|Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace, Lhasa*|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Criteria||i, iv, vi|
|Inscription||1994 (18th Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.|
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
The Potala Palace (Tibetan: པོ་ཏ་ལ; Wylie: Po ta la; simplified Chinese: 布达拉宫; traditional Chinese: 布達拉宮) is located in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex As of 2008 there are a total of 878 World Heritage Sites located in 145 "State Parties" Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Asia, Australia and the Pacific ( Australia) A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex The Tibetan script is an Abugida of Indic origin used to write the Tibetan language as well as the Dzongkha language, Ladakhi language The Wylie transliteration scheme is a method for transliterating the Tibetan script using the keys on a typical English language Typewriter. Lhasa, ( in English l̥ʰásə or in Tibetan; Chinese: 拉萨 Pinyin: Lāsà sometimes spelled Lasa, is the administrative capital of the The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR also called Xizang Autonomous Region (བོད་རང་སྐྱོང་ལྗོངས་ Wylie: Bod-rang-skyong-ljongs Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES It was named after Mount Potala, the abode of Chenresig or Avalokitesvara. Avalokiteśvara ( Nepali: अवलोकितेश्वर, lit Avalokiteśvara ( Nepali: अवलोकितेश्वर, lit  The Potala Palace was the chief residence of the Dalai Lama until the 14th Dalai Lama fled to Dharamsala, India after an invasion and failed uprising in 1959. The Dalai Lama is the spiritual and political leader of the Tibetan people according to Tibetan Buddhism. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The initial People's Republic of China's military invasion of Tibet in 1950 met with high resistance in the heart of the country Today the Potala Palace has been converted into a museum by the Chinese.
The building measures 400 metres east-west and 350 metres north-south, with sloping stone walls averaging 3 m. thick, and 5 m. (more than 16 ft) thick at the base, and with copper poured into the foundations to help proof it against earthquakes.  Thirteen stories of buildings -- containing over 1,000 rooms, 10,000 shrines and about 200,000 statues -- soar 117 metres (384 ft) on top of Marpo Ri, the "Red Hill", rising more than 300 m (about 1,000 ft) in total above the valley floor.  Tradition has it that the three main hills of Lhasa represent the "Three Protectors of Tibet. " Chokpori, just to the south of the Potala, is the soul-mountain (bla-ri) of Vajrapani, Pongwari that of Manjushri, and Marpori, the hill on which the Potala stands, represents Chenresig or Avalokiteshvara. Chokpori, Chagpori or Chagpo Ri ( Wylie: lCags po ri) - literally 'Iron Mountain' - is a Sacred Hill in the city of Vajrapāṇi (from Sanskrit Vajra, "thunderbolt" or "diamond" and pāṇi, lit Manjusri ( Ch: Avalokiteśvara ( Nepali: अवलोकितेश्वर, lit Avalokiteśvara ( Nepali: अवलोकितेश्वर, lit 
The site was used as a meditation retreat by King Songtsen Gampo, who in 637 built the first palace there in order to greet his bride Princess Wen Cheng of the Tang Dynasty of China. Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso (born Lhamo Döndrub ( 6 July 1935 in Qinghai) He is the head of the Tibetan government-in-exile The Dalai Lama is the spiritual and political leader of the Tibetan people according to Tibetan Buddhism. Meditation is a mental discipline by which one attempts to get beyond the conditioned "thinking" mind into a deeper state of relaxation or awareness Songtsän Gampo ( Tibetan: སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ་ Wylie: Srong-btsan Princess Wencheng ( Tibetan: Mung-chang Kungco Chinese: 文成公主 Pinyin: Wénchéng Gōngzhǔ (d The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by
Lozang Gyatso, the Great Fifth Dalai Lama, started the construction of the Potala Palace in 1645 after one of his spiritual advisers, Konchog Chophel (d. Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso, the Great Fifth Dalai Lama (1617 &ndash 1682 was a political and religious leader in seventeenth-century Tibet. 1646), pointed out that the site was ideal as a seat of government, situated as it is between Drepung and Sera monasteries and the old city of Lhasa. Drepung Monastery (literally “Rice Heap” monastery) located at the foot of Mount Gephel, is one of the "great three" Gelukpa university monasteries  The Dalai Lama and his government moved into the Potrang Karpo ('White Palace') in 1649.  Construction lasted until 1694, some twelve years after his death. The Potala was used as a winter palace by the Dalai Lama from that time. The Potrang Marpo ('Red Palace') was added between 1690 and 1694. 
The palace was slightly damaged during the Tibetan uprising against the Chinese in 1959, when Chinese shells were launched into the palace's windows. It also escaped damage during the Cultural Revolution in 1966 through the personal intervention of Zhou Enlai, who was then the Premier of the People's Republic of China but who personally opposed the revolution. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the People’s Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into Zhou Enlai ( (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976 was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from 1949 until his death in January 1976 The Premier of the State Council ( sometimes incorrectly referred to as the "Prime Minister" is the Chairman of the State Council of the People's Republic of China Still, almost all of the over 100,000 volumes of scriptures, historical documents and other works of art were either removed, damaged or destroyed. 
The Potala Palace was inscribed to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1994. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex In 2000 and 2001, Jokhang Temple and Norbulingka were added to the list as extensions to the sites. The Jokhang, () also called the Qokang, Jokang, Jokhang Temple, Jokhang Monastery or Tsuklakang (gTsug lag khang, is the first Norbulingka also refers to the Norbulingka Institute. Norbulingka (ནོར་བུ་གླིང་ཀ་ Wylie: Nor-bu-gling-ka Rapid modernisation has been a concern for UNESCO, however, which expressed concern over the building of modern structures immediately around the palace which threaten the palace's unique atmosphere. The Chinese government responded by enacting a rule barring the building of any structure taller than 21 metres in the area. UNESCO was also concerned over the materials used during the restoration of the palace, which commenced in 2002 at a cost of RMB180 million (US$22. 5 million), although the palace's director, Qiangba Gesang, has clarified that only traditional materials and craftsmanship were used. The palace has also received restoration works between 1989 to 1994, costing RMB55 million (US$6. 875 million).
Daily visitorship to the palace was restricted to 1,600 a day, with opening hours reduced to six hours daily to avoid over-crowding from 1 May 2003. Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. The palace was receiving an average of 1,500 a day prior to the introduction of the quota, sometimes peaking to over 5,000 in one day. Visits to the structure's roof was banned after restoration works were completed in 2006 to avoid further structural damage. Visitorship quotas were raised to 2,300 daily to accommodate a 30% increase in visitorship since the opening of the Qingzang railway into Lhasa on 1 July 2006, but the quota is often reached by mid-morning. The Qingzang railway, Qinghai–Xizang railway, or Qinghai–Tibet railway ( mtsho bod lcags lam མཚོ་བོད་ལྕགས་ལམ། is a high-altitude "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Opening hours were extended during the peak period in the months of July to September, where over 6,000 visitors would descend on the site.
Built at an altitude of 3,700 m (12,100 ft), on the side of Marpo Ri ('Red Mountain') in the center of Lhasa Valley, the Potala Palace, with its vast inward-sloping walls broken only in the upper parts by straight rows of many windows, and its flat roofs at various levels, is not unlike a fortress in appearance. At the south base of the rock is a large space enclosed by walls and gates, with great porticos on the inner side. A portico is a Porch that is leading to the entrance of a building or extended as a Colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway supported by Columns A series of tolerably easy staircases, broken by intervals of gentle ascent, leads to the summit of the rock. The whole width of this is occupied by the palace.
The central part of this group of buildings rises in a vast quadrangular mass above its satellites to a great height, terminating in gilt canopies similar to those on the Jokhang. The Jokhang, () also called the Qokang, Jokang, Jokhang Temple, Jokhang Monastery or Tsuklakang (gTsug lag khang, is the first This central member of Potala is called the "red palace" from its crimson colour, which distinguishes it from the rest. It contains the principal halls and chapels and shrines of past Dalai Lamas. There is in these much rich decorative painting, with jewelled work, carving and other ornament.
The Chinese Putuo Zongcheng Temple, built between 1767 and 1771, was modeled after the Potala Palace. The Putuo Zongcheng Temple ( of Chengde, Hebei province China is a Qing Dynasty era Buddhist temple complex built between 1767 and It was named by the American television show Good Morning America and newspaper USA Today as one of the "New Seven Wonders". Good Morning America ( GMA) is a morning news show that is broadcast on the ABC television network debuting on November USA TODAY is a national American daily Newspaper published by the Gannett Company. 
The White Palace is the part of the Potala Palace that makes up the living quarters of the Dalai Lama. The Dalai Lama is the spiritual and political leader of the Tibetan people according to Tibetan Buddhism. The first White Palace was built during the lifetime of the Fifth Dalai Lama and he and his government moved into it in 1649. Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso, the Great Fifth Dalai Lama (1617 &ndash 1682 was a political and religious leader in seventeenth-century Tibet.  It then was extended to its size today by the thirteenth Dalai Lama in the early twentieth century. Thubten Gyatso ( February 12, 1876 – December 17, 1933) was the 13th Dalai Lama of Tibet. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on The palace was for secular uses and contained the living quarters, offices, the seminary and the printing house. A central, yellow-painted courtyard known as a Deyangshar separates the living quarters of the Lama and his monks with the Red Palace, the other side of the sacred Potala, which is completely devoted to religious study and prayer. It contains the sacred gold stupas—the tombs of eight Dalai Lamas—the monks' assembly hall, numerous chapels and shrines, and libraries for the important Buddhist scriptures, the Kangyur in 108 volumes and the Tengyur with 225. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various schools of Tibetan Buddhism, made up of the Kangyur or Kanjur The Tengyur or Tanjur ( Wylie: Bstan-'gyur ('Translation of Treatises' is the Tibetan collection of commentaries to the Buddhist teachings or "Translated Treatises" The yellow building at the side of the White Palace in the courtyard between the main palaces houses giant banners embroidered with holy symbols which hung across the south face of the Potala during New Year festivals.
The Red Palace is part of the Potala palace that is completely devoted to religious study and Buddhist prayer. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices It consists of a complicated layout of many different halls, chapels and libraries on many different levels with a complex array of smaller galleries and winding passages:
The main central hall of the Red Palace is the Great West Hall which consists of four great chapels that proclaim the glory and power of the builder of the Potala, the Fifth Dalai Lama. Dhvaja (Skt also Dhwaja Tib rgyal-msthan meaning banner or flag Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso, the Great Fifth Dalai Lama (1617 &ndash 1682 was a political and religious leader in seventeenth-century Tibet. The hall is noted for its fine murals reminiscent of Persian miniatures, depicting events in the fifth Dalai Lama's life. A mural is a Painting on a wall ceiling or other large permanent surface The famous scene of his visit to Emperor Shun Zhi in Beijing is located on the east wall outside the entrance. An emperor (from the Latin " Imperator " is a (male Monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an Empire or another type of Special cloth from Bhutan wraps the Hall's numerous columns and pillars. The Kingdom of Bhutan (buːˈtɑːn is a Landlocked nation in South Asia.
On the north side of this hall in the Red Palace is the holiest shrine of the Potala. A shrine, from the Latin scrinium (‘box’ also used as a desk like the French bureau) was originally a container usually made of precious materials used A large blue and gold inscription over the door was written by the 19th century Tongzhi Emperor of China. The Tongzhi Emperor, born Zaichun ( April 27, 1856 &ndash January 12, 1875) was the ninth emperor of the Manchu proclaiming Buddhism a Blessed Field of Wonderful Fruit. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices This chapel like the Dharma cave below it dates from the seventh century. It contains a small ancient jewel encrusted statue of Avalokiteshvara and two of his attendants. A gemstone or gem, also called a precious or semi-precious stone, is a piece of attractive Mineral, which &mdash when cut and polished &mdash Avalokiteśvara ( Nepali: अवलोकितेश्वर, lit On the floor below, a low, dark passage leads into the Dharma Cave where Songsten Gampo is believed to have studied Buddhism. Songtsän Gampo ( Tibetan: སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ་ Wylie: Srong-btsan Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices In the holy cave are images of Songsten Gampo, his wives, his chief minister and Sambhota, the scholar who developed Tibetan writing in the company of his many divinities.
The North Chapel centres on a crowned Sakyamuni Buddha on the left and the Fifth Dalai Lama on the right seated on magnificent gold thrones. Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder Their equal height and shared aura implies equal status. On the far left of the chapel is the gold stupa tomb of the Eleventh Dalai Lama who died as a child, with rows of benign Medicine Buddhas who were the heavenly healers. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 A stupa (from Sanskrit and Pāli: m स्तूप stūpa, literally meaning "heap" is a mound-like structure containing Buddhist The Dalai Lama is the spiritual and political leader of the Tibetan people according to Tibetan Buddhism. On the right of the chapel are Avalokiteshvara and his historical incarnations including Songsten Gampo and the first four Dalai Lamas. Avalokiteśvara ( Nepali: अवलोकितेश्वर, lit Songtsän Gampo ( Tibetan: སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ་ Wylie: Srong-btsan Scriptures covered in silk between wooden covers form a specialized library in a room branching off it.
The South Chapel centres on Padmasambhava, the 8th century Indian magician and saint. Padmasambhava () The Lotus Born, is said to have transmitted Tantric Buddhism to Bhutan and Tibet in the 8th century. A magician is a person skilled in the mysterious and hidden art of magic, the ability to attain objectives acquire knowledge or perform works of wonder using Supernatural A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity His consort Yeshe Tsogyal, a gift from the King is by his left knee and his other wife from his native land of Swat is by his right. Yeshe Tsogyel, also known in the Nyingma tradition as the Great Bliss Queen, is a semi-mythical female Deity or figure of enlightenment ( Swat ( Urdu: ریاست سوات) was a Princely state which existed in the north of the modern North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan On his left, eight of his holy manifestations meditate with an inturned gaze. Meditation is a mental discipline by which one attempts to get beyond the conditioned "thinking" mind into a deeper state of relaxation or awareness On his right, eight wrathful manifestations wield instruments of magic powers to subdue the demons of the Bön faith. Bön ( is the oldest spiritual tradition of Tibet. Tenzin Gyatso, the fourteenth Dalai Lama, has recognized the Bön tradition as the fifth principal spiritual Faith is a Belief in the trustworthiness of an Idea. Formal usage of the word "faith" is usually reserved for concepts of Religion, as in
The East chapel is dedicated to Tsong Khapa, founder of the Gelug tradition. Tsongkhapa ( (1357 &ndash 1419 whose name means "The Man from Onion Valley" was a famous teacher of Tibetan Buddhism whose activities led later to the formation The Gelug or Gelug-pa, also known as the Yellow Hat sect, is a school of Buddhism founded by Tsongkhapa (1357–1419 a Philosopher His central figure is surrounded by lamas from Sakya Monastery who had briefly ruled Tibet and formed their own tradition until converted by Tsong Khapa. Sakya Monastery, also known as dPal Sa skya or Pel Sakya ("White Earth" or "Pale Earth" is a Buddhist Monastery situated 25 km southeast Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European Other statues are displayed made of various different materials and display noble expressions.
This is the chapel that contains the five golden stupas. A stupa (from Sanskrit and Pāli: m स्तूप stūpa, literally meaning "heap" is a mound-like structure containing Buddhist The enormous central stupa, 14. 85 metres (49 ft) high, contains the mummified body of the Fifth Dalai Lama. This stupa is built of sandalwood and is remarkably coated in 3,727 kg (8,200 lb) of solid gold and studded with 18,680 pearls and semi-precious jewels.  On the left is the funeral stupa for the Twelfth Dalai Lama and on the right that of the Tenth Dalai Lama. The Dalai Lama is the spiritual and political leader of the Tibetan people according to Tibetan Buddhism. The nearby stupa for the 13th Dalai Lama is 22 metres (72 ft) high. The stupas on both ends contain important scriptures. 
The first gallery is on the floor above the West chapel and has a number of large windows that give light and ventilation to the Great West Hall and its chapels below. Between the windows, superb murals show the Potala's construction is fine detail. A mural is a Painting on a wall ceiling or other large permanent surface
The Second Gallery gives access to the central pavilion which is used for visitors to the palace for refreshments and to buy souvenirs.
The Third Gallery besides fine murals has a number of dark rooms branching off it containing enormous collections of bronze statues and miniature figures made of copper and gold worth a fortune. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus The chanting hall of the Seventh Dalai Lama is on the south side and on the east an entrance connects the section to the Saints chapel and the Deyangshar between the two palaces. Kelzang Gyatso ( Wylie: Bskal-bzang Rgya-mtsho) (1708 – 1757 also spelled Kelsang Gyatso and Kezang Gyatso, was the 7th Dalai Lama Deyangshar is the name given to the central open courtyard of a Monastery in Tibet and parts of Myanmar where it is used for ceremonies burning incense
The tomb of the 13th Dalai Lama is located west of the Great West Hall and it can only be reached from an upper floor and with the company of a monk or a guide of the Potala. MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective Built in 1933, the giant stupa contains priceless jewels and one ton of solid gold. A stupa (from Sanskrit and Pāli: m स्तूप stūpa, literally meaning "heap" is a mound-like structure containing Buddhist It is 14 metres (46 feet) high. Devotional offerings include elephant tusks from India, porcelain lions and vases and a pagoda made from over 200,000 pearls. Elephants ( family: Elephantidae) are large land Mammals of the order Proboscidea. A tusk is an extremely long Incisor Tooth of certain Mammals that protrudes when the Mouth is closed India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Porcelain is a Ceramic material made by heating raw materials generally including Clay in the form of Kaolin, in a Kiln to temperatures A pagoda is the general term in the English language for a tiered Tower with multiple Eaves common in China, Japan, Korea Elaborate murals in traditional Tibetan styles depict many events of the life of the Thirteenth Dalai Lama during the early 20th century. A mural is a Painting on a wall ceiling or other large permanent surface Thubten Gyatso ( February 12, 1876 – December 17, 1933) was the 13th Dalai Lama of Tibet.