For subsequent types of praefectura, see Praefectus. Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: "make in front" i
The term prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office, seat, territorial circumscription of a Prefect. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: "make in front" i The term prefecture is also used to refer to offices analogous to prefectures.
It has been used most prominently to denote a somewhat self-governing body or area since the tetrarchy, when emperor Diocletian divided the Roman Empire into four districts (each divided into dioceses, grouping under a Vicarius a number of Roman provinces, listed under that article), although he maintained two pretorian prefectures as an administrative level above the also surviving dioceses (a few of which were split). Tetrarchy ( Greek: "leadership of four " can be applied to any system of government where power is divided between four individuals Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial In many rites of the Roman Catholic Church and in Anglican churches, a diocese is an administrative territorial unit administered by a Bishop. In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin provincia, pl provinciae) was the basic and until the Tetrarchy (circa
As Canon law is strongly inspired by Roman law, it is not surprising that the Catholic Church has several offices under a prefect. Canon Law, the Ecclesiastical law of the Catholic Church, is a fully developed legal system with all the necessary elements courts lawyers judges a fully articulated That term occurs also in otherwise styled offices, such as the head of a congregation or department of the Roman Curia. The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central governing body of the entire Roman Catholic Church, together with the Pope Various ecclesiastical areas, too small for a diocese, are termed prefects. In many rites of the Roman Catholic Church and in Anglican churches, a diocese is an administrative territorial unit administered by a Bishop.
In France, a préfecture is the capital city of a département. A prefecture ( préfecture) in France can refer to: the Chef-lieu de département, the town in which the administration of a ''département'' This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. In the Terminology of Political geography and Historiography a National department (département departamento is an administrative As there are 100 départements in France, there are 100 préfectures in France. A préfecture de région'is the capital city of a région. France is divided into 26 regions or régions (in French of which 21 are in continental Metropolitan France, one is the island of Corsica,
In Brazil, the prefecture (prefeitura in Portuguese) is the City Hall, home to the Executive of a city and to the mayor's office. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. A city hall or town hall is the chief administrative building of a City or Town 's administration and usually houses the city or In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government
Modern Greece, under its 1975 Constitution, is divided into 51 nomoi (Greek: νομοί) which form the units of local government. Greece consists of 13 administrative regions known as Peripheries of Greece, which are further subdivided into 3 super-prefectures and 54 prefectures or nomes Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly These are most commonly translated into English as prefectures. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States
Each nomos is headed by a prefect (nomarch), who was until recently a ministerial appointee but is nowadays elected by direct popular vote. Nomarchs were the semi- Feudal rulers of Ancient Egyptian provinces Municipal elections in Greece are held every four years and voting for the election of nomarchs and mayors is carried out concurrently but with separate ballots.
When used in the context of Chinese history, especially China before the Tang Dynasty, the word "prefecture" is used to translate xian (县/縣). Prefecture, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. In the context of Political divisions of China, county is the standard English translation of 县 ( xiàn) Chinese civilization originated in various city-states along the Yellow River ( valley in the Neolithic era The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by This unit of administration is translated as "county" when used in a contemporary context.
In the context of Chinese history during or after the Tang Dynasty, the word "prefecture" is used to translate zhou (州), another ancient unit of administration in China. The zhōu (州 was a historical political division of China. First established during the Han Dynasty, zhou continued to exist until the establishment The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by
In modern-day People's Republic of China, the prefecture (地区; pinyin: dìqū) is an administrative division found in the second level of the administrative hierarchy. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use See also Administrative divisions of the Republic of China Due to China 's large Population and area the political divisions of China have consisted In addition to prefectures, this level also includes autonomous prefectures, leagues, and prefecture-level cities. A league ( ayimaɣ or historically čiɣulɣan; Chinese: 盟 Pinyin: méng is an administrative unit in Inner Mongolia, A prefecture-level city ( or prefecture-level municipality is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, ranking below a province and The prefecture level comes under the province level, and in turn oversees the county level. See also Administrative divisions of the Republic of China Due to China 's large Population and area the political divisions of China have consisted See also Administrative divisions of the Republic of China Due to China 's large Population and area the political divisions of China have consisted
In reference to the Japanese system of administrative subdivisions, prefecture is used as the translation for todōfuken (都道府県). The prefectures of Japan are the country's 47 sub-national Jurisdictions one "metropolis" (都 to) Tokyo; one " circuit For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The system of local government in Japan consists of two classes: prefectures as the large-area local governing units and municipalities as the basic local-level governing units. A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or In Asian practice, the administrative segregation of a country or unified nation-state is usually trifold: the state, large-area local governing units, and basic local-level governing units; Japan follows this pattern. In Political geography and International politics, a country is a Political division of a geographical entity For the online game see Jennifer Government NationStates. The nation-state is a certain form of State that derives its legitimacy A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population.
Japan is divided into 47 prefectures, and each is further divided into municipalities. These prefectures and municipalities neither overlap geographically nor leave any area uncovered; all residents of Japan are therefore residents of one municipality and one prefecture. The prefecture plays a sufficiently large role in personal identity that Japanese introducing themselves abroad often mention their prefecture of origin as well as (or instead of) their municipality.
The prefectures and municipalities function as more than just the country's administrative units: they are incorporated bodies—independent from the national government—that possess their own basic spheres of responsibility and local residents as their constituents, holding administrative authority within their respective geographical boundaries. In Hokkaidō and several other prefectures, subprefectures are used as special administrative units, due to peculiarities of governmental evolution and the difficulty in centrally governing certain geographically large or remote areas. WikipediaWikiProject Japanese prefectures for guidelines --> formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japan 's Certain Prefectures of Japan are now or once were divided into subprefectures.
Prefectures are all followed with the suffix -ken (Kanagawa-ken for example). Osaka and Kyoto are both referred to as a -fu (Osaka-fu and Kyoto-fu respectively), but are also translated as prefectures. There are two government units that are not technically referred to as prefectures in Japan. Tokyo's prefecture-level government and its area is followed by -to (都 lit. capital), and whose government calls itself the "Tokyo Metropolitan Government" in English. Finally Hokkaidō's dō is a suffix for ancient region names but it was so named in 1869. Tōsandō (northeast through the Japanese Alps) Hokurikudō (northeast along the Sea of Japan coast Year 1869 ( MDCCCLXIX) is a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Hokkaidō's government calls itself the "Hokkaidō Government" in English. Below a prefecture are -shi (cities) and -ku (wards).
Japan's current prefectural system was established in the Meiji era after the new Meiji government abolished fiefs run by feudal clans known as han. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed A clan is a group of People united by Kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor The, or domains, were the Fiefs of Feudal Lords of Japan that were created by Toyotomi Hideyoshi and existed until their This change is called the abolition of the han system; see "Meiji Restoration" in the History of Japan article and the "Meiji era" article for more historical details of this event. The was an act in 1871 of the new Meiji government of the Empire of Japan to replace the traditional feudal domain ( han) system and to introduce The written history of Japan begins with brief references in the 1st century AD Twenty-Four Histories, a collection of Chinese historical texts The, or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of the Meiji Emperor, running in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July
Mongolian prefectures (Aimags) were adopted under the Manchu Empire. The 21 Aimags are the top-level administrative divisions (provinces of Mongolia. Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China Today these are usually translated as "provinces".
Traditionally the prefecture as being the City Hall and the prefect as being the equivalent of a mayor and commissioner until recently; now the prefectures and prefect are analogous with the figure of Town Clerk. A city hall or town hall is the chief administrative building of a City or Town 's administration and usually houses the city or A town clerk is a senior Employee of a City, Borough, or Town administration