Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people. As opposed to impartially providing information, propaganda in its most basic sense presents information in order to influence its audience. Objectivity is a significant principle of Journalistic professionalism. Propaganda often presents facts selectively (thus lying by omission) to encourage a particular synthesis, or gives loaded messages in order to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented. A lie (also called prevarication) is a type of Deception in the form of an untruthful statement especially with the intention to deceive others often with the further The desired result is a change of the cognitive narrative of the subject in the target audience to further a political agenda. Cognition is a concept used in different ways by different disciplines but is generally accepted to mean the process of awareness or thought
Propaganda is the deliberate, systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behavior to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist.—Garth S. Jowett and Victoria O'Donnell, Propaganda and Persuasion
The word originates from the latin name Congregatio de Propaganda Fide ("Congregation for the Spreading of the Faith") of a congregation founded by Pope Gregory XV in 1622. The Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples ( Congregatio pro Gentium Evangelisatione) is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for A congregation is a type of Dicastery (department with a jurisdiction of the Roman Curia, the central administrative organism of the Catholic Church. Pope Gregory XV ( January 9 or January 15, 1554 – July 8, 1623) born Alessandro Ludovisi, was pope from 1621 succeeding This department of the pontifical administration was charged with the spread of Catholicism and with the regulation of ecclesiastical affairs in mission territory.
The Latin adjective propaganda, which is a form of the gerundive of the verb propago (from pro- "forth" + *pag-, root of pangere "to fasten"), means "that which is to be spread" and does not carry a connotation of information, misleading or otherwise. In Linguistics, a gerundive is a particular Verb form The term is applied very differently to different languages depending on the language gerundives may The modern sense dates from World War I, when the term evolved to be mainly associated with politics. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
Propaganda shares techniques with advertising and public relations. Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand Public relations (PR is the practice of managing the flow of Information between an Organization and its Publics Public relations - often referred Advertising and public relations can be thought of as propaganda that promotes a commercial product or shapes the perception of an organization, person or brand, though in post-World War II usage the word "propaganda" more typically refers to political or nationalist uses of these techniques or to the promotion of a set of ideas, since the term had gained a pejorative meaning, which commercial and government entities couldn’t accept. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation The refusal phenomenon was eventually to be seen in politics itself by the substitution of ‘political marketing’ and other designations for ‘political propaganda’.
Propaganda was often used to influence opinions and beliefs on religious issues, particularly during the split between the Catholic Church and the Protestants. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Propaganda has become more common in political contexts, in particular to refer to certain efforts sponsored by governments, political groups, but also often covert interests. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions In the early 20th century the term propaganda was also used by the founders of the nascent public relations industry to describe their activities. Public relations (PR is the practice of managing the flow of Information between an Organization and its Publics Public relations - often referred This usage died out around the time of World War II, as the industry started to avoid the word, given the pejorative connotation it had acquired.
Literally translated from the Latin gerundive as "things which must be disseminated", in some cultures the term is neutral or even positive, while in others the term has acquired a strong negative connotation. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. In Linguistics, a gerundive is a particular Verb form The term is applied very differently to different languages depending on the language gerundives may The connotations of the term "propaganda" can also vary over time. For example, in Portuguese and some Spanish language speaking countries, particularly in the Southern Cone, the word "propaganda" usually refers to the most common manipulative media — "advertising". Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal.
In English, "propaganda" was originally a neutral term used to describe the dissemination of information in favor of any given cause. During the 20th century, however, the term acquired a thoroughly negative meaning in western countries, representing the intentional dissemination of often false, but certainly "compelling" claims to support or justify political actions or ideologies. This redefinition arose because both the Soviet Union and Germany's government under Hitler admitted explicitly to using propaganda favoring, respectively, communism and fascism, in all forms of public expression. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology As these ideologies were antipathetic to liberal western societies, the negative feelings toward them came to be projected into the word "propaganda" itself.
|"Propaganda is neutrally defined as a systematic form of purposeful persuasion that attempts to influence the emotions, attitudes, opinions, and actions of specified target audiences for ideological, political or commercial purposes through the controlled transmission of one-sided messages (which may or may not be factual) via mass and direct media channels. A propaganda organization employs propagandists who engage in propagandism—the applied creation and distribution of such forms of persuasion. "|
Richard Alan Nelson, A Chronology and Glossary of Propaganda in the United States, 1996
Roderick Hindery argues that propaganda exists on the political left, and right, and in mainstream centrist parties. Hindery further argues that debates about most social issues can be productively revisited in the context of asking "what is or is not propaganda?" Not to be overlooked is the link between propaganda, indoctrination, and terrorism/counterterrorism. She argues that threats to destroy are often as socially disruptive as physical devastation itself.
Propaganda also has much in common with public information campaigns by governments, which are intended to encourage or discourage certain forms of behavior (such as wearing seat belts, not smoking, not littering and so forth). Again, the emphasis is more political in propaganda. Propaganda can take the form of leaflets, posters, TV and radio broadcasts and can also extend to any other medium. A leaflet in Botany is a part of a compound Leaf. A leaflet may resemble an entire leaf but it is not borne on a stem as a leaf is but rather "Popular press" redirects here note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint "The Popular Press" In the case of the United States, there is also an important legal (imposed by law) distinction between advertising (a type of overt propaganda) and what the Government Accountability Office (GAO), an arm of the United States Congress, refers to as "covert propaganda. "
Journalistic theory generally holds that news items should be objective, giving the reader an accurate background and analysis of the subject at hand. On the other hand, advertisements evolved from the traditional commercial advertisements to include also a new type in the form of paid articles or broadcasts disguised as news. Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand These generally present an issue in a very subjective and often misleading light, primarily meant to persuade rather than inform. Normally they use only subtle propaganda techniques and not the more obvious ones used in traditional commercial advertisements. Propaganda techniques involve an effort at mass persuasion through Propaganda using words gestures pictures etc If the reader believes that a paid advertisement is in fact a news item, the message the advertiser is trying to communicate will be more easily "believed" or "internalized. "
Such advertisements are considered obvious examples of "covert" propaganda because they take on the appearance of objective information rather than the appearance of propaganda, which is misleading. Federal law specifically mandates that any advertisement appearing in the format of a news item must state that the item is in fact a paid advertisement. The Bush Administration has been criticized for allegedly producing and disseminating covert propaganda in the form of television programs, aired in the United States, which appeared to be legitimate news broadcasts and did not include any information signifying that the programs were not generated by a private-sector news source. 
Propaganda, in a narrower use of the term, connotes deliberately false or misleading information that supports or furthers a political (but not only) cause or the interests of those with power. The propagandist seeks to change the way people understand an issue or situation for the purpose of changing their actions and expectations in ways that are desirable to the interest group. Propaganda, in this sense, serves as a corollary to censorship in which the same purpose is achieved, not by filling people's minds with approved information, but by preventing people from being confronted with opposing points of view. Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor What sets propaganda apart from other forms of advocacy is the willingness of the propagandist to change people's understanding through deception and confusion rather than persuasion and understanding. Deception (also called beguilement or subterfuge) is the act of convincing another to believe Information that is not true or not the whole truth as in The leaders of an organization know the information to be one sided or untrue, but this may not be true for the rank and file members who help to disseminate the propaganda.
More in line with the religious roots of the term, it is also used widely in the debates about new religious movements (NRMs), both by people who defend them and by people who oppose them. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith or an ethical spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that is not part The latter pejoratively call these NRMs cults. This article does not discuss "cult" in the original sense of "veneration" or "religious practice" for that usage see Cult (religious practice Anti-cult activists and countercult activists accuse the leaders of what they consider cults of using propaganda extensively to recruit followers and keep them. The " anti-cult movement " ( ACM) is a term used by academics and others to refer to a perceived collectivity of groups and individuals who oppose cults and new religious The Christian countercult movement is a collective description for many mostly unrelated ministries and individual Christians who oppose religious groups whose doctrines Some social scientists, such as the late Jeffrey Hadden, and CESNUR affiliated scholars accuse ex-members of "cults" who became vocal critics and the anti-cult movement of making these unusual religious movements look bad without sufficient reasons. CESNUR (Italian Centro Studi sulle Nuove Religioni) is a Center for Studies on New Religions, based in Turin, Italy. The " anti-cult movement " ( ACM) is a term used by academics and others to refer to a perceived collectivity of groups and individuals who oppose cults and new religious 
Propaganda is a powerful weapon in war; it is used to dehumanize and create hatred toward a supposed enemy, either internal or external, by creating a false image in the mind. This can be done by using derogatory or racist terms, avoiding some words or by making allegations of enemy atrocities. Most propaganda wars require the home population to feel the enemy has inflicted an injustice, which may be fictitious or may be based on facts. The home population must also decide that the cause of their nation is just.
Propaganda is also one of the methods used in psychological warfare, which may also involve false flag operations. Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, KP, GCB, OM The US Department of Defense defines psychological warfare ( PSYWAR) as" The planned use of Propaganda and other Psychological actions The term propaganda may also refer to false information meant to reinforce the mindsets of people who already believe as the propagandist wishes. The assumption is that, if people believe something false, they will constantly be assailed by doubts. Since these doubts are unpleasant (see cognitive dissonance), people will be eager to have them extinguished, and are therefore receptive to the reassurances of those in power. In Psychology, cognitive dissonance is an uncomfortable feeling or stress caused by holding two contradictory ideas simultaneously For this reason propaganda is often addressed to people who are already sympathetic to the agenda. This process of reinforcement uses an individual's predisposition to self-select "agreeable" information sources as a mechanism for maintaining control.
Propaganda can be classified according to the source and nature of the message. White propaganda generally comes from an openly identified source, and is characterized by gentler methods of persuasion, such as standard public relations techniques and one-sided presentation of an argument. White propaganda is Propaganda which truthfully states its origin. Black propaganda is identified as being from one source, but is in fact from another. Black propaganda is false material where the source is disguised This is most commonly to disguise the true origins of the propaganda, be it from an enemy country or from an organization with a negative public image. Grey propaganda is propaganda without any identifiable source or author. Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people A major application of grey propaganda is making enemies believe falsehoods using straw arguments: As phase one, to make someone believe "A", one releases as grey propaganda "B", the opposite of "A". See False for other meanings of false FALSE is an esoteric programming language designed by Wouter van Oortmerssen in A straw man argument is an Informal fallacy based on misrepresentation of an opponent's position In phase two, "B" is discredited using some strawman. A straw man argument is an Informal fallacy based on misrepresentation of an opponent's position The enemy will then assume "A" to be true.
In scale, these different types of propaganda can also be defined by the potential of true and correct information to compete with the propaganda. For example, opposition to white propaganda is often readily found and may slightly discredit the propaganda source. Opposition to grey propaganda, when revealed (often by an inside source), may create some level of public outcry. Opposition to black propaganda is often unavailable and may be dangerous to reveal, because public cognizance of black propaganda tactics and sources would undermine or backfire the very campaign the black propagandist supported.
Propaganda may be administered in insidious ways. For instance, disparaging disinformation about the history of certain groups or foreign countries may be encouraged or tolerated in the educational system. Disinformation is the deliberate dissemination of false Information. Since few people actually double-check what they learn at school, such disinformation will be repeated by journalists as well as parents, thus reinforcing the idea that the disinformation item is really a "well-known fact", even though no one repeating the myth is able to point to an authoritative source. The disinformation is then recycled in the media and in the educational system, without the need for direct governmental intervention on the media. Such permeating propaganda may be used for political goals: by giving citizens a false impression of the quality or policies of their country, they may be incited to reject certain proposals or certain remarks or ignore the experience of others. See also: black propaganda, marketing, advertising
Common media for transmitting propaganda messages include news reports, government reports, historical revision, junk science, books, leaflets, movies, radio, television, and posters. Black propaganda is false material where the source is disguised In popular usage "marketing" is the promotion of products especially Advertising and Branding However in professional usage the term has a wider meaning of Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand Doublespeak (sometimes double talk) is language constructed to disguise or distort its actual meaning, often resulting in a communication bypass. A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a country's leader uses Mass media to create a heroic public image through unquestioning flattery and praise Public relations (PR is the practice of managing the flow of Information between an Organization and its Publics Public relations - often referred Demonization is the reinterpretation of polytheistic deities as Demons by other religions generally monotheistic and Henotheistic ones A factoid is a spurious — unverified incorrect or fabricated — statement formed and asserted as a fact but with no veracity. Junk science is a term used in US political and legal disputes that brands an advocate's claims about scientific Data, Research, A propaganda film is a Film, either a documentary -style production or a fictional screenplay that is produced to convince the viewer of a certain political point In the case of radio and television, propaganda can exist on news, current-affairs or talk-show segments, as advertising or public-service announce "spots" or as long-running advertorials. Propaganda campaigns often follow a strategic transmission pattern to indoctrinate the target group. This may begin with a simple transmission such as a leaflet dropped from a plane or an advertisement. Generally these messages will contain directions on how to obtain more information, via a web site, hot line, radio program, et cetera (as it is seen also for selling purposes among other goals). The strategy intends to initiate the individual from information recipient to information seeker through reinforcement, and then from information seeker to opinion leader through indoctrination. Opinion leadership is a concept that arose out of the theory of Two-step flow of communication propounded by Paul Lazarsfeld and Elihu Katz.
Number of techniques which are based on social psychological research are used to generate propaganda. Social psychology is the study of how people and groups interact Many of these same techniques can be found under logical fallacies, since propagandists use arguments that, while sometimes convincing, are not necessarily valid. A fallacy is a component of an Argument which being demonstrably flawed in its Logic or form renders the argument invalid in whole
Some time has been spent analyzing the means by which propaganda messages are transmitted. That work is important but it is clear that information dissemination strategies only become propaganda strategies when coupled with propagandistic messages. Identifying these messages is a necessary prerequisite to study the methods by which those messages are spread. Below are a number of techniques for generating propaganda:
The propaganda model is a theory advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky that alleges systemic biases in the mass media and seeks to explain them in terms of structural economic causes. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All A caricature is either a Portrait that exaggerates or distorts the essence of a person or thing to create an easily identifiable visual likeness or in literature a description The propaganda model is a Theory advanced by Edward S Herman and Noam Chomsky that alleges systemic Biases in the Mass media and seeks Edward S Herman (born 7 April 1925) is an economist and media analyst with a specialty in corporate and regulatory issues as well as political economy and the media Avram Noam Chomsky (noʊm ˈtʃɑmski born December 7 1928 is an American linguist, Philosopher, cognitive scientist, Political Bias is a term used to describe a Tendency or Preference towards a particular perspective, Ideology or result especially when the tendency interferes "Popular press" redirects here note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint "The Popular Press" An economy is the realized social system of production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area Causality (but not causation) denotes a necessary relationship between one event (called cause and another event (called effect) which is the direct consequence
The 20th century has been characterized by three developments of great political importance: the growth of democracy, the growth of corporate power, and the growth of corporate propaganda as a means of protecting corporate power against democracy.
First presented in their 1988 book Manufacturing Consent: the Political Economy of the Mass Media, the propaganda model views the private media as businesses selling a product — readers and audiences (rather than news) — to other businesses (advertisers) and relying primarily on government and corporate information and propaganda. Manufacturing Consent The Political Economy of the Mass Media is a book by Edward S The propaganda model is a Theory advanced by Edward S Herman and Noam Chomsky that alleges systemic Biases in the Mass media and seeks Brooklyn Book Festival crowd by David Shankbonejpg|thumb|An audience at the Brooklyn Book Festival in New York City. News is any new information or information on Current events which is presented by print, broadcast, Internet, or Word of mouth
The first three (ownership, funding, and sourcing) are generally regarded by the authors as being the most important. Although the model was based mainly on the characterization of United States media, Chomsky and Herman believe the theory is equally applicable to any country that shares the basic economic structure and organizing principles which the model postulates as the cause of media biases. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Scientific modelling is the process of generating abstract, conceptual, Graphical and or mathematical models. Media bias in the United States After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Chomsky stated that the new filter replacing communism would be terrorism and Islam.
The epistemic merit model is a method for understanding propaganda conceived by Sheryl Tuttle Ross and detailed in her 2002 article for the Journal of Aesthetic Education entitled "Understanding Propaganda: The Epistemic Merit Model and Its Application to Art". The epistemic merit model is a method for understanding Propaganda conceived by Sheryl Tuttle Ross and detailed in her 2002 article for the Journal of Aesthetic Education  Ross developed the Epistemic merit model due to concern about narrow, misleading definitions of propaganda. She contrasted her model with the ideas of Pope Gregory XV, the Institute for Propaganda Analysis, Alfred Lee, F. The Institute for Propaganda Analysis is a US -based organization composed of social scientists opinion leaders historians educators and journalists C. Bartlett, and Hans Speier. Insisting that each of their respective discussions of propaganda are too narrow, Ross proposed her own definition.
To appropriately discuss propaganda, Ross argues that one must consider a threefold communication model: that of Sender-Message-Receiver. "That is. . . propaganda involve[s]. . . the one who is persuading (Sender) [who is] doing so intentionally, [the] target for such persuasion (Receiver) and [the] means of reaching that target (Message). " There are four conditions for a message to be considered propaganda. Propaganda involves the intention to persuade. As well, propaganda is sent on behalf of a sociopolitical institution, organization, or cause. Next, the recipient of propaganda is a socially significant group of people. Finally, propaganda is an epistemic struggle to challenge other thoughts.
Ross claims that it is misleading to say that propaganda is simply false, or that it is conditional to a lie, since often the propagandist believes in what he/she is propagandizing. In other words, it is not necessarily a lie if the person who creates the propaganda is trying to persuade you of a view that they actually hold. "The aim of the propagandist is to create the semblance of credibility. " This means that they appeal to an epistemology that is weak or defective. Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, "knowledge" + λόγος, " Logos " or theory of knowledge
False statements, bad arguments, immoral commands as well as inapt metaphors (and other literary tropes) are the sorts of things that are epistemically defective. See also Figure of speech In linguistics trope is a rhetorical Figure of speech that consists of a play on words i . . Not only does epistemic defectiveness more accurately describe how propaganda endeavors to function. . . since many messages are in forms such as commands that do not admit to truth-values, [but it] also accounts for the role context plays in the workings of propaganda.
Throughout history those who have wished to persuade have used art to get their message out. This can be accomplished by hiring artists for the express aim of propagandizing or by investing new meanings to a previously nonpolitical work. Therefore, Ross states, it is important to consider "the conditions of its making [and] the conditions of its use. "
Propaganda has been a human activity as far back as reliable recorded evidence exists. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. Rupert Count Palatine of the Rhine Duke of Bavaria (German Ruprecht Pfalzgraf bei Rhein Herzog von Bayern) commonly called Prince Rupert of the Rhine, (17 The Behistun Inscription (c. The Behistun Inscription (also Bisitun or Bisutun, Modern Persian: بیستون; Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the god's 515 BC) detailing the rise of Darius I to the Persian throne, can be seen as an early example of propaganda. Darius I the Great (c 549 BC&ndash486 BC 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁 Dārayavahuš: "Possessing goodness" Having ascended to power amidst controversy and bloodshed The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The Arthashastra written by Chanakya (c. The Arthashastra ( IAST: Arthaśāstra) is a Treatise on statecraft, economic policy and Military strategy which Chanakya Sanskrit: चाणक्य Cāṇakya) (c 350-283 BC was an adviser and a Prime minister to the first Maurya Emperor 350 - 283 BC), a professor of political science at Takshashila University and a prime minister of the Maurya Empire, discusses propaganda in detail, such as how to spread propaganda and how to apply it in warfare. Political science is a branch of Social sciences that deals with the theory and practice of Politics and the description and analysis of Political systems For the Genus of metalmark butterflies, see Taxila (butterfly. The Maurya Empire ( 322 – 185 BCE) ruled by the Mauryan dynasty was a geographically extensive and powerful political and military War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units His student Chandragupta Maurya (c. Chandragupta Maurya (चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य sometimes known simply as Chandragupta (born c 340 - 293 BC), founder of the Maurya Empire, employed these methods during his rise to power.  The writings of Romans such as Livy (c. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Titus Livius (traditionally 59 BC &ndash AD 17 known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome 59 BC - 17 AD) are considered masterpieces of pro-Roman propaganda. Another example of early propaganda would be the 12th century work The War of the Irish with the Foreigners, written by the Dál gCais to portray themselves as legitimate rulers of Ireland. The War of the Irish with the Foreigners (Irish Cogad Gaedel re Gallaib) is a two-part medieval Irish chronicle that claims to record the depredations The Dál gCais (also Dal Cais; d̪ɑːɫ gaʃ were a dynastic group of related Septs located in north Munster who rose to political prominence in the early
Gabriel Tarde's Laws of Imitation (1890) and Gustave Le Bon's The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (1897) were two of the first codifications of propaganda techniques, which influenced many writers afterward, including Sigmund Freud. Jean-Gabriel De Tarde or Gabriel Tarde in short ( March 12, 1843 in Sarlat, France &ndash May 13, 1904 Gustave Le Bon ( May 7, 1841 &ndash December 13, 1931) was a French Social psychologist, Sociologist, and amateur Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded Hitler's Mein Kampf is heavily influenced by Le Bon's theories. Mein Kampf ( English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by Adolf Hitler. Journalist Walter Lippmann, in Public Opinion (1922) also worked on the subject, as well as the American advertising pioneer Edward Bernays, a nephew of Freud, early in the 20th century. Walter Lippmann ( September 23, 1889 - December 14, 1974) was an influential American Writer, Journalist, and That the manufacture of consent is capable of great refinements no one I think denies Edward Louis Bernays ( November 22, 1891 – March 9, 1995) is considered one of the fathers of the field of Public relations along 
During World War I, Lippmann and Bernays were hired by then United States President, Woodrow Wilson, to participate in the Creel Commission, the mission of which was to sway popular opinion in favor of entering the war, on the side of the United Kingdom. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28 1856—February 3 1924 was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. The Committee on Public Information, also known as the CPI and the Creel Committee, was an independent agency of the Government of the United States The Creel Commission provided themes for speeches by "four-minute men" at public functions, and also encouraged censorship of the American press. The Commission was so unpopular that after the war, Congress closed it down without providing funding to organize and archive its papers.
The war propaganda campaign of Lippmann and Bernays produced within six months such an intense anti-German hysteria as to permanently impress American business (and Adolf Hitler, among others) with the potential of large-scale propaganda to control public opinion. A business (also called firm or an enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Bernays coined the terms "group mind" and "engineering consent", important concepts in practical propaganda work.
The current public relations industry is a direct outgrowth of Lippmann's and Bernays' work and is still used extensively by the United States government. John Bull is a National personification of the United Kingdom in general and England in particular originating in the creation of Dr Public relations (PR is the practice of managing the flow of Information between an Organization and its Publics Public relations - often referred For the first half of the 20th century Bernays and Lippmann themselves ran a very successful public relations firm. World War II saw continued use of propaganda as a weapon of war, both by Hitler's propagandist Joseph Goebbels and the British Political Warfare Executive, as well as the United States Office of War Information. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation ˈɡœbəls English generally ˈɡɝbəlz (29 October 1897 1 May 1945 was a German politician and Reich Minister of Public During World War II, the Political Warfare Executive (PWE was a British clandestine body created to produce and disseminate both white and Black propaganda The United States Office of War Information (OWI was a US government agency created during World War II to consolidate government information services
In the early 2000s, the United States government developed and freely distributed a video game known as America's Army. America's Army (also known as AA or Army Game Project) is a Video game owned by the United States Government The stated intention of the game is to encourage players to become interested in joining the U.S. Army. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. According to a poll by I for I Research, 30% of young people who had a positive view of the military said that they had developed that view by playing the game.
Russian revolutionaries of the 19th and 20th centuries distinguished two different aspects covered by the English term propaganda. Their terminology included two terms: Russian: агитация (agitatsiya), or agitation, and Russian: пропаганда, or propaganda, see agitprop (agitprop is not, however, limited to the Soviet Union, as it was considered, before the October Revolution, to be one of the fundamental activities of any Marxist activist; this importance of agit-prop in Marxist theory may also be observed today in Trotskyist circles, who insist on the importance of leaflet distribution). Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Agitprop (агитпроп is a contraction of " agit ation and prop aganda" The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. A flyer (also spelled flier or called handbill) is a single page leaflet Advertising a Nightclub, event, service, or other
Soviet propaganda meant dissemination of revolutionary ideas, teachings of Marxism, and theoretical and practical knowledge of Marxist economics, while agitation meant forming favorable public opinion and stirring up political unrest. Note Marxian economics is not restricted to Marxist economics as it includes the economic thought of those inspired by Marx's works who do not identify with These activities did not carry negative connotations (as they usually do in English) and were encouraged. Expanding dimensions of state propaganda, the Bolsheviks actively used transportation such as trains, aircraft and other means.
Joseph Stalin's regime built the largest fixed-wing aircraft of the 1930s, Tupolev ANT-20, exclusively for this purpose. Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party The Tupolev ANT-20 (also known as the Maxim Gorky) ( Туполев АНТ-20 "Максим Горький" in Russian) was a Named after the famous Soviet writer Maxim Gorky who had recently returned from fascist Italy, it was equipped with a powerful radio set called "Voice from the sky", printing and leaflet-dropping machinery, radio stations, photographic laboratory, film projector with sound for showing movies in flight, library, etc. Aleksey Maksimovich Peshkov ( In Алексе́й Макси́мович Пешко́в ( &ndash June 18, 1936) better known as Maxim Gorky (Максим The term Italian Fascism denotes the totalitarian Fascismo political movement that ruled Italy from 1922 until 1943 under leader Benito Mussolini This article is about radio broadcasting for other uses see Radio (disambiguation. Photography (fә'tɒgrәfi or fә'tɑːgrәfi (from Greek φωτο and γραφία is the process and Art of recording pictures by means of capturing A laboratory (informally lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific Research, Experiments and This article is concerned with technical aspects of moving film projection The aircraft could be disassembled and transported by railroad if needed. The giant aircraft set a number of world records.
"Long Live World October (revolution)!"
Bolshevik propaganda train, 1923. The State Political Directorate was the Secret police of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic ( RSFSR) and the Soviet Union from 1922 until The term enemy of the people is a fluid designation of political or class opponents of the group using the term The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution
ANT-20 "Maxim Gorky" propaganda aircraft in the Moscow sky. The Tupolev ANT-20 (also known as the Maxim Gorky) ( Туполев АНТ-20 "Максим Горький" in Russian) was a
Most propaganda in Germany was produced by the Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda (Propagandaministerium). Nazi propaganda is the term that describes the psychologically powerful Propaganda within Nazi Germany, much of which was centered around Jews consistently Joseph Goebbels was placed in charge of this ministry shortly after Hitler took power in 1933. Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation ˈɡœbəls English generally ˈɡɝbəlz (29 October 1897 1 May 1945 was a German politician and Reich Minister of Public All journalists, writers, and artists were required to register with one of the Ministry's subordinate chambers for the press, fine arts, music, theater, film, literature, or radio.
The Nazis believed in propaganda as a vital tool in achieving their goals. Adolf Hitler, Germany's Führer, was impressed by the power of Allied propaganda during World War I and believed that it had been a primary cause of the collapse of morale and revolts in the German home front and Navy in 1918 (see also: Dolchstoßlegende). Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately The stab-in-the-back legend ( German:, literally "Dagger stab legend" refers to a social Myth theory popular in Germany in the period after Hitler would meet nearly every day with Goebbels to discuss the news and Goebbels would obtain Hitler's thoughts on the subject; Goebbels would then meet with senior Ministry officials and pass down the official Party line on world events. Broadcasters and journalists required prior approval before their works were disseminated. Along with posters, the Nazis produced a number of films and books to spread their beliefs. Helene Bertha Amalie "Leni" Riefenstahl ( August 22 1902 – September 8 2003) was a German Film director
Nazi Poster depicting American "liberators" as monster.
"Mother and Child" poster for charity subscription.
"The Eternal Jew" poster for a movie. The Eternal Jew is a 1940 Propaganda film. Its title in German is Der ewige Jude, the German term for the character of
"Mothers Fight for your Children. "
Invites Dutchmen to join the SS.
Poster promoting eugenics and euthanasia of disabled people. Eugenics is a social Philosophy which advocates the improvement of Human Hereditary traits through various forms of intervention Euthanasia (literally "good death" in Ancient Greek) refers to the practice of ending a life in a painless manner
Nazi poster portraying Adolf Hitler. The, officially National Socialist German Workers' Party, ( abbreviated NSDAP) was a Political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945 Text: "Long Live Germany!"
Recruitment poster for pro-Nazi Italian Social Republic naval auxiliaries
The United States and the Soviet Union both used propaganda extensively during the Cold War. The Italian Social Republic ( Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Puppet state of Nazi Germany led by the "Duce of the Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Both sides used film, television, and radio programming to influence their own citizens, each other, and Third World nations. The United States Information Agency operated the Voice of America as an official government station. The United States Information Agency ( USIA) which existed from 1953 to 1999 was a United States agency devoted to Public diplomacy. Voice of America ( VOA) is the official external radio and Television broadcasting service of the United States federal government. Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, which were in part supported by the Central Intelligence Agency, provided grey propaganda in news and entertainment programs to Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union respectively. This article is about the radio broadcast service For the REM This article is about the radio broadcast service For the REM near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all The Soviet Union's official government station, Radio Moscow, broadcast white propaganda, while Radio Peace and Freedom broadcast grey propaganda. White propaganda is Propaganda which truthfully states its origin. Both sides also broadcast black propaganda programs in periods of special crises. Black propaganda is false material where the source is disguised
In 1948, the United Kingdom's Foreign Office created the IRD (Information Research Department) which took over from wartime and slightly post-war departments such as the Ministry of Information and dispensed propaganda via various media such as the BBC and publishing. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, commonly called the Foreign Office or the FCO, is the British government department responsible for promoting The Information Research Department, founded in 1948 by Christopher Mayhew MP, was a department of the British Foreign Office set up to counter Russian The Minister of Information is a British government position that was created briefly during the First World War and again during the Second World 
The ideological and border dispute between the Soviet Union and People's Republic of China resulted in a number of cross-border operations. The Sino-Soviet split was a gradual divergence of diplomatic ties between the People's Republic of China (PRC and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES One technique developed during this period was the "backwards transmission", in which the radio program was recorded and played backwards over the air. (This was done so that messages meant to be received by the other government could be heard, while the average listener could not understand the content of the program. )
When describing life in capitalist countries, in the US in particular, propaganda focused on social issues such as poverty and anti-union action by the government. Workers in capitalist countries were portrayed as "ideologically close". Propaganda claimed rich people from the US derived their income from weapons manufacturing, and claimed that there was substantial racism or neo-fascism in the US. This page specifically pertains to fascism after World War II
When describing life in Communist countries, western propaganda sought to depict an image of a citizenry held captive by governments that brainwash them. The West also created a fear of the East, by depicting an aggressive Soviet Union. In the Americas, Cuba served as a major source and a target of propaganda from both black and white stations operated by the CIA and Cuban exile groups. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Radio Habana Cuba, in turn, broadcast original programming, relayed Radio Moscow, and broadcast The Voice of Vietnam as well as alleged confessions from the crew of the USS Pueblo. Initial operations The ship was launched at the Kewaunee Shipbuilding and Engineering Company in Kewaunee Wisconsin, on 16 April 1944
George Orwell's novels Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four are virtual textbooks on the use of propaganda. Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950 who used the Pseudonym George Orwell, was an English writer Animal Farm is a Novel by George Orwell, and is the most famous satirical Allegory of Soviet Totalitarianism Nineteen Eighty-Four (also titled 1984) by George Orwell (the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair) is a 1949 English Novel Though not set in the Soviet Union, these books are about totalitarian regimes in which language is constantly corrupted for political purposes. These novels were, ironically, used for explicit propaganda. The CIA, for example, secretly commissioned an animated film adaptation of Animal Farm in the 1950s with small changes to the original story to suit its own needs. near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all The bouncing ball animation (below consists of these 6 frames 
During the democratic revolutions of 1989 in Central and Eastern Europe the propaganda poster was important weapon in the hand of the opposition. "Fall of Communism" redirects here For the fall of the Soviet Union itself see History of the Soviet Union (1985–1991. Central and Eastern Europe is an accepted term describing former Communist countries in Europe, after the collapse of the Iron Curtain in 1989 Printed and hand-made political posters appeared on the Berlin Wall, on the statue of St. The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer was a physical barrier separating West Berlin from the German Democratic Republic (GDR ( East Germany) including Wenceslas in Prague and around the unmarked grave of Imre Nagy in Budapest and the role of them was important for the democratic change. Prague (ˈprɑːg Praha (ˈpraɦa see also other names) is the Capital and Largest city of the Czech Republic. Imre Nagy ( June 7, 1896 – June 16 1958) was a Hungarian politician appointed Prime Minister of Hungary on two occasions Budapest ( also /ˈbʊ-/) is the capital city of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary it serves as the country's principal Political,
During the Yugoslav wars, Serb propaganda was used to create fear and hatred and particularly incite the Serb population against the other ethnicities (Bosniaks, Croats, Albanians and other non-Serbs). The Yugoslav Wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY that took place between 1991 and The Bosniaks or Bosniacs (Bošnjak pl Bošnjaci bɔ'ʃɲaːt͡si are a South Slavic people living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina ("Bosnia" Croats (Hrvati are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries } Albanians (Shqiptarët are an Ethnic group and a Nation, in the sense of sharing a common Albanian culture speaking the Albanian language Serb media made a great effort in justifying, revising or denying mass war crimes committed by Serb forces during the Yugoslav wars on Bosniaks and other non-Serbs. The news media refers to the section of the Mass media that focuses on presenting current News to the public War crimes are "violations of the laws or customs of war" including but not limited to "murder the ill-treatment or deportation of civilian residents of an occupied The Yugoslav Wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY that took place between 1991 and The Bosniaks or Bosniacs (Bošnjak pl Bošnjaci bɔ'ʃɲaːt͡si are a South Slavic people living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina ("Bosnia"  According to the ICTY verdicts against Serb political and military leaders, during the Bosnian war, the propaganda was a part of the Strategic Plan by Serb leadership, aimed at linking Serb-populated areas in Bosnia and Herzegovina together, gaining control over these areas and creating a separate Serb state, from which most non-Serbs would be permanently removed. The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991 The War in Bosnia and Herzegovina, commonly known as the Bosnian War, was an international armed conflict that took place between March 1992 and November 1995 Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. The Serb leadership was aware that the Strategic Plan could only be implemented by the use of force and fear, thus by the commission of war crimes. Fear is an Emotional response to Threats and Danger. It is a basic survival mechanism occurring in response to a specific Stimulus, such as 
In the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan, psychological operations tactics were employed to demoralize the Taliban and to win the sympathies of the Afghan population. The War in Afghanistan, which began on October 7 2001 as the U Psychological Operations ( PSYOP, PSYOPS) are techniques used by Military and Police forces to influence a target audience's value The Taliban ( طالبان, also anglicised as Taleban; translation "students" is a Sunni Islamist, predominately At least six EC-130E Commando Solo aircraft were used to jam local radio transmissions and transmit replacement propaganda messages. The Lockheed EC-130 Commando Solo is a modified C-130 Hercules used to conduct psychological operations (PSYOP and civil affairs broadcast missions Leaflets were also dropped throughout Afghanistan, offering rewards for Osama bin Laden and other individuals, portraying Americans as friends of Afghanistan and emphasizing various negative aspects of the Taliban. A pamphlet is an unbound Booklet (that is without a hard cover or binding) Osama bin Laden, with some spelling variations is the name used in English to refer to (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن born 10 March Another shows a picture of Mohammed Omar in a set of crosshairs with the words "We are watching. Mullah Mohammed Omar ( Pashto: ملا محمد عمر (born c " This technique has been shown to be rather ineffective in terms of long term opinions change given current political and social conditions in Afghanistan.
The US Air Force can use cluster bombs to deliver leaflets. Cluster munitions or cluster bombs are air-dropped or ground-launched munitions that eject a number of smaller submunitions a cluster of bomblets The LBU-30 clusterbomb is designed to allow an aircraft to deliver leaflets to a target area while minimizing wind drift.
During the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the Iraqi Information Minister Mohammed Saeed al-Sahaf repeatedly claimed Iraqi forces were decisively winning every battle. The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia This is a list of Iraqi Information Ministers during the presidency of Saddam Hussein. Mohammed Saeed al-Sahhaf (محمد سعيد الصحاف also Mohammed Said al-Sahhaf (born 1940 is a former Iraqi Diplomat and Politician. Even up to the overthrow of the Iraqi government at Baghdad, he maintained that the United States would soon be defeated, in contradiction with all other media. Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous Due to this, he quickly became a cult figure in the West, and gained recognition on the website WeLoveTheIraqiInformationMinister. A cult following is a group of fans devoted to a specific area of Pop culture. A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages com The Iraqis who were misled by his propaganda were shocked when Iraq was defeated.
In November 2005, The Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times, alleged that the United States military had manipulated news reported in Iraqi media in an effort to cast a favorable light on its actions while demoralizing the insurgency. The Chicago Tribune is a major daily Newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, and owned by the Tribune Company The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily Newspaper published in Los Angeles California and distributed The United States Armed Forces are the overall unified military forces of the United States Media manipulation is an aspect of Public relations in which partisans create an image or argument that favours their particular interests An insurgency is a violent internal uprising against a sovereign government that lacks the organization of a revolution Lt. Col. Barry Johnson, a military spokesman in Iraq, said the program is "an important part of countering misinformation in the news by insurgents", while a spokesman for former Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld said the allegations of manipulation were troubling if true. Staff Sergeant Major Barry Johnson of the Royal Army Ordnance Corps was awarded the George Cross for his gallantry in defusing a mortar bomb in Derry, The United States Secretary of Defense ( SECDEF) is the head of the U Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9 1932 is a United States Businessman, Politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President The Department of Defense has confirmed the existence of the program. The United States Department of Defense ( DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government  The New York Times published an article about how the Pentagon has started to use contractors with little experience in journalism or public relations to plant articles in the Iraqi press. These articles are usually written by US soldiers without attribution or are attributed to a non-existent organization called the "International Information Center. " Planting propaganda stories in newspapers was done by both the Allies and Central Powers in the First World War and the Axis and Allies in the Second; this is the latest version of this technique. 
Of all the potential targets for propaganda, children are the most vulnerable because they are the most unprepared for the critical reasoning and contextual comprehension required to determine whether a message is propaganda or not. Album de la Revolucion Cubana is a propaganda publication on the history of the Cuban Revolution. Children's vulnerability to propaganda is rooted in developmental psychology. The attention children give their environment during development, due to the process of developing their understanding of the world, will cause them to absorb propaganda indiscriminately. Also, children are highly imitative: studies by Albert Bandura, Dorothea Ross and Sheila A. Albert Bandura (born December 4, 1925 in Mundare, Alberta, Canada) is a Canadian Psychologist specializing Ross in the 1960s indicated that children are susceptible to filmed representations of behaviour. Therefore television is of particular interest in regard to children's vulnerability to propaganda.
Another vulnerability of children is the theoretical influence that their peers have over their behaviour. According to Judith Rich Harris's group-socialization theory, children learn the majority of what they do not receive paternally, through genes, from their peer groups. Judith Rich Harris (born February 10, 1938) is a Psychologist and the author of The Nurture Assumption, a book criticizing the belief The implication then is that if peer-groups can be indoctrinated through propaganda at a young age to hold certain beliefs, the group will self-regulate the indoctrination, since new members to the group will adapt their beliefs to fit the group's. Indoctrination is the process of inculcating Ideas attitudes, cognitive strategies or a professional Methodology.
To a degree, socialization, formal education, and standardized television programming can be seen as using propaganda for the purpose of indoctrination. The term socialization is used by sociologists, social psychologists and Educationalists to refer to the process of learning one’s Culture Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Indoctrination is the process of inculcating Ideas attitudes, cognitive strategies or a professional Methodology. Schools that utilize dogmatic, frozen world-views, often resort to propagandist curricula that indoctrinate children. The use of propaganda in schools was highly prevalent during the 1930s and 1940s in Germany, as well as in Stalinist Russia.
In Nazi Germany, the education system was thoroughly co-opted to indoctrinate the German youth with anti-Semitic ideology. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility This was accomplished through the National Socialist Teachers’ Union, of which 97% of all German teachers were members in 1937. It encouraged the teaching of “racial theory. ” Picture books for children such as Don’t Trust A Fox in A Green Meadow Or the Word of A Jew, The Poisonous Mushroom, and The Poodle-Pug-Dachshund-Pincher were widely circulated (over 100,000 copies of Don’t Trust A Fox. . . were circulated during the late 1930s) and contained depictions of Jews as devils, child molesters, and other morally charged figures. Slogans such as “Judas the Jew betrayed Jesus the German to the Jews” were recited in class.  The following is an example of a propagandistic math problem recommended by the National Socialist Essence of Education:
The Jews are aliens in Germany—in 1933 there were 6,606,000 inhabitants in the German Reich, of whom 499,682 were Jews. What is the per cent of aliens?
|"Here may lie the most important effect of mass communication, its ability to mentally order and organize our world for us. In short, the mass media may not be successful in telling us what to think, but they are stunningly successful in telling us what to think about. "|
Shaw & McCombs, The Emergence of American Political Issues, 1977
DjVu (pronounced Déjà vu) is a Computer File format designed primarily to store scanned images especially those containing text and line