Protected designation of origin (PDO), protected geographical indication (PGI), Protected Geographical Status (PGS) and Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (TSG) are geographical indications (GIs) defined in European Union law to protect the names of regional foods. A geographical indication (GI is a name or sign used on certain products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (eg The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU The law (enforced within the EU and being gradually expanded internationally via bilateral agreements of the EU with non-EU countries) ensures that only products genuinely originating in that region are allowed in commerce as such. The legislation came into force in 1992. The purpose of the law is to protect the reputation of the regional foods and eliminate the unfair competition and misleading of consumers by non-genuine products, which may be of inferior quality or of different flavor.
These laws protect the names of wines, cheeses, hams, sausages, olives, beers, and even regional breads, fruits, and vegetables. Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice Cheese is a Food made from Milk, usually the milk of cows, Buffalo, Goats or sheep, by coagulation. Ham is the Thigh and Rump of Pork, cut from the Haunch of a Pig or Boar. A sausage is a prepared Food, usually made from Ground meat, animal fat salt and Spices (sometimes with other ingredients such as herbs typically packed The Olive ( Olea europaea) is a Species of small Tree in the family Oleaceae, native to the coastal areas of the eastern Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea Bread is a Staple food prepared by Baking a Dough of Flour and Water. The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. The term " vegetable " generally means the edible parts of Plants The definition of the word is traditional rather than Scientific, however
Foods such as Gorgonzola, Parmigiano-Reggiano, Asiago cheese, Camembert de Normandie and Champagne can only be labelled as such if they come from the designated region. Gorgonzola is a veined Italian Blue cheese, made from unskimmed cow's Milk. Parmigiano-Reggiano is a hard fat Granular cheese, cooked but not pressed named after the producing areas of Parma, Reggio Emilia, Modena, Asiago cheese ( is an Italian Cheese that according to the different Aging can assume different textures from smooth for the fresh Asiago cheese (Asiago Camembert is a soft creamy French Cheese. It was first made in the late 18th century in Normandy in northwestern France. Champagne is a Sparkling wine produced by inducing the in-bottle Secondary fermentation of Wine to effect Carbonation. To qualify as Roquefort, for example, cheese must be made from milk of a certain breed of sheep, and matured in the natural caves near the town of Roquefort in the Aveyron region of France, where it is infected with the spores of a fungus (Penicillium roqueforti) that grows in these caves. Roquefort ( AmE, BrE, French; from Occitan ròcafòrt) is a Sheep milk blue Cheese from the south Aveyron ( Occitan: Avairon) is a department in southern France named after the Aveyron River. A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ Penicillium roqueforti is a common Saprotrophic Fungus, that is widespread in nature and can be isolated from soil decaying organic substances
This system is similar to the Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) used in France, the Denominazione di origine protetta (DOP) and Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC) used in Italy, and the Denominación de Origen (DO) system used in Spain. Appellation d’origine contrôlée ( AOC) which translates as "controlled term of origin" is the French certification granted to certain French This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Denominazione di origine controllata is an Italian quality assurance label for food products and especially wines (an Appellation) Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest See also Protected designation of origin Denominación de Origen (Designation of Origin - DO is part of a regulatory Classification system primarily for Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
Only products which meet the various geographical and quality criteria may use the protected indication. It is also prohibited to combine the indication with words such as "style", "type", "imitation" or "method" in connection with the protected indications, or to do anything which might imply that the product meets the specifications (e. g. , using distinctive packaging associated with the protected product).
Protected indications are treated as intellectual property rights by the Customs Regulation 1383/2003 (Regulation concerning customs action against goods suspected of infringing certain intellectual property rights and the measures to be taken against goods found to have infringed such rights), and infringing goods may be seized by customs on import. Customs Regulation 1383/2003, the full title of which is Regulation concerning customs action against goods suspected of infringing certain intellectual property rights and the measures Customs is an Authority or agency in a Country responsible for collecting and safeguarding customs duties and for controlling the flow of goods Within the European Union enforcement measures vary: infringement may be treated as counterfeit, misleading advertising, passing off or even as a question of public health. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in A counterfeit is an imitation that is made usually with the intent to deceptively represent its content or origins False advertising is the use of false or misleading statements in Advertising. For other uses of this and related terms please refer to the " Pass " disambiguation page Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease prolonging life and promoting health through the organised efforts and informed choices of society organisations
The protection of geographical indications for wines and other alcoholic drinks was historically the first to be developed at both national and Community level. It is also the only protection which is recognized by the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), administered by the World Trade Organization, although the European Union is pushing for other geographical indications to be included in the Doha Round of world trade negotiations. TRIPS redirects here For the new microprocessor design see TRIPS architecture. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The Doha Development Round is the current trade-negotiation round of the World Trade Organization (WTO which commenced in November 2001
European Union rules governing the production of wine ("the product obtained exclusively from the total or partial alcoholic fermentation of fresh grapes, whether or not crushed, or of grape must") are considerably longer than Community trade mark law: the main text, the Regulation on the common organization of the market in wine (No 1493/1999), runs to over 46,000 words. Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice See also Fermentation (biochemistry Ethanol fermentation is the biological process by which sugars such as Glucose, Fructose, and Sucrose For the Tokyo University supercomputer see Gravity Pipe. GRAPE, or GRA phics P rogramming E nvironment is MUST may refer to Militära underrättelse- och säkerhetstjänsten, the Swedish Military Intelligence and Security Service Misr University European trade mark law is governed by national law in the countries which make up Europe, together with European Law within those European countries which are also To be considered as a "quality wine", the wine must come from a specified region and be associated with a "geographical indication" or appellation: indeed, the technical term used in the Regulation is quality wine psr, with the "psr" standing for "produced in a specified region". An appellation is a Geographical indication used to identify where the Grapes for a Wine were grown Wines which do not meet this requirement may only be marketed as table wine. In the United States table wine is used as a legal definition to differentiate standard Wine from stronger (higher alcohol content Fortified wine or
Despite (or perhaps because of) the traditional importance of appellations for wine, there has been little harmonization of national provisions within the European Union. Member States delimit the specified areas of production and determine the rules and appellations which apply: the European Commission restricts itself to publishing the information provided by the Member States. The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. Appellations are usually the geographical name of the area in which the wine is produced, although there are some historical exceptions: muscadet and blanquette in France, cava and manzanilla in Spain and vinho verde in Portugal. Muscadet is a type of dry French white Wine. It is made at the western end of the Loire Valley, near the city of Nantes in the Pays de la Loire Manzanilla is a variety of Fino Sherry made around the port of Sanlúcar de Barrameda. Vinho Verde is a Portuguese wine from the Minho region in the far north of the country The appellations are not necessarily unique: Cava may refer either to a quality sparkling wine psr produced in Spain or to a Greek table wine which has been aged (as a transliteration of "Κάβα").
See also: List of geographical indications for wine in the European Union
The Regulation laying down general rules on the definition, description and presentation of spirit drinks (No 1576/89)spirit descriptions. The English word " spirit " comes from the Latin " spiritus " (breath Spirits are divided into 21 categories, which each have rules for fabrication and minimum strength. Within these categories, certain names are reserved for drinks from particular countries, for example ouzo, which is aniseed-flavoured spirit drink which must have been produced exclusively in Greece or Cyprus, or grappa, which is a grape marc spirit produced in Italy. Ouzo (ούζο is an Anise -flavored Liqueur that is widely consumed in Greece. Grappa is a fragrant Grape -based Pomace brandy of between 50% and 80% Alcohol by volume (100 to 160 proof) of Italian origin The Regulation also defines a number of geographical designations, which are reserved for drinks which "acquired their character and definitive qualities" in the area denominated. The exact delimitation of the areas and any other regulations are left to the Member States concerned. By way of derogation, the designations Königsberger Bärenfang and Ostpreußischer Bärenfang are permitted for certain German drinks even though they refer to Königsberg (Kaliningrad) and East Prussia which are no longer part of Germany. Königsberg (Karaliaučius Low German: Königsbarg; Królewiec see also other names) was until 1946 the name of Kaliningrad. Kaliningrad (Калининград is a Seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian Exclave between Poland East Prussia (Ostpreußen; Rytų Prūsija or Rytprūsiai; Prusy Wschodnie Восточная Пруссия or Vostochnaya Prussiya) refers to the main partprovides for a double system of protection of
The Regulation laying down general rules on the definition, description and presentation of aromatized wines, aromatized wine-based drinks and aromatized wine-product cocktails (No 1601/92)List of geographical designations for spirit drinks in the European Union The geographical designations which may be applied to Spirits are defined in the Regulation The association of general names with specific countries is weaker: a drink labelled simply "Sangria" must have been produced in Spain or Portugal, for example, but it is permissible to label a drink "Sangria produced in the United Kingdom: aromatized wine-based drink" if the drink meets the other requirements to be described as sangria. Similarly, the denomination "Clarea" on its own is reserved for drinks produced in Spain. The protected geographical designations are:institutes a system of protected denominations for aromatized drinks which is very similar to that for spirits.
Article 13 of this legislation states that registered designations are protected against:
. . . any usurpation or imitation, even if the true origin of the product is indicated or if the appellation is used in translated form or accompanied by terms such as "kind", "type". . .
This legislation expanded the 1951 Stresa Convention, which was the first international agreement on cheese names. Seven countries participated: Austria, Denmark, France, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation
Selected products include Prosciutto Toscano (PDO) from Italy, Marchfeldspargel (PGI) from Austria, Lübecker Marzipan (PGI) from Germany, Scotch Beef and Lamb (PGI) from Scotland, bryndza also known as bundz sheep's milk cheese, and oscypek smoked sheep's milk exclusively from approved regions of Tatra mountain in southern Poland. Prosciutto (proˈʃutːo pronounced "pro-shoo-toe" is the Italian word for ham. Asparagus officinalis is a flowering plant species in the genus Asparagus from which the Vegetable known as asparagus is obtained The name Lübecker Marzipan refers to Marzipan originating from the city of Lübeck in northern Germany and has been protected by an EU Council Directive as a Bryndza is a Sheep milk Cheese made in Eastern Europe. there is no special type of cheese associated with it Bundz (also known as bunc ( Podhale Dialect) is Polish Sheep milk Cheese. Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the Mammary glands of female Mammals (including Monotremes. Oscypek ( Polish; plural oscypki) is a smoked Cheese made of salted Sheep milk exclusively in the Tatra Mountains region of Poland Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the Mammary glands of female Mammals (including Monotremes. Coffee from Colombia, produced by the Federación Nacional de Cafeteros de Colombia is the first non-EU product with this kind of protection, added on August 13, 2007. Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. The Federación Nacional de Cafeteros de Colombia ( English: Colombian Coffee-growers Federation) often abbreviated Fedcafé, is a non-profit business This also mean that the coffee from Colombia will be more expensive than other types of coffee, but it will have special legal protection against other brands that claim to be Colombian coffee.
For reasons of practicality some products that were traditionally made in a specific region are not subject to the PDO, often due to the quantities in which they are consumed; for example, the consumption of Cheddar cheese in the US alone is many times the amount Cheddar itself could feasibly produce. Cheddar cheese is a relatively hard pale yellow to off-white and sometimes sharp-tasting Cheese from the English village of Cheddar, in Somerset Cheddar is a large Village and Civil parish in the district of Sedgemoor in the English county of Somerset. Hence the "Cheddar" name is not protected, but the more-specific name "West Country farmhouse Cheddar" is.
The geographical limitations can be quite strict. "Newcastle Brown Ale" is restricted to being brewed in the city of Newcastle upon Tyne in England. Newcastle Brown Ale is a brand of dark Brown ale. It has been brewed in Tyne & Wear, England, since April 1927 by Newcastle Breweries (now Newcastle Federation Newcastle upon Tyne ( (often shortened to Newcastle) is a city and Metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, England England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland However, having obtained this protection for their product, the brewery decided in 2004 that it would move across the river Tyne to Gateshead. Gateshead is a town in Tyne and Wear, England. It lies on the southern bank of the River Tyne, opposite Newcastle upon Tyne. As Gateshead is technically a separate city - albeit only the width of a river apart - it does not fall within the required geographical restriction, so the brewery is now applying to the European Union authorities to have the geographical restriction revoked–if it is not, the brewery will either have to move back to Newcastle, or stop calling its beer "Newcastle" brown ale. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in  Similarly, Stilton cheese can only be produced in the three English counties of Derbyshire, Leicestershire, and Nottinghamshire. Stilton is a Cheese of England. It is produced in two varieties the well-known blue and the lesser-known white. History The area that is now Derbyshire was first visited probably briefly by humans 200000 years ago during the Aveley Interglacial as evidenced by a Middle Leicestershire (ˈlɛstəʃə(r or ˈlɛstəʃɪə(r abbreviation Leics Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire Stilton village is in the traditional county of Huntingdonshire, now a district of Cambridgeshire, so Stilton cheese cannot be produced in Stilton (although Stilton cheese was never traditionally produced in Stilton). Stilton is a village in Cambridgeshire, England, and within the historic county boundaries of Huntingdonshire. History The earliest English settlers in the district were the Gyrwas, an East Anglian tribe who early in the 6th century worked their way up the Ouse and the Cam History Cambridgeshire is noted as the site of some of the earliest known Neolithic permanent settlement in the United Kingdom, along with sites at Fengate
There is no unconditional protection for these names on products both made and sold outside the EU. However there are a number of bilateral agreements with the EU for some level of enforcement. Agreements of this type exist between the EU and Australia (wine, 1994) (but not cheese), Canada (wine and spirits, 2003), Chile (wine and spirits, 2002), Colombia (2007, coffee) Mexico (1997, spirit drinks), South Africa (2002, wine and spirits), 
Following an agreement during the 1990s by the Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation and the Australian and EU governments, the others' GIs and the nations' traditional terms of winemaking were meant to have been protected by 1997. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. CoFFEE is an Open source Software for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL in a digital classroom The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa The Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation, or AWBC, is an Australian Government authority that promotes and regulates the Australian Wine However, this has been proceeding slowly, and while some GIs have been protected in Australia, others are still available for use (primarily for products that have always been called that). It seems unlikely it will have any effect on colloquial speech in the short term.
In Canada, a 2003 agreement made with the EU provides for protection of the names of wine and spirits. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The new classification of names will be done in phases. By the end of 2013, all of the affected names will be protected, including Chablis, Champagne, Port, and Sherry. The Chablis region is the northernmost Wine district of Burgundy, France. Port wine (also known as Vinho do Porto, Oporto, Porto, and often simply Port) is a Portuguese, Fortified Sherry is a Fortified wine, made in and around the town of Jerez, Spain.
The United States generally opposes protection of geographical designations of origin (since many of these that are protected elsewhere are commonly used generic terms in the United States, such as parmesan cheese). Parmigiano-Reggiano is a hard fat Granular cheese, cooked but not pressed named after the producing areas of Parma, Reggio Emilia, Modena, For example, one can buy American champagne, feta, gruyère and camembert. Champagne is a Sparkling wine produced by inducing the in-bottle Secondary fermentation of Wine to effect Carbonation. Feta ( φέτα, also spelled fetta) is a brined Curd Cheese traditionally made in Greece with goat's and Gruyère (Groo-Yair is a hard yellow Cheese made from cow's Milk, named after the town of Gruyères in Switzerland, and made Camembert is a soft creamy French Cheese. It was first made in the late 18th century in Normandy in northwestern France. However, there are some groups that have some degree of protection for their regional designation. For example, Vidalia onions must be produced within a certain region around Vidalia, Georgia as defined by the Georgia Department of Agriculture, and 100% Florida orange juice is certified as being such by that state's Department of Citrus. A Vidalia onion is a Sweet onion of certain varieties grown in a production area defined by law in Georgia and by the United States Code of Federal Vidalia (pron vi - DALE - yah is a city in Montgomery and Toombs counties in the U Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the Orange juice is a Fruit juice obtained by squeezing pressing or otherwise crushing the interior of an orange. A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government Some of these marks are protected in the United States under certification mark law, such as the Idaho Potato Commission's "Idaho" and "Grown in Idaho" registered trademarks for potatoes. A certification mark on a commercial product indicates five things The existence of a legal follow-up or Product certification agreement between the manufacturer The Idaho Potato Commission (IPC is a self governing agency of the State of Idaho that was established in 1937 as the Idaho Fruit and Vegetable Advertising The potato is a Starchy Tuberous crop Vegetable from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae On the other hand, there also are cases in which a geographical name has been trademarked for a particular product that might not even be manufactured there, such as Philadelphia cream cheese. However, there is little impetus to extend further recognitions at the federal level. Products that are either made or sold in the EU, are subject to the EU regulation.
A complete list of agricultural products with a European Union Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indication (PGI), or Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (TSG), listed alphabetically by nation, is at the European Agriculture site. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
The EU strives to promote this kind of protection within WTO, e. g. , via a database of multilateral registers. While having supporters, there is a considerable opposition. The following arguments against are put forth: