Procrastination is a type of behavior which is characterized by deferment of actions or tasks to a later time. Psychologists often cite procrastination as a mechanism for coping with the anxiety associated with starting or completing any task or decision. Anxiety is a physiological and psychological state characterized by Cognitive, Somatic, Emotional and Behavioral components 
For an individual, procrastination may result in stress, a sense of guilt, the loss of personal productivity, the creation of crisis and the disapproval of others for not fulfilling one's responsibilities or commitments. ---- Guilt is the Fact, state or Verdict (by a Court or other Tribunal) of an Offence, Crime, Violation Productivity in Economics refers to measures of output from production processes per unit of input A crisis (plural crises may occur on a personal or societal level These combined feelings can promote further procrastination. While it is normal for people to procrastinate to some degree, it becomes a problem when it impedes normal functioning. Chronic procrastination may be a sign of an underlying psychological or physiological disorder. Mental disorder or mental illness is a psychological or behavioral pattern that occurs in an individual and is thought to cause distress or disability that is not expected as
The word itself comes from the Latin word procrastinatus: pro- (forward) and crastinus (of tomorrow). Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The term's first known appearance was in Edward Hall's Chronicle (The union of the two noble and illustre famelies of Lancestre and Yorke), first published sometime before 1548. Edward Hall (also Halle; c 1498 &ndash 1547 English chronicler and Lawyer, was born about the end of the 15th century being a son of John Hall  The sermon reflected procrastination's connection at the time to task avoidance or delay, volition or will, and sin. A sermon is an oration by a Prophet or member of the Clergy. Sermons address a Biblical, theological, or religious topic Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral Rule, or the state of having committed such a violation
The psychological causes of procrastination vary greatly, but generally surround issues of anxiety, low sense of self-worth, and a self-defeating mentality. In Psychology, self-esteem reflects a Person 's overall evaluation or appraisal of her or his own worth Self-defeating personality disorder (also known as masochistic personality disorder) is a Personality disorder that was never formally admitted into the Procrastinators are also thought to have a higher-than-normal level of conscientiousness, more based on the "dreams and wishes" of perfection or achievement in contrast to a realistic appreciation of their obligations and potential. Conscientiousness is the Trait of being painstaking and Careful, or the quality of acting according to the dictates of one's Conscience. 
Author David Allen brings up two major psychological causes of procrastination at work and in life which are related to anxiety, not laziness. David Allen (born December 28, 1945) is a productivity consultant The first category comprises things too small to worry about, tasks that are an annoying interruption in the flow of things, and for which there are low-impact workarounds; an example might be organizing a messy room. The second category comprises things too big to control, tasks that a person might fear, or for which the implications might have a great impact on a person's life; an example might be the adult children of a deteriorating elderly parent deciding what living arrangement would be best.
A person might unconsciously overestimate or underestimate the scale of a task if procrastination has become a habit. Habits are habituated routines of behavior that are repeated regularly tend to occur Subconsciously and tend to occur without directly thinking consciously
From the behavioral psychology point of view, James Mazur has said that procrastination is a particular case of "impulsiveness" as opposed to self control. Behaviorism or Behaviourism, also called the learning perspective (where any physical action is a behavior is a philosophy of Psychology based on the Mazur states that procrastination occurs because of a temporal discounting of a punisher, as it happens with the temporal discount for a reinforcer. In Behavioral economics, hyperbolic discounting refers to the Empirical finding that people generally prefer smaller sooner payoffs to larger later payoffs when In Operant conditioning, punishment is any change in a human or animal's surroundings that occurs after a given behavior or response which reduces the likelihood of that behavior Procrastination, then, as Mazur says, happens when a choice has to be made between a later larger task and a sooner small task; as the absolute value of the task gets discounted by the time, a subject tends to choose the later large task. .
Research on the physiological roots of procrastination mostly surrounds the role of the prefrontal cortex. Physiology (from Greek grc φύσις physis, "nature origin" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the mechanical physical This area of the brain is responsible for executive brain functions such as planning, impulse control, attention, and acts as a filter by decreasing distracting stimuli from other brain regions. Deferred gratification or delayed gratification is the ability to wait in order to obtain something that one wants Damage or low activation in this area can reduce an individual's ability to filter out distracting stimuli, ultimately resulting in poorer organization, a loss of attention and increased procrastination. This is similar to the prefrontal lobe's role in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), where underactivation is common. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder affecting about 3-5% of the world's population 
Procrastination can be a persistent and debilitating disorder in some people, causing significant psychological disability and dysfunction. These individuals may actually be suffering from an underlying mental health problem such as depression or ADHD. Major depressive disorder, also known as major depression, unipolar depression, unipolar disorder, clinical depression, or simply depression
While procrastination is a behavioral condition, these underlying mental health disorders can be treated with medication and/or therapy. Therapy can be a useful tool in helping an individual learn new behaviors, overcome fears and anxieties, and achieve an improved quality of life. Thus it is important for people who chronically struggle with debilitating procrastination to see a trained therapist or psychiatrist to see if an underlying mental health issue may be present. Psychotherapy is an Interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living Psychiatry is a medical specialty which exists to study, prevent, and treat Mental disorders in Humans Psychiatric
Severe procrastination can cross over into internet addiction or computer addiction. Computer addiction is an obsessive Addiction to computer use sometimes known as Dependency In this instance the individual has a compulsion to avoid reality by surfing the web or playing video games (game addiction), looking at online pornography (pornography addiction) or browsing and editing online encyclopedia articles (Wikipedia addiction). Video game addiction, also called video game overuse, is a proposed form of psychological addiction composed of a compulsive use of Computer and video games Pornography addiction is a form of Sexual addiction described by its proponents as a condition characterized by the overuse or abuse of Pornography. Although these are relatively new phenomena, they are being considered as psychiatric diagnoses by mental health professionals. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' ( DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association 
Traditionally, procrastination has been associated with perfectionism, a tendency to negatively evaluate outcomes and one's own performance, intense fear and avoidance of evaluation of one's abilities by others, heightened social self-consciousness and anxiety, recurrent low mood, and workaholism. Perfectionism, in Psychology, is a belief that perfection can and should be attained A workaholic, colloquially is a person who is addicted to work Slaney (1996) found that adaptive perfectionists (when perfectionism is egosyntonic) were less likely to procrastinate than non-perfectionists, while maladaptive perfectionists (people who saw their perfectionism as a problem; i. Egosyntonic is a medical term referring to behaviors valuesfeelings which are in harmony with or acceptable to the needs andgoals of the ego, or consistent with one's ideal e. , when perfectionism is egodystonic) had high levels of procrastination (and also of anxiety). Egodystonic is a psychological term referring to behaviors (e 
While academic procrastination is not a special type of procrastination, procrastination is thought to be particularly prevalent in the academic setting, where students are required to meet deadlines for assignments and tests in an environment full of events and activities which compete for the students' time and attention. More specifically, a 1992 study showed that "52% of surveyed students indicated having a moderate to high need for help concerning procrastination".
Some students struggle with procrastination due to a lack of time management or study skills, stress, or feeling overwhelmed with their work. Study skills are strategies and methods of purposeful Learning, usually centered around reading and Writing.
Student syndrome refers to the phenomenon that many students will begin to fully apply themselves to a task only just before a deadline. Student syndrome refers to the phenomenon that many people will start to fully apply themselves to a task just at the last possible moment before a deadline This leads to wasting any buffers built into individual task duration estimates. Duration of a Project 's Terminal element is the number of calendar periods it takes from the time the execution of element starts to the moment it is completed Estimation is the calculated Approximation of a result which is usable even if Input data may be incomplete or uncertain.
The term originated in Eliyahu M. Goldratt's novel-style book Critical Chain. Eliyahu M Goldratt (1948 -) is an Israeli physicist turned business consultant Critical Chain is a novel by Dr Eliyahu Goldratt using the Critical Chain theory of Project Management as the major theme The principle is also addressed in Agile Software Development. Agile software development refers to a group of Software development methodologies that are based on similar principles
For example, if a group of students goes to a professor and asks for an extension to a deadline, they will usually defend their request by noting how much better their project will be if they are given more time to work on it; they request this with the intent to distribute their work time across the remainder of the time until the deadline. In reality, however, most students will have other tasks or events that place demands on their time. They will often end up close to the same situation they started with, wishing they had more time as the new delayed deadline approaches.
This same behaviour is seen in businesses; in project and task estimating, a time- or resource-buffer is applied to the task to allow for overrun or other scheduling problems. In Project management terminology resources are required to carry out the Project Tasks They can be people equipment facilities Funding, However, with student syndrome the latest possible start of tasks causes the buffer for any given task to be wasted beforehand, rather than kept in reserve. Like students, many workers do not complete assignments early, but wait until the last minute before starting, often having to rush to submit their assignment minutes before the deadline. A similar phenomenon is seen every year in the United States and Mexico when personal tax returns are due, as large numbers of people queue until their post office closes, in order to get their tax return postmarked. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. A post office is a facility authorized by a Postal system for the posting receipt sorting handling transmission or delivery of Mail. A postmark is a Postal marking made on a letter, Package, Postcard or the like indicating
The relaxed type of procrastinators view their responsibilities negatively and avoid them by directing energy into other tasks. It is common, for example, for relaxed type procrastinating children to abandon schoolwork but not their social lives. Students often see projects as a whole rather than breaking them into smaller parts. This type of procrastination is a form of denial or cover-up; therefore, typically no help is being sought. Furthermore, they are also unable to defer gratification. Gratification is the positive emotional response ( Happiness) to a fulfillment of desire The procrastinator avoids situations that would cause displeasure, indulging instead in more enjoyable activities. In Freudian terms, such procrastinators refuse to renounce the pleasure principle, instead sacrificing the reality principle. Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded The pleasure principle is a Psychoanalytic concept originated by Sigmund Freud that continuously drives one to seek Pleasure and to avoid Pain The reality principle is a Psychoanalytic concept originated by Sigmund Freud that compels one to defer instant gratification when necessary because of the obstacles They may not appear to be worried about work and deadlines, but this is simply an evasion. 
The tense-afraid type of procrastinator usually feels overwhelmed with pressure, unrealistic about time, uncertain about goals and many other negative feelings. Feeling that they lack the ability or focus to successfully complete their work, they tell themselves that they need to unwind and relax, that it's better to take it easy for the afternoon, for example, and start afresh in the morning. They usually have grandiose plans that aren't realistic. Their 'relaxing' is often temporary and ineffective, and leads to even more stress as time runs out, deadlines approach and the person feels increasingly guilty and apprehensive. This behavior becomes a cycle of failure and delay, as plans and goals are put off, penciled into the following day or week in the diary again and again. It can also have a debilitating effect on their personal lives and relationships. Since they are uncertain about their goals, they often feel awkward with people who appear confident and goal-oriented, which can lead to depression. Tense-afraid procrastinators often withdraw from social life, avoiding contact even with close friends.