|Birth name||Alfonso de Borja|
|Papacy began||April 8, 1455|
|Papacy ended||August 6, 1458|
|Born||December 31, 1378|
Xàtiva, València, Spain
|Died||6 August 1458 (aged 79)|
|Other popes named Callixtus|
Calixtus III (December 31, 1378 – August 6, 1458), né Alfonso de Borja, was Pope from April 8, 1455 to his death in 1458. Antipope Callixtus III or Callistus III (died before October 19, 1183) was Antipope from September 1168 to 29 August, Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Events 1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Events 217 - Roman Emperor Caracalla is Assassinated (and succeeded by his Praetorian
Alfonso de Borja was born near Xàtiva, València, today Spain but then Kingdom of Valencia under the Crown of Aragon. Xàtiva ( Spanish: Játiva in former days is a town of eastern Spain, in the province of Valencia, on the right bank of the river Albaida Valencia ( Valencian: València, Valencia Spanish phonology --> is the capital of the Spanish autonomous Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Christian Kingdom of Valencia, located in the Eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula, was one of the component realms of the Crown of Aragon. The Crown of Aragon was a permanent union of multiple titles and states in the hands of the King of Aragon. His early career was spent as a professor of law at University of Lleida and then as a diplomat in the service of the Kings of Aragon, especially during the Council of Basel (1431–1439). Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society The University of Lleida, shortened as UdL (Universitat de Lleida is the oldest University in Catalonia and the whole Crown of Aragon. Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting Negotiations between representatives of groups or states Aragon ( Spanish: "Aragón") is an autonomous community of Spain. The Council of Florence (originally Council of Basel) was an Ecumenical Council of Bishops and other ecclesiastics of the Roman Catholic Church He became a cardinal after reconciling Pope Eugene IV (1431–1447) with King Alfonso V of Aragon (1416–1458). A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. Pope Eugene IV (1383 &ndash February 23, 1447) born Gabriele Condulmer, was Pope from March 3, 1431, to his death Alfonso the Magnanimous (also Alphonso; Catalan: Alfons) (1396 &ndash 27 June 1458) was the King of Aragon (as
He was raised to the papal chair in 1455 as Calixtus III at a very advanced age as a compromise candidate. He was viewed by historians as being feeble and incompetent. In the same year, he issued a Papal bulle (bulletin/edict) to Portugal. This bulle authorized it to reduce to servitude (enslave) "infidels" (non-christian) people. Thus, the Catholic Church gave permission to Portugal and its other subjugate countries to engage in the Trans-Atlantic, African Slave Trade. Therefore, assuring that the enslavement of Africans was not contradictory to the word of God nor the teachings of the church itself - without retaliation or penalization from either.
The great object of his policy was the urging of a crusade against the Turks, who had captured Constantinople in 1453, but he did not find the Christian princes responsive to his call despite his every effort. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS
Pope Calixtus III made two of his nephews cardinals, one of whom, Roderic de Borgia, later became Pope Alexander VI (1492–1503) and was infamous for corruption. Pope Alexander VI ( 1 January 1431 &ndash 18 August 1503) born Roderic Llançol, later Roderic de Borja i Borja (
On June 29, 1456, he ordered the bells to be rung at noon (see noon bell) in all the Church to call Christians for prayer. Events 512 - A Solar eclipse is recorded by a monastic chronicler in Ireland. During the Siege of Belgrade in 1456, Hungarian noblemen John Hunyadi (leader of the Hungarian royal army and Mihály Szilágyi (Captain of As news spread with some delay, this order became connected with the crusade to lift the Siege of Belgrade (which happened on July 22), which was a signal victory against the Turks. The Siege of Belgrade occurred from July 4 to July 22, 1456. After the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman Events 1099 - First Crusade: Godfrey of Bouillon is elected the first Defender of the Holy Sepulchre of The Kingdom of To commemorate this victory, Calixtus III ordered the feast of the Transfiguration to be held on August 6. The Transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported by the Synoptic Gospels in which Jesus is transfigured upon a mountain (,) Events 1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada.
He ordered a new trial for St. Joan of Arc (c. Joan of Arc (c 1412 Joan asserted that she had visions from God that told her to recover her homeland from English domination late in the Hundred Years' 1412–1431), at which she was posthumously vindicated after being controversially tried and executed.
Calixtus III's pre-papal coat of arms featured a grazing ox. A coat of arms or armorial bearings (often just arms for short in European tradition is a design belonging to a particular person (or group of people
According to one story, first appearing in a posthumous biography in 1475 and later embellished and popularized by Pierre-Simon Laplace, Calixtus III excommunicated the 1456 apparition of Halley's Comet, believing it to be an ill omen for the Christian defenders of Belgrade, who were at that time being besieged by the armies of the Ottoman Empire. Excommunication is a religious Censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community Halley's Comet, officially designated 1P/Halley and also referred to as Comet Halley after Edmond Halley, is a Comet that can be seen every Belgrade (Београд Beograd is the Capital and largest city of Serbia. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish No known primary source supports the authenticity of this account. Calixtus III's papal bull of June 29, 1456, which called for public prayer for the success of the crusade, makes no mention of the comet, and by August 6, when the Turkish siege was broken, the comet had not been visible from Europe or Turkey for several weeks. A Papal bull is a particular type of Letters patent or charter issued by a Pope. Events 512 - A Solar eclipse is recorded by a monastic chronicler in Ireland. Events 1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada.
|Roman Catholic Church titles|
See also Antipope Nicholas V. Pope Nicholas V (Italian Niccolò V; November 15, 1397 &ndash March While the term " Pope " ( Latin: papa "father'" is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders ( e Pope Pius II, born Enea Silvio Piccolomini ( Latin Aeneas Sylvius; October 18, 1405 &ndash August 14, 1464)