|Criminology and Penology|
|Chicago School · Classical School|
|Feminist School · Frankfurt School|
|Italian School · Left Realism|
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|See also Wikibooks:Social Deviance|
In criminology, the Positivist School has attempted to find scientific objectivity for the measurement and quantification of criminal behavior. Schools of thought In the mid-18th century criminology arose as social philosophers gave thought to crime and concepts of law Penology (from the Latin poena, " Punishment " comprises Penitentiary Science: that concerned with the processes devised In Sociology and later Criminology, the Chicago School (sometimes described as the Ecological School) refers to the first major body of works emerging The Classical School in Criminology is usually a reference to the eighteenth-century work during the Enlightenment by the utilitarian and Social contract Largely based on the writings of Karl Marx, conflict criminology claims that crime is inevitable in capitalist societies as invariably certain groups will become Environmental criminology focuses on criminal patterns within particular built environments and analyzes the impacts of these external variables on people's cognitive behavior The Feminist School of Criminology developed in the late 1960s and into the 1970s as a reaction against the Gender distortions and stereotyping within traditional The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist Critical theory, Social research, and Philosophy. Integrative Criminology reacts against single theory or methodology approaches and adopts an Interdisciplinary Paradigm for the study of Criminology and The Italian school of criminology was founded at the end of the 19th century by Cesare Lombroso (1835–1909 and two of his Italian disciples Enrico Ferri (1856–1929 Left Realist Criminology emerged out of Critical Criminology as a reaction against what was perceived to be the Left's failure to take a practical interest in everyday crime Marxist criminology is one of the schools of Criminology. It parallels the work of the functionalist school which focuses on what produces stability and In Criminology, the Neo-Classical School continues the traditions of the Classical School within the framework of Right Realism. In Criminology the Postmodernist School applies Postmodernism to the study of crime and criminals and understands "criminality" as a product of the In Criminology, Right Realism (also known as New Right Realism, Neo-Classicism, Neo-Positivism, or Neo-Conservatism) is the Ideological Schools of thought In the mid-18th century criminology arose as social philosophers gave thought to crime and concepts of law As the scientific method became the major paradigm in the search for all knowledge, the Classical School's social philosophy was replaced by the quest for scientific laws that would be discovered by experts. Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena The Classical School in Criminology is usually a reference to the eighteenth-century work during the Enlightenment by the utilitarian and Social contract Social philosophy is the philosophical study of questions about social Behavior (typically of Humans. It is divided into Biological, Psychological and Social.
If Charles Darwin's Theory of evolution was scientific as applied to animals, the same approach should be applied to "man" as an "animal". Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008
Historically, medicine became interested in the problem of crime, producing studies of physiognomy (see Johann Kaspar Lavater and Franz Joseph Gall) and the science of phrenology which linked attributes of the mind to the shape of the brain as reveal through the skull. Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the Physiognomy ( Gk physis, nature and gnomon, judge interpreter is the assessment of a person's character or personality from their outer appearance especially Johann Kaspar Lavater ( November 15, 1741 - January 2, 1801) was a Swiss Poet and Physiognomist. Franz Joseph Gall ( March 9, 1758 - August 22, 1828) was a Neuroanatomist, physiologist, and pioneer in the study of the Phrenology (from Greek: φρήν phrēn, "mind" and λόγος Logos, "knowledge" is a defunct field of study once The brain is the center of the Nervous system in animals All Vertebrates and the majority of Invertebrates have a brain These theories were popular because society and any failures of its government were not the causes of crime. A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. The problem lay in the propensities of individual offenders who were biologically distinguishable from law-abiding citizens. This theme was amplified by the Italian School and through the writings of Cesare Lombroso (see L'Uomo Delinquente, The Criminal Man and Anthropological criminology) which identified physical characteristics associated with degeneracy demonstrating that criminals were atavistic throwbacks to an earlier evolutionary form. The Italian school of criminology was founded at the end of the 19th century by Cesare Lombroso (1835–1909 and two of his Italian disciples Enrico Ferri (1856–1929 Cesare Lombroso, born Ezechia Marco Lombroso ( November 6, 1835 – October 19, 1909) was a Jewish Italian Anthropological criminology (sometimes referred to as criminal anthropology, literally a combination of the study of the human species and the study of criminals is a field The term atavism (derived from the Latin atavus, a great-grandfather's grandfather and thus more generally an ancestor denotes the tendency to revert to ancestral type Charles Goring (1913) failed to corroborate the characteristics but did find criminals shorter, lighter and less intelligent, i. e. he found criminality to be "normal" rather than "pathological" (cf the work of Hooton found evidence of biological inferiority). Earnest Albert Hooton ( November 20, 1887, Clemansville Wisconsin &ndash May 3, 1954, Cambridge Massachusetts) was a William Sheldon identified three basic body or somatotypes (i. William Sheldon may be William Wallace Barbour Sheldon (1836-1915 American architect William Herbert Sheldon (1898-1977 American psychologist Constitutional psychology is a theory developed in the 1940s by American Psychologist William Herbert Sheldon, associating body types with human Temperament types e. endomorphs, mesomorphs, and ectomorphs), and introduced a scale to measure where each individual was placed. Constitutional psychology is a theory developed in the 1940s by American Psychologist William Herbert Sheldon, associating body types with human Temperament types He concluded that delinquents tended to mesomorphy. Modern research might link physical size and athleticism and aggression because physically stronger people have the capacity to use violence with less chance of being hurt in any retaliation. Otherwise, such early research is no longer considered valid. The development of genetics has produced another potential inherent cause of criminality, with chromosome and other genetic factors variously identified as significant to select heredity rather than environment as the cause of crime (see: nature versus nurture). Genetics (from Ancient Greek grc-Latn genetikos, “genitive” and that from grc-Latn genesis, “origin” a discipline of Biology, is A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and Protein that is found in cells. The nature versus nurture debates concern the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities ("nature" i However, the evidence from family, twin, and adoption studies shows no conclusive empirical evidence to prefer either cause. In Philosophy, empiricism is a theory of Knowledge which asserts that knowledge arises from Experience.
There are a number of reputable studies that demonstrate a link between lower intelligence and criminality. But the evidence is equivocal because studies among the prison population simply test those criminals actually caught, which might be because they failed to plan the crimes properly or because they were unable to resist interrogation techniques and admitted their crimes. If their intelligence is poor, they are also less likely to be deterred.
Testosterone and adrenaline have been associated with aggression and violence, and the arousal and excited state associated with them. Testosterone is a Steroid hormone from the Androgen group In mammals testosterone is primarily secreted in the testes of males and the Ovaries In Psychology and other social and Behavioral sciences aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm Violence is the exertion of force so as to injure or abuse The word is used broadly to describe the destructive action of natural phenomena like Storms and Earthquakes Arousal is a physiological and psychological state of being awake The excessive consumption of alcohol can lower blood sugar levels and lead to aggressiveness, and the use of chemicals in foods and drinks has been associated with hyper-activity and some criminal behaviour.
Sigmund Freud divided the personality into the id, the primitive biological drives, the superego, the internalised values, and the ego, memory, perception, and cognition. Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded Id, ego, and super-ego are the three parts of the " Psychic apparatus " defined in Sigmund Freud 's structural model of Id, ego, and super-ego are the three parts of the " Psychic apparatus " defined in Sigmund Freud 's structural model of Id, ego, and super-ego are the three parts of the " Psychic apparatus " defined in Sigmund Freud 's structural model of In Psychology, memory is an organism's ability to store retain and subsequently retrieve information In Psychology and the Cognitive sciences perception is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of sensory Information. Cognition is a concept used in different ways by different disciplines but is generally accepted to mean the process of awareness or thought He proposed that criminal behaviour is either the result of mental illness or a weak conscience. Mental disorder or mental illness is a psychological or behavioral pattern that occurs in an individual and is thought to cause distress or disability that is not expected as John Bowlby proposed an attachment theory in which maternal deprivation was a factor that might lead to delinquency. John Bowlby ( February 26, 1907 – September 2, 1990) was a British psychiatrist and psychoanalyst notable for his interest in child Attachment theory, originating in the work of John Bowlby, is a Psychological, evolutionary and ethological theory that provides a descriptive This has been discounted in favour of general privation (Michael Rutter: 1981) or "broken homes" (Glueck: (1950) in which absentee or uncaring parents tend to produce badly behaved children. For the motorcycle racer see Michael Rutter (motorcycle racer Professor Sir Michael Rutter (born 1933 is the first consultant of child psychiatry in the
Hans Eysenck (1987) stated that, ". Hans Jürgen Eysenck ( March 4, 1916 in Berlin, Germany - September 4, 1997 in London, UK) was a . . certain types of personality may be more prone to react with anti-social or criminal behaviour to environmental factors of one kind or another. " He proposed three dimensions of personality: introversion/extroversion, neutroticism, and psychoticism. The trait of Extraversion-Introversion is a central dimension of human personality. The trait of Extraversion-Introversion is a central dimension of human personality. Psychoticism is one of the three traits used by the psychologist Hans Eysenck in his P-E-N model (psychoticism extraversion and neuroticism model of personality For these purposes, personality is the settled framework of reference within which a person addresses the current situation and decides how to behave. Some traits will be dominant at times and then in a balanced relationship to other traits, but each person's traits will be reasonably stable and predictable (see Marshall: 1990 and Seidman:1994). Hence, once conditioned into a criminal lifestyle, the relevant personality traits are likely to persist until a countervailing conditioning force re-establishes normal social inhibitions. Some forms of criminal behaviour such as sexual offences, have been medicalised with treatment offered alongside punishment.
In general terms, positivism rejected the Classical Theory's reliance on free will and sought to identify positive causes that determined the propensity for criminal behaviour. Rather than biological or psychological causes, this branch of the School identifies "society" as the cause. Hence, environmental criminology and other sub-schools study the spatial distribution of crimes and offenders (see Adolphe Quetelet, who discovered that crimes rates are relatively constant, and the Chicago School which, under the leadership of Robert E. Park, viewed the city as a form of superorganism, zoned into areas engaged in a continuous process of invasion, dominance, and succession). Environmental criminology focuses on criminal patterns within particular built environments and analyzes the impacts of these external variables on people's cognitive behavior Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quételet ( 22 February 1796 &ndash 17 February 1874) was a Belgian Astronomer, Mathematician Robert Ezra Park ( February 14 1864 &ndash February 7 1944) was an American urban sociologist, one of the main founders of Meanwhile, Emile Durkheim identified society as a social phenomenon, external to individuals, with crime a normal part of a healthy society. Émile Durkheim ( April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French Sociologist whose contributions were instrumental Deviancy was nothing more than "boundary setting," pushing to determine the current limits of morality and acceptability.