|Birth name||Nicholas Breakspear or Breakspeare|
|Papacy began||December 4, 1154|
|Papacy ended||September 1, 1159|
|Born||c. "December 4th" redirects here For the song by Jay-Z, see December 4th (song. Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Pope Anastasius IV (born ca 1073, died 3 December 1154) born Corrado di Suburra (or della Suburra) was Pope from 1153 Pope Alexander III (c 1100/1105 &ndash August 30, 1181) born Rolando (or Orlando) Bandinelli, was Pope from 1159 1100|
|Died||September 1, 1159|
|Other popes named Adrian|
Pope Adrian IV (or Hadrian IV – c. Hertfordshire (ˈhɑːtfədʃə(r, abbreviated Herts) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in the East region of England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Anagni, (Latin Anagnia) is an ancient town in Latium, Italy, in the hills east-southeast of Rome famous for its connections with the papacy and for the Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest 1100–1 September 1159), born Nicholas Breakspear or Breakspeare, was Pope from 1154 to 1159. Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and
Adrian IV is the only Englishman who has occupied the papal chair. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland It is generally believed that Nicholas Breakspear was born at Breakspear Farm in the parish of Abbots Langley in Hertfordshire and received his early education at the Abbey School, St Albans (St Albans School). Abbots Langley is a large village in the English county of Hertfordshire. Hertfordshire (ˈhɑːtfədʃə(r, abbreviated Herts) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in the East region of St Albans is the main urban area of the City and District of St Albans in southern Hertfordshire, England, around north of central London. History By c1100 the School had built for itself such a reputation that the Norman scholar Geoffrey de Gorham applied for the post of Master
His father was Richard, a priest of the diocese of Bath, who became a monk at St Albans. The Diocese of Bath and Wells is a Diocese in the Church of England Province of Canterbury in England. St Albans Cathedral (formerly St Albans Abbey, officially The Cathedral and Abbey Church of St Alban) is an Anglican church at Nicholas himself, however, was refused admission to the monastery, being told by the abbot to 'wait to go on with his schooling so that he might be considered more suitable' (Abbey chronicles). The word abbot, meaning Father, is a title given to the head of a Monastery in various traditions including Christianity. In the event he did not wait and went instead to Paris and finally became a canon regular of the cloister of St Rufus near Arles. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city A canon (from the Latin canonicus, itself derived from the Greek κανωνικος 'relating to a rule' is a priest who is a member of certain bodies of the Arles (aʁl̥ Provençal Occitan: Arles in both classical and Mistralian norms is a City in the south of France, He rose to be prior and in 1137 was unanimously elected abbot. Prior is a Title, derived from the Latin adjective for 'earlier first' with several notable uses
His reforming zeal as abbot led to the lodging of complaints against him at Rome; but these merely attracted to him the favourable attention of Pope Eugene III (1145–1153), who created him cardinal bishop of Albano. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Pope A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight
From 1152 to 1154 Nicholas was in Scandinavia as papal legate, organizing the affairs of the new Norwegian archbishopric of Nidaros (now Trondheim), creating the diocese at Hamar, and making arrangements which resulted in the recognition of Gamla Uppsala (later moved to Uppsala) as seat of the Swedish metropolitan in 1164. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well A Papal Legate – from the Latin authentic Roman title Legatus – is a personal representative of the Pope to Foreign nations or to some part of the Catholic Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Nidaros was the old name of Trondheim (Trond(hjem sometimes Drontheim a city of Norway, in the Middle Ages. (Trondhjem is a city and municipality in the county of Sør-Trøndelag, Norway. is a town and municipality in the county of Hedmark, Norway. Hamar was separated from Vang as a city and municipality of its own in Gamla Uppsala ("Old Uppsala" is a parish and a village outside Uppsala in Sweden. Uppsala ˈɵpˌsɑːla (older spelling Upsala) is the capital of Uppsala County ( Uppsala län) and the fourth largest city of "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. As a compensation for territory thus withdrawn, the Danish archbishop of Lund was made legate and perpetual vicar and given the title of primate of Denmark and Sweden. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe (lɵnd is a city in the province of Scania, southern Sweden. The town has 76188 inhabitants out of a muncipal total of 105000 In the broadest sense a vicar (from the Latin Vicarius) is a representative anyone acting "in the person of" or agent for a superior Primate (from the Latin Primus, "first" is a title or rank bestowed on some Bishops in certain Christian churches
On his return Nicholas was received with great honour by Pope Anastasius IV (1153–1154), and on the death of the latter was elected pope on December 4, 1154. Pope Anastasius IV (born ca 1073, died 3 December 1154) born Corrado di Suburra (or della Suburra) was Pope from 1153 History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and "December 4th" redirects here For the song by Jay-Z, see December 4th (song. He at once endeavoured to bring down Arnold of Brescia, the leader of the anti-papal faction in Rome. Arnold of Brescia, (c 1090&ndash1155 also known as Arnaldus ( Arnaldo da Brescia) was a Monk from Italy who called on the Church to renounce Disorder within the city led to the murder of a cardinal, causing Adrian IV, shortly before Palm Sunday 1155, to take the previously unheard-of step of putting Rome under interdict. Palm Sunday is a Christian Moveable feast which always falls on the Sunday before Easter. In the Roman Catholic Church, the word interdict (in’tér-dikt usually refers to an Ecclesiastical penalty The Senate (City Council of Rome) thereupon exiled Arnold. The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome.
In 1155, Byzantine Emperor Manuel Comnenus invaded Italy from the south, landing his forces in the region of Apulia. This is a list of the Emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire, commonly known as the Byzantine Empire by modern historians For the eldest son of Andronikos I Komnenos and father of Alexios I of Trebizond, see Manuel Komnenos (born 1145. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Apulia ( Italian: Puglia) is a region in southeastern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in the east the Ionian Sea Making contact with local rebels who were hostile to the Sicilian crown, Byzantine forces quickly overran the coastlands and began striking inland. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Pope Adrian IV watched these developments with some satisfaction. The Papacy was never on good terms with the Normans of Sicily, except when under duress by the threat of direct military action. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Having the "civilised" Eastern Roman Empire on its southern border was infinitely preferable to Adrian than having to constantly deal with the troublesome Normans. Therefore, negotiations were hurriedly carried out, and an alliance was formed between Adrian and Manuel. Adrian undertook to raise a body of mercenary troops from Campania. Campania is a region of Southern Italy in Europe. The region has a population of around 5 Meanwhile, Manuel dreamed of restoration of the Roman Empire; this was, however, at the cost of a potential union between the Orthodox and the Catholic Church. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Negotiations for union of the eastern and western churches, which had been in a state of schism since 1054, soon got underway. The combined Papal-Byzantine forces joined with the rebels against the Normans in Southern Italy, achieving a string of rapid successes as a number of cities yielded either to the threat of force or to the lure of gold. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. Geography Southern Italy forms the lower "boot" of the Italian peninsula containing the ankle (Abruzzo and Molise and southern Lazio the toe (Calabria and the heel The future looked bleak for the Sicilians.
It was at this point, just as the war seemed decided in the allies' favour, that things started to go wrong. The Byzantine commander Michael Palaeologus alienated some of his allies by his arrogance, and this stalled the campaign as rebel Count Robert of Loritello refused to speak to him. Robert II of Bassunvilla (also Basunvilla and Bassonville) (died in 1182 was the count of Conversano (from 1138 and Loritello (from 1154 Although the two were reconciled, the campaign lost some of its momentum. Yet worse was to come: Michael was soon recalled to Constantinople. Although his arrogance had slowed the campaign, he was a brilliant general in the field, and his loss was a major blow to the allied campaign. The turning point was the Battle for Brindisi, where the Sicilians launched a major counter attack by both land and sea. Brindisi can also refer to a song in which a company is exhorted to drink such as the "Tea-Cup Brindisi" in Gilbert and Sullivan 's " The At the approach of the enemy, the mercenaries that were serving in the allied armies demanded impossible rises in their pay. When this was refused, they deserted. Even the local barons started to melt away, and soon Adrian's Byzantine allies were left hopelessly outnumbered. The naval battle was decided in the Sicilians' favour, and the Byzantine commander was captured. The defeat at Brindisi put an end to the restored Byzantine reign in Italy, and by 1158 the Byzantine army had left Italy. The Byzantine army was the primary military body of the Byzantine armed forces serving alongside the Byzantine navy.
Hopes for a lasting alliance with the Byzantine Empire had also come up against insuperable problems. Pope Adrian IV's conditions for a union between the eastern and western church included recognition of his religious authority over all Christians everywhere, and the Emperor's recognition of his secular authority. Neither East nor West could accept such conditions. Adrian's secular powers were too valuable to be surrendered; Manuel's subjects could never have accepted the authority of the distant Pope in Rome. In spite of his friendliness towards the Roman church, Adrian never felt able to honour Manuel with the title of "Augustus". Ultimately, a deal proved elusive, and the two churches have remained divided ever since.
Adrian IV during his reign issued a papal bull, Laudabiliter, granting dominion over Ireland to the English monarch, Henry II. Laudabiliter was a Papal bull issued in 1155 by the English Pope Adrian IV purporting to give the Angevin King Henry II of England The bull made Ireland a feudal possession of the King of England under the nominal overlordship of the papacy. The title the English King was to hold over Ireland was "Lord of Ireland". The Lordship of Ireland ( 1171 - 1541) was the nominally all-island Irish state created in the wake of the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169-71 The theory of western Christendom was that certain states were recognised and others were not; Laudabiliter formally brought Ireland as a political entity into the European polity.
Henry II had no use for the bull until about 1170. At that time various English, Norman, and Welsh aristocrats had begun invading Ireland (c. 1166) because the deposed King of Leinster, Dermot MacMurrough, had asked them to help him regain his throne from his enemy High King of Ireland and King of Connacht Rory O'Connor. Early Life and Family Mac Murchadha was born in 1110 a son of Donnchadh, King of Leinster and Dublin he was a descendant of Brian Boru. Rory O'Connor may refer to Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, (d 1198 king of Connacht and High King of Ireland Rory O'Connor (Irish republican Henry was afraid these invaders would turn Ireland into a rival Norman state so he invaded Ireland himself in 1171, using the papal bull to claim sovereignty over the island, and forced the Anglo-Norman warlords and most of the Gaelic Irish kings to accept him as their overlord. Finally the Irish High King accepted Henry's overlordship in 1174 at the Treaty of Windsor.
In 1317 some Gaelic kings allied to Edward Bruce signed a document that asked the Pope to withdraw the effect of Laudabiliter. Edward Bruce ( medieval Gaelic: Edubard a Briuis; Modern Scottish Gaelic: Eideard Bruis / Iomhair Bruis) (c But the main effect from 1172 was financial, as much as political; the tithes, a form of Papal taxation, were applied to Ireland for the first time. To pay its way, Ireland started to use the feudal system. In this regard, Laudabiliter was similar to Adrian's work in Norway, bringing Christians at the edge of Europe into conformity with Rome, in terms of doctrine and taxation. The Irish church had been self-governing for centuries and had never paid its dues to Rome. But in Ireland since 1500 it has come to represent the start of Norman and English rule. Ireland was a feudal territory of the English monarch under the nominal overlordship of the papacy until 1541, when it became a kingdom belonging solely to the King of England.
At the diet of Besançon in October 1157, the legates presented to Barbarossa a letter from Adrian IV which alluded to the beneficia or "benefits" conferred upon the Emperor, and the German chancellor translated this beneficia in the feudal sense of the presentation of property from a lord to a vassal (benefice). In Politics, a diet is a formal Deliberative assembly. The term is derived from Medieval Latin dietas, and ultimately comes from Besançon (bəzɑ̃ˈsɔ̃ in French and Arpitan; German: Bisanz) is the capital and principal city of the Franche-Comté Frederick I Barbarossa (1122 &ndash 10 June 1190) was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned Originally a benefice was a gift of land ( Precaria) for life as a reward for services rendered Barbarossa was infuriated by the suggestion that he was dependent on the Pope, and in the storm which ensued the legates were glad to escape with their lives, and the incident at length closed with a letter from the Pope, declaring that by beneficium he meant merely bonum factum or "a good deed," the coronation. The breach subsequently became wider, and Adrian IV was about to excommunicate the Emperor when he (Adrian) died at Anagni on 1 September 1159. Excommunication is a religious Censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community Anagni, (Latin Anagnia) is an ancient town in Latium, Italy, in the hills east-southeast of Rome famous for its connections with the papacy and for the Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle.
|Roman Catholic Church titles|
Pope Anastasius IV (born ca 1073, died 3 December 1154) born Corrado di Suburra (or della Suburra) was Pope from 1153 While the term " Pope " ( Latin: papa "father'" is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders ( e Pope Alexander III (c 1100/1105 &ndash August 30, 1181) born Rolando (or Orlando) Bandinelli, was Pope from 1159