|Birth name||Pietro Barbo|
|Papacy began||August 30, 1464|
|Papacy ended||July 26, 1471|
|Born||February 23, 1417|
|Died||July 26, 1471 (aged 54)|
|Other popes named Paul|
Paul II (February 23, 1417 – July 26, 1471), born Pietro Barbo, was Pope from 1464 until his death in 1471. Events 1455 - Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western Book printed from Movable Events 657 - Battle of Siffin. 811 - Battle of Pliska; Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and
He was born in Venice, and was a nephew of Pope Eugene IV (1431–1447), through his mother. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Pope Eugene IV (1383 &ndash February 23, 1447) born Gabriele Condulmer, was Pope from March 3, 1431, to his death His adoption of the spiritual career, after having been trained as a merchant, was prompted by his uncle's election as Pope. His consequent promotion was rapid; he became a cardinal in 1440 and gained popularity through his tender-hearted generosity. A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church.
He was elected Pope by the accessus in the first ballot, by a majority of fourteen of the nineteen cardinals in conclave on August 30, 1464, to succeed Pope Pius II (1458–1464). A papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals to elect the Pope (or Bishop of Rome) who is considered by Catholics to be the Successor Accessus is a term applied to the voting in conclave for the election of a Pope, by which a cardinal changes his vote and accedes to some other candidate Events 1363 - Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders— Chen Youliang and Pope Pius II, born Enea Silvio Piccolomini ( Latin Aeneas Sylvius; October 18, 1405 &ndash August 14, 1464) Beforehand, in order to secure to the cardinals a greater share of power than they had enjoyed under Pius II, a capitulation was subscribed by all except Ludovico Trevisan; it bound the future pope to continue the Turkish war, but he was not to journey outside Rome without the consent of a majority of the cardinals, nor to leave Italy without the consent of all. The maximum number of cardinals was limited to twenty-four, and any new pope was to be limited to only one cardinal-nephew. A cardinal-nephew (cardinalis nepos cardinale nipote valido de su tío prince de fortune is a cardinal elevated by a Pope who is that cardinal's uncle All creations of new cardinals and advancements to certain important benefices, were to be made only with the consent of the College of Cardinals. Originally a benefice was a gift of land ( Precaria) for life as a reward for services rendered The College of Cardinals (verbose Sacred College of the Holy Roman Church, Sancta Romana Ecclesia, S  Upon taking office, Paul II was to convene an ecumenical council within three years. This is a general introduction to ecumenical councils For the Roman Catholic councils, see Catholic Ecumenical Councils. But these terms of subscription were modified by Paul II at his own discretion, and this action lost him the confidence of the College of Cardinals. The justification for setting aside the capitulations, seen to be under way by the Duke of Milan's ambassador as early as 21 September, lay in connecting any abridgement of the pope's absolute monarchy in the Papal States with a consequent abridgement of his sole authority in spiritual matters. Absolute monarchy is a monarchical Form of government where the king and queen have absolute power over everything The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa  Almost from his coronation, Paul withdrew and became inaccessible: audiences were only granted at night; even good friends waited a fortnight to see him; his suspiciousness was widely attested. The Papal Coronation is the ceremony in which a new Pope is crowned as earthly head of the Roman Catholic Church, sovereign of Vatican City
A sore point was his abuse of the practice of creating cardinals in pectore, without publishing their names. In pectore ( Latin for "in the breast/heart" is a term used in the Roman Catholic Church to refer appointments to the College of Cardinals Anxious to raise new cardinals to increase the number who were devoted to his interests, but restricted by the terms of the capitulation, which gave the College a voice in the creation of new members, in the winter of 1464-65 Paul created two secret cardinals both of whom died before their names could be published. In his fourth year he created eight new cardinals (18 September, 1467); five were candidates pressed by kings, placating the rulers of England, Hungary, Naples, France and Cyprus; one was the able administrator of the Franciscans; the last two elevated his old tutor and a first cardinal-nephew. The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic  Two further cardinal-nephews were added on 21 November, 1468.  In a sign of his increasing secretiveness and paranoia, he added two more cardinals secretly at the same consistory, and four more at the beginning of 1471, expecting to reveal them only in his testament.
Tensions with the College of Cardinals came to the fore when in 1466, attempting to downsize redundant offices, Paul II proceeded to annul the college of abbreviators, whose function it was to formulate papal documents; a storm of indignation arose, inasmuch as rhetoricians and poets with humanist training, of which Paul deeply disapproved, had long been accustomed to benefiting from employment in such positions. Abbreviator, plural Abbreviators in English or Abbreviatores in Latin also called Breviators, were a body of writers in the papal chancery, Renaissance Humanism was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century Bartolomeo Platina, who was one of these, wrote a threatening letter to the Pope, and was imprisoned but later discharged. Bartolomeo Platina, originally named Sacchi, (1421 in Piadena ( Platina in Latin) near Mantua &ndash 1481 in Rome However, in 1467 Platina was again imprisoned on the charge of having participated in a conspiracy against the Pope, and was tortured along with other abbreviators, like Filip Callimachus who fled to Poland in 1478, all of whom had been accused of pagan views. Torture, according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture, is "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental is intentionally Filip Callimachus or Callimach ( Latin Philippus Callimachus Experiens, Filip Kallimach born Filippo Buonaccorsi, Bonacursius Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world Not unaccountably, Platina, in his Vitae pontificum, set forth an unfavorable delineation of the character of Paul II.
Pope Paul rejected King George of Podebrady of Bohemia on the grounds that he upheld the conventions of Basel in favor of the Utraquists. George of Kunštát and Poděbrady ( April 23, 1420 - March 22, 1471) also known as Poděbrad or Podiebrad Bohemia (Čechy; Bohemia Czechy is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands, currently the "Basilia" redirects here For the Fly Genus, see Basilia (fly. See " Utraquist school " for a kind of Bilingual schools Utraquism (from the Latin sub utraque specie, meaning In August 1465, Paul II summoned Podebrady before his Roman tribunal, and, when the King failed to come, allied himself with the insurgents in Bohemia, and released the King's subjects from their oath of allegiance. In December, 1466, he pronounced the ban of excommunication and sentence of deposition against Podebrady. Excommunication is a religious Censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community
Just when ultimately the King's good success disposed the Pope in favor of reconciliation, Paul II died, on July 26, 1471 of a stroke after eating some melons
The chronicler Stefano Infessura's republican and anti-papal temper makes his diary a far from neutral though well-informed witness. Stefano Infessura (c 1435 &ndash c 1500 was an Italian humanist historian and lawyer But it is certain that though Paul II opposed the humanists, he was second to none in providing for popular amusements: in 1466 he permitted the horse-race that was a feature of Carnival to be run along the main street, the Via Lata, which now became known from this annual event as the Via del Corso. Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appealing to universal This article is about the sport For other uses see Horserace (drinking game or Horse race (politics. Carnival is a festival season which occurs immediately before Lent; the main events are usually during February and March Via del Corso (the ancient Via Lata) commonly known as the Corso, is the main street running through the historical centre of Rome, Italy. Via del Corso (the ancient Via Lata) commonly known as the Corso, is the main street running through the historical centre of Rome, Italy. He displayed an extravagant love of personal splendor that gratified his sense of self-importance. . After his death Sixtus IV and a selected group of cardinals inspected the treasure laid up against expenditures against the Turks: they found fifty-four silver shells filled with pearls, to a value of 300,000 ducats, jewels and gold intended for refashioning, worth another 300,000 ducats, and a magnificent diamond worth 7000 ducats, which was sent to Cardinal d'Estouteville to cover monies he had advanced to the pontiff. Pope Sixtus IV ( July 21, 1414 &ndash August 12, 1484) born Francesco Della Rovere, was Pope from 1471 to 1484 The ducat (ˈdʌkət is a Gold coin that was used as a trade currency throughout Europe before World War I. Guillaume d'Estouteville (1403 &ndash 1483 was a French ecclesiastic He was Bishop of Angers, then Bishop of Digne, Archbishop of Rouen The coin was not immediately found.  The story of Cardinal Ammanati that he meant to take the name Formosus II ("handsome"), but was persuaded not to, is more often repeated than the story that he was dissuaded from Marcus, being Venetian and the Cardinal of San Marco, because it was also the war-cry of Venice. San Marco is one of the six sestieri of Venice, lying in the heart of the city  .
"However", the Catholic Encyclopedia asserts, "justice requires notice of his strict sense of equity, his reforms in the municipal administration, and his fight against official bribery and traffic in posts of dignity. The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language Encyclopedia published by The Encyclopedia "
In statecraft, Paul II lacked eminence and achieved nothing of consequence for Italy. Public administration can be broadly described as the development implementation and study of branches of government Policy. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest In the Papal States, however, he terminated, in 1465, the regime of the counts of Anguillara, a house that had played a consistent anti-papal role since the plot of Stefano Porcari and the unruly insurrection of Tiburzio di Maso in 1460. The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa Anguillara were a baronal family of Latium, especially powerful in Rome and in the current Province of Viterbo during the Middle Ages and the early Renaissance Stefano Porcari was a Roman noble who led an insurrection against papal control in hopes of restoring the powers of the Roman senate, with Cola di Rienzo for a model Tiburzio di Maso (executed 31 October 1460) was a leader of an anarchic faction in Rome that briefly attempted to restore the medieval commune of the city
After Paul II's death, one of his successors suggested that he should be called Maria Pietissima, "Our Lady of Pity", because he was inclined to break into tears at times of crisis. However, some commentators have suggested that the nickname was rather due to Paul II's propensity to enjoy dressing up in sumptuous ecclesiastical finery, though there is a possibility that the rumours of homosexuality may have been introduced by critics to undermine his reputation.
|Roman Catholic Church titles|
Pope Pius II, born Enea Silvio Piccolomini ( Latin Aeneas Sylvius; October 18, 1405 &ndash August 14, 1464) While the term " Pope " ( Latin: papa "father'" is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders ( e Pope Sixtus IV ( July 21, 1414 &ndash August 12, 1484) born Francesco Della Rovere, was Pope from 1471 to 1484