton "first" is a Subatomic particle with an Electric charge of one positive Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a Stable isotope of Hydrogen with a Natural abundance in the Oceans of Earth Tritium (ˈtɹɪtiəm symbol or, also known as Hydrogen-3) is a radioactive Isotope of Hydrogen. However, the use of the terms "hydrons" and "hydronation" remains obscure.