A poster is any piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface. Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging Typically posters include both textual and graphic elements, although a poster may be either wholly graphical or wholly textual. Typography is the art and techniques of arranging type, Type design, and modifying type Glyphs Type glyphs are created and modified using a variety Graphics (from Greek grc [[wiktγραφικός γραφικός]] see -graphy) are Visual presentations on some surface such as a wall Posters are designed to be both eye-catching and convey information. Posters may be used for many purposes, and they are a frequent tool of advertisers (particularly of events, musicians and films), propagandists, protestors and other groups trying to communicate a message. Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people Protest expresses relatively overt reaction to events or situations sometimes in favor though more often opposed Posters are also used for reproductions of artwork, particularly famous works. Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual . Another type of poster are educational posters, which may be about a particular subject for educational purposes. Related to these are academic or conference are generally low-cost compared to original artwork. Many people also collect posters, and some famous posters have themselves become quite valuable, collectors and vintage posters are usually framed and matted. Posters may be any size.
Posters, in the form of placards and posted bills, have been used for a long time, primarily for advertising and announcements. Purely textual posters have a long history: they advertised the plays of Shakespeare and made citizens aware of government proclamations for centuries. William Shakespeare ( baptised However, the great revolution in posters was the development of printing techniques that allowed for cheap mass production and printing, including notably the technique lithography which was invented in 1796 by the German Alois Senefelder. Lithography is a method for Printing using a plate or stone with a completely smooth surface Johann Alois Senefelder ( 6 November 1771, Prague &ndash 26 February 1834, Munich) was an Austrian Actor The invention of lithography was soon followed by chromolithography, which allowed for mass editions of posters illustrated in vibrant colors to be printed. Chromolithography is a method for making multi-color prints. This type of color printing stemmed from the process of Lithography, and it includes all types of lithography
By the 1890s, the technique had spread throughout Europe. A number of noted artists created poster art in this period, foremost amongst them Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and Jules Chéret. A poster is any piece of printed Paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (ɑ̃ʁi dø tuluz loˈtʁɛk (24 November 1864 &ndash 9 September 1901 was a French painter, printmaker, draftsman Jules Chéret ( May 31 1836 &ndash September 23 1932) was a French painter and Lithographer who became a master Chéret is considered to be the "father" of advertisement placards. He was a pencil artist and a scene decorator, who founded a small lithography office in Paris in 1866. He used striking characters, contrast and bright colors, and created over 1000 advertisements, primarily for exhibitions, theatres, and products. The industry soon attracted the service of many aspiring painters who needed a source of revenue to support themselves. Posters soon transformed the thoroughfares of Paris into the "art galleries of the street. " Their commercial success was such that some of the artists were in great demand and theatre stars personally selected their own favorite artist to do the poster for an upcoming performance. The popularity of poster art was such that in 1884 a major exhibition was held in Paris. By the 1890s, poster art had widespread usage in other parts of Europe, advertising everything from bicycles to bullfights. By the end of the 19th century, during an era known as the Belle Époque, the standing of the poster as a serious artform was raised even further. The Belle Époque (bɛːl e'pɔk French for "Beautiful Era" was a period in European history that began during the late 19th century and lasted until Between 1895 and 1900, Jules Chéret created the Maîtres de l'Affiche (Masters of the Poster) series that became not only a commercial success, but is now seen as an important historical publication. Maîtres de l'Affiche (Masters of the Poster refers to 256 color lithographic plates used to create a very significant art publication during the Belle Époque in Alphonse Mucha and Eugène Grasset were also influential poster designers of this generation, known for their Art Nouveau style and stylized figures, particularly of women. Alphonse Maria Mucha ( 24 July, 1860 &ndash 14 July, 1939) was a Czech Art Nouveau painter and decorative Eugène Samuel Grasset ( May 25, 1845 - October 23, 1917) was a Swiss decorative artist who worked in Paris France in a variety of Art Nouveau ( nu vo anglicised /ˈɑːt nuːvəu/ ( French for 'new art' also known as Jugendstil ( German for 'youth style' is an international Advertisement posters became a special type of graphic art in the modern age. Poster artists such as Théophile Steinlen, Albert Guillaume, Leonetto Cappiello and others became important figures of their day, their art form transferred to magazines for advertising as well as for social and political commentary. Théophile Alexandre Steinlen, frequently referred to as just Steinlen ( November 10, 1859 – December 13, 1923) was a Albert Guillaume, born February 14, 1873 - died 1942 was a French painter and Caricaturist. Leonetto Cappiello (b 1875 in Livorno, Italy; d 1942 in Cannes, France) was an Italian
In the United States, posters did not evolve to the same artistic level. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the American posters were primarily directed towards basic commercial needs to deliver a written message. However, the advent of the travelling circus brought colorful posters to tell citizens that a carnival was coming to town. But these too were very commercially utilitarian, of average quality, and few saw any real artistic creativity.
Many posters have had great artistic merit and have become extremely collectible. Artistic merit is an English language term that is used in relation to cultural products when referring to the judgment of their perceived quality or value as works of art These include the posters advertising World's Fairs and Colonial Exhibitions. Expo (short for "exposition" and also known as World Fair and World's Fair) is the name given to various large public exhibitions held since the Art exhibitions are traditionally the space in which Art objects (in the most general sense meet an Audience.
Other times of great turmoil also produced great posters. The 1960s saw the rise of pop art and protest movements throughout the West; both made great use of posters. Pop Art is a visual Art movement that emerged in the mid 1950s in Britain and in parallel in the late 1950s in the United States. Perhaps the most acclaimed posters were those produced by French students during the so-called "événements" of May 1968. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. For other events in May 1968 see 1968.
Many printing techniques are used to produce posters. Printing is a process for reproducing text and image typically with ink on Paper using a printing press While most posters are mass-produced, posters may also be printed by hand or in limited editions. Most posters are printed on one side and left blank on the back, the better for affixing to a wall or other surface. Pin-up sized posters are usually printed on A3 Standard Silk paper in full colour.
It is possible to use poster creation software to print large posters on standard home or office printers. Tiled printing, sometimes known as Rasterbating, is a feature of many Computer programs that enables them to print images larger than a standard page
During the First and Second World Wars, recruiting posters became extremely common, and many of them have persisted in the national consciousness, such as the "Lord Kitchener Wants You" posters from the United Kingdom, the "Uncle Sam wants you" posters from the United States, or the "Loose Lips Sink Ships" posters that warned of foreign spies. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including A 1914 recruitment poster depicting Secretary of State for War Lord Kitchener above the words " WANTS YOU " was the most famous image The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Uncle Sam is a National personification of the United States (US with the first usage of the term dating from the War of 1812 and the first British Propaganda during World War II took various forms Posters Keep Mum Originating in a 1940 campaign with the catchphrase ‘Be Posters during wartime were also used for propaganda purposes, persuasion, and motivation, such as the famous Rosie the Riveter posters which exhorted women workers during World War II that "We can do it!". Rosie the Riveter is a Cultural icon of the United States, representing the six million women who entered the Workforce for the first time during The Soviet Union also produced a plethora of propaganda posters, some of which became iconic representations of the Great Patriotic War. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Soviet Posters of times of Great Patriotic War — the visual aids meant to elaborate a certain point such as for example the attitudes of the Soviet Government to current events The term Great Patriotic War (Великая Отечественная война Velikaya Otechestvennaya Vojna) is used in Russia and some other During the democratic revolutions of 1989 in Central and Eastern Europe the poster was very important weapon in the hand of the opposition. "Fall of Communism" redirects here For the fall of the Soviet Union itself see History of the Soviet Union (1985–1991. Central and Eastern Europe is an accepted term describing former Communist countries in Europe, after the collapse of the Iron Curtain in 1989 Brave printed and hand-made political posters appeared on the Berlin Wall, on the statue of St. The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer was a physical barrier separating West Berlin from the German Democratic Republic (GDR ( East Germany) including Wenseslas in Prague and around the unmarked grave of Imre Nagy in Budapest and the role of them was indispensable for the democratic change. Prague (ˈprɑːg Praha (ˈpraɦa see also other names) is the Capital and Largest city of the Czech Republic. Imre Nagy ( June 7, 1896 – June 16 1958) was a Hungarian politician appointed Prime Minister of Hungary on two occasions Budapest ( also /ˈbʊ-/) is the capital city of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary it serves as the country's principal Political,
Many posters, particularly early posters, were used for advertising products. Posters continue to be used for this purpose, with posters advertising films, music (both concerts and recorded albums) and comic books being particularly notable examples. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. A comic book (often shortened to simply comic and sometimes called a comic paper or comic magazine) is a Magazine or Book of narrative
The film industry quickly discovered that vibrantly coloured posters were an easy way to sell their pictures. A film poster is a Poster used to advertise a Film. There may be several versions for one film Today, posters are produced for most major films, and the collecting of movie posters has become a major hobby. The most valuable poster in the world, of which there is only 1 known copy, is the 1931 stone litho Frankenstein 6-sheet.
The resurgence of comic book popularity in the 1960s led to the mass production of comic book posters in the 1970s and onward. A comic book (often shortened to simply comic and sometimes called a comic paper or comic magazine) is a Magazine or Book of narrative These posters typically feature popular characters in a variety of action poses. The fact that comic books are a niche market means that a given poster usually has a smaller printing run than other genres of poster. Therefore, older posters may be quite sought after by collectors. Promotional posters are usually distributed folded, whereas retail posters intended for home decoration are rolled.
Posters advertising events have become common. Any sort of public event, from a rally to a play, may be advertised with posters; a few types of events have become notable for their poster advertisements.
Boxing Posters were used in and around the actual venue to advertise the forthcoming fight, date, ticket prices, and usually consisted of pictures of each boxer. Boxing Posters vary in size and vibrancy, but are not usually smaller than 18x22 inches. In the early days few boxing posters survived the actual event and thus they are indeed very collectible and scarce.
Many concerts, particularly rock concerts, have custom-designed posters that are used for advertisement of the event. A concert is a live Performance, usually of Music, before an Audience. The term rock concert refers to a musical performance in the style of any one of many Genres inspired by " Rock and roll " Music. These often become collectors items as well.
Posters are used in academia to promote and explain research work. They are typically shown during conferences, either as a complement to a talk or scientific paper, or as a publication. They are of lesser importance than actual articles, but they can be a good introduction to a new piece of research before the paper is published. Poster presentations are often not peer-reviewed, but can instead be submitted, meaning that as many as can fit will be accepted. Peer review (also known as refereeing) is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work research or Ideas to the scrutiny of others who are
Most classrooms in North American schools have posters on the walls. Rm46jpg|thumb|Classroom in St Eunan's College, Letterkenny, Ireland]] A classroom is a Room in which Teaching or Learning activities There are several types of these posters:
The latter two types are sometimes prepared by students as part of an assignment, but most posters are usually store-bought.
Vintage Poster Restoration/Conservation
The backing of posters with fabric dates back to 19th century France, where posters were occasionally glued to linen for reinforcement. This provided some protection, but with the passage of time the paper continued to become brittle and was frequently torn by stress. Modern backing techniques have eliminated this problem by using an acid free paper between the poster and the fabric. The adhesive used is wheat paste treated to inhibit mold growth.
Why fabric-back a poster? The principal reason is to provide support for the paper. It also enables the conservator to flatten the folds and to more easily make repairs. Fabric backing also eliminates the waviness that can occur when the poster is framed.
Reversibility is a concept that is important in all conservation work, because today's curators and collectors are only temporary custodians of a cultural object (the poster) that will have continuing and timeless interest for future collectors. We strive to make certain that materials and techniques that are applied to the poster are not harmful over time and are reversible to bring it back to the state in which we found it.
Restoration can dramatically improve the appearance of a poster. Damage caused by clear adhesive tape, residual stains, water marks and dirt can be easily repaired; combining this with the replacement of lost paper can bring the poster back to virtually its original state.
Cheesecake posters, or "pinups," are pictures of attractive women designed to be displayed, first coming to popularity in the 1920s. The popularity of sexy Pin-up girl posters has been erratic in recent decades. A pin-up girl or pin-up model is a model whose mass-produced pictures see wide appeal as Pop culture. Pin-ups such as Betty Grable and Jane Russell were highly popular with soldiers during World War II but much less so during the Vietnam War. Betty Grable ( December 18, 1916 &ndash July 2, 1973) was an American Dancer Singer, and actress Jane Russell (born June 21) is an American film actress and Sex symbol. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia The late 1970s and into the beginning of the 1980s were boom years for large posters of television actresses, especially Farrah Fawcett and Cheryl Tiegs. Ferrah Leni Fawcett (born February 2 1947) is an American actress Cheryl Cox Tiegs (born September 25 1947, in Breckenridge Minnesota) is an American model.
The goal of creating a Fanposter is to show all or a large portion of devoted fans on one poster which will be presented and can be seen in a place where many other fans or members have access (hallway of a club house, fanzine, fan webpage, public place). A fanzine (see also Zine) is a nonprofessional publication produced by fans of a particular cultural phenomenon (such as a literary or musical genre for the pleasure
This refers to decorative posters that are meant to be motivational and inspirational. A motivational poster (or inspirational poster) is a type of Poster commonly designed for use in Schools and Offices The intent of motivational One popular series has a black background, a scene from nature, and a word such as "Leadership" or "Opportunity. " Another version (usually framed and matted) uses a two-image hologram which changes as the viewer walks past. A picture frame is a container added to a picture in order to enhance it make it easier to display or in some cases to protect it Holography (from the Greek, ὅλος - hólos whole + γραφή - grafē writing drawing is a technique that allows the
Posters that showcase a person's favorite artist or music group are popular in teenager's bedrooms, as well as in college dorm rooms and apartments. College ( Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an Educational Institution. Dormitory typically refers in the United States to residence halls which are sleeping quarters or entire buildings primarily providing sleeping and residential quarters for Many posters have pictures of popular rock bands and artists. A musical ensemble is a group of two or more Musicians who perform instrumental or vocal Music.
“Moulin Rouge - La Goulue. Jules Chéret ( May 31 1836 &ndash September 23 1932) was a French painter and Lithographer who became a master Achille Lucien Mauzan ( Gap, 1883 - Gap 1952 was born on the French Riviera, but moved to Italy in 1905 known as a decorative illustrator designing Róbert Berény (1887 - 1953 in Budapest) was a Hungarian painter. Sándor Bortnyik (1893 – 1976 was a Hungarian painter and Graphic designer. Etienne Maurice Firmin Bouisset ( September 2, 1859 - 1925 was a French painter, Poster Leonetto Cappiello (b 1875 in Livorno, Italy; d 1942 in Cannes, France) was an Italian Jean Carlu (Bonnières France, 1900 - 1997 was a French graphic designer specialised in posters Gino Boccasile ( 14 July 1901 - 10 May 1952) was an Italian illustrator Adolphe Mouron Cassandre ( January 24, 1901 &ndash June 17, 1968) was an influential Ukrainian - French Paul Colin ( 27 June 1892 in Nancy, France - 18 June 1985 in Monte Carlo, Monaco) was a French poster Tom Eckersley ( 30 September 1914, Lancashire – 1997 was an English poster artist and teacher of design John Thomas Young Gilroy ( May 30 1898 &mdash April 11 1985) was an English artist and illustrator best know for his advertising Eugène Samuel Grasset ( May 25, 1845 - October 23, 1917) was a Swiss decorative artist who worked in Paris France in a variety of David Lance Goines (born May 29, 1945) is an American artist calligrapher typographer printing entrepreneur and author Albert Guillaume, born February 14, 1873 - died 1942 was a French painter and Caricaturist. Alphonse Maria Mucha ( 24 July, 1860 &ndash 14 July, 1939) was a Czech Art Nouveau painter and decorative Raymond Savignac, often just abbreviated to "Savignac" was a French Graphic artist famous for his commercial Posters He was born on Théophile Alexandre Steinlen, frequently referred to as just Steinlen ( November 10, 1859 – December 13, 1923) was a Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (ɑ̃ʁi dø tuluz loˈtʁɛk (24 November 1864 &ndash 9 September 1901 was a French painter, printmaker, draftsman Tadeusz Lucjan Gronowski (1894-1990 was a Polish graphic artist Architect who worked on Interiors painter and a book illustrator Tadeusz Lucjan Gronowski (1894-1990 was a Polish graphic artist Architect who worked on Interiors painter and a book illustrator Echo Chernik, maiden name McKinney (born August 30, 1973) is an American Art Nouveau Artist. Seymour Chwast American Graphic designer, Illustrator, and Type designer. Frank Shepard Fairey (born February 15, 1970 in Charleston South Carolina) is a contemporary Artist, Graphic designer and André François (born André Farkas; November 9, 1915 &ndash April 11, 2005) was a French cartoonist Shigeo Fukuda (福田 繁雄 born February 4, 1932, Tokyo) is a Sculptor, Graphic artist and Poster Designer Milton Glaser (born June 26, 1929) is a Graphic designer, best known for the I Love New York logo his " Bob Dylan " Dóra Keresztes (b October 3 1953 Budapest) Hungarian painter, printmaker Illustrator, Graphic designer and Animated film Stanley "Mouse" Miller (born 1940 is an American Artist best known for his Psychedelic art designs for 1960s rock concert posters as well as Rafał Olbiński (born 1945 in Kielce, Poland) is a Polish graphic artist stage designer and surrealist painter István Orosz (b October 24 1951 Kecskemét) Hungarian painter, printmaker Graphic designer and animated film director is known for 1945 Born in Sokołów Podlaski Poland 1969 - 1974 Warsaw Academy of Fine Arts 1979 - Until now Freelancer Wiktor Sadowski is a Polish artist working in poster illustration and painting Biography 1946 Born in Zabrze in Upper Silesia, Poland 1970 Freelance artist and graphic designer 1972 MA in architectural David Tartakover ( דוד טרטקובר) (born 1944) is an Israeli Graphic designer, political activist Artist and design Educator Wang Xu ( in Beijing) is a female Chinese freestyle wrestler who competed at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, winning Paul Ford ( November 2, 1901 – April 12, 1976) born Paul Ford Weaver, was an American Actor born in Baltimore Maryland Michael Byrne may refer to Michael Byrne (actor Michael Byrne (poet, Australian poet Michael Byrne (Australian rules ” (1891) Poster by Toulouse-Lautrec. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (ɑ̃ʁi dø tuluz loˈtʁɛk (24 November 1864 &ndash 9 September 1901 was a French painter, printmaker, draftsman
Vin Mariani, Jules Cheret's 1894 poster for the digestif and tonic wine fortified by coca
A famous advertising poster for Guinness from the 1940s. Guinness (ˈɡɪnɪs is a popular Dry stout that originated in Arthur Guinness ' brewery at St
The Pre-fight poster for the Thrilla in Manila
Official poster for the Exposition Universelle of 1905 in Liège
A sports poster for the Navy Midshipmen American football team. The Thrilla in Manila is a famous Boxing match between Muhammad Ali and Joe Frazier, fought at the Araneta Coliseum in Quezon City Liège (ljɛːʒ Older English: Luick, Walloon: Lidje, German: Lüttich; Latin: Leodium, Dutch The Navy Midshipmen football team represent the United States Naval Academy in NCAA Division I -A College football. American football, known in the United States and Canada simply as football, is a competitive Team sport known for mixing strategy with
Poster from the Spanish Revolution