|Type||Short Range Ballistic Missile|
|Place of origin||India|
|In service||1994 (Prithvi I)|
|Used by||Indian Army|
Indian Air Force
|Manufacturer||Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL)|
|Produced||February 25, 1988 (Prithvi I)|
January 27, 1996 (Prithvi II)
April 11, 2000 (Dhanush)
January 23, 2004 (Prithvi III)
|Weight||4400 kg (Prithvi I)|
4600 kg (Prithvi II)
5600 kg (Prithvi III)
|Length||9 m (Prithvi I)|
8. A short-range ballistic missile ( SRBM) is a Ballistic missile with a range of about 1000 km or less India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Indian Army (Bharatiya Thalsena भारतीय थाल्सेना is one of the armed forces of India and has the responsibility for land-based The Indian Air Force (Devanāgarī भारतीय वायु सेना IAST Bhartiya Vāyu Senā is the air arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. The Defence Research and Development Organisation ( DRDO) ( Hindi: रक्षा अनुसंधान एवं विकास संघठन, Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL is a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU of the Government of India and is headquartered in Hyderabad India. 56 m (Prithvi II, Prithvi III)
|Diameter||110 cm (Prithvi I, Prithvi II)|
100cm (Prithvi III)
|Engine||Single Stage liquid fuel dual motor(Prithvi I, Prithvi II|
, Single Stage Solid Motor (Prithvi III)
|150 km (Prithvi I)|
250 km (Prithvi II)
350 - 600 km (Prithvi III)
|strap-down inertial guidance|
|8 x 8 Tatra Transporter Erector Launcher|
Prithvi (Sanskrit: पृथ्वी, pṛthvī "Earth") is a tactical surface-to-surface, short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) developed by DRDO of India under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Prithvi ( Sanskrit: pṛthvī, also pṛthivī) is the Hindu Earth and Mother Goddess. A surface-to-surface missile (also ground-to-ground missile, SSM or GTGM) is a guided projectile launched from a hand-held vehicle mounted trailer mounted A ballistic missile is a Missile that follows a Sub-orbital ballistic flightpath with the objective of delivering a warhead to a predetermined target The Defence Research and Development Organisation ( DRDO) ( Hindi: रक्षा अनुसंधान एवं विकास संघठन, India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP was an Indian Ministry of Defence program for the development of a comprehensive range of missiles including
The Government of India launched the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program in 1983 for achieving self sufficiency in the development and production of wide range of Ballistic Missiles, Surface to Air Missiles etc. The Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP was an Indian Ministry of Defence program for the development of a comprehensive range of missiles including
Prithvi was the first missile to be developed under the Program. DRDO earlier attempted to reverse engineer SA-2 Surface-to-air Missile under Project Devil. The Prithvi is said to have its propulsion technology derived from the SA-2 surface-to-air missile. The dual liquid engine of Prithvi I might have been derived from scaling down of 30 ton Valiant Engine and scaling up of V-755 engine used by SA-2 surface-to-air missile. 
Variants make use of either liquid or both liquid and solid fuels. Developed as a battlefield missile, it could carry a nuclear warhead in its role as a tactical nuclear weapon. A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion.
The Prithvi missile project encompassed developing 3 variants for use by the Indian Army, Indian Air Force and the Indian Navy. The initial project framework of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program outlines the variants in the following manner. 
Over the years these specifications underwent a number of changes. While the codename Prithvi stands for any missile inducted by India into its armed forces in this category, the later developmental versions are codenamed as Prithvi II and Prithvi III.
Prithvi I class was a single stage liquid-fuelled surface-to-surface missile having a maximum warhead mounting capability of 1000 kg, with a range of 150 km. It has an accuracy of 10 - 50 metres and can be launched from Transporter erector launchers. A transporter erector launcher ( TEL) is a vehicle with an integrated prime mover that can carry elevate to firing position and launch one or more Missiles This class of Prithvi missile was inducted into the Indian Army in 1994. The Indian Army (Bharatiya Thalsena भारतीय थाल्सेना is one of the armed forces of India and has the responsibility for land-based
Prithvi II class is also a single stage liquid-fuelled missile having a maximum warhead mounting capability of 1000kg, but with an extended range of 250 kilometres (155 statute miles). It was developed with the Indian Air Force being the primary user. The Indian Air Force (Devanāgarī भारतीय वायु सेना IAST Bhartiya Vāyu Senā is the air arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the It was first test-fired on January 27, 1996 and the development stages were completed in 2004. The Prithvi II class of missiles are in the process of induction by the Indian Airforce.
Prithvi III class (codenamed Sagarika meaning Oceanic) is a two-stage surface-to-surface missile in the developmental stages. The first stage is solid fuelled with a 16 metric ton force (157 kN) thrust motor. The unit kilogram-force ( kgf, often incorrectly just kg) or kilopond ( kp) is defined as the Force exerted by Earth's gravity The newton (symbol N) is the SI derived unit of Force, named after Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on Classical The second stage is liquid fuelled. The missile can carry a 1000 kg warhead to a distance of 350 km and a 500 kg warhead to a distance of 600 kilometres and a 250 kilogram warhead up to a distance of 750 kilometres. The design is developed while keeping the navy in mind.
Sagarika will be a nuclear-capable, cruise missile, capable of being mounted in ships or submarines. Considering the upward capability developments, Prithvi class of missiles could be reclassified from short-range ballistic missile to a medium range ballistic missile. The current codename of the operational variant Dhanush could pave way for the new codename Sagarika as Sagarika becomes operational. Dhanush was successfully tested on March 30, 2007. Events 240 BC - 1st recorded Perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Sagarika will be inducted into the Advanced Technology Vessel being developed for Indian Navy. Details The ATV is an SSBN and will be armed with the ballistic missiles like the Sagarika missile or the submarine variant of the 5000 km range 
There were a number of shortcoming in the initial version of Prithvi missiles namely, High circular error probability (CEP) of around 500 meters and volatility of the liquid-fuelled propulsion system requiring fuelling only just before launching. These shortcomings are being overcome in the latest developmental versions by incorporating of global positioning system (GPS) into the missiles to reduce the CEP to as low as 10 to 15 meters and use of solid fuel in the propulsion system.