|United Arab Emirates|
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Politics of the United Arab Emirates takes place in a framework of a federal presidential elected monarchy, a federation of seven absolute monarchies, the Emirates of Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Fujairah, Sharjah, Dubai, Ras al-Khaimah and Umm al-Qaiwain. A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity The Constitution of the United Arab Emirates (دستور دولة الامارات العربية المتحدة) provides a legal and political framework for the operation of the In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. The President is the Head of State of the United Arab Emirates. Khalifa bin Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan (خليفة بن زايد بن سلطان النهيان referred to either as Sheikh Nahyan or Sheikh Khalifa is the current The Prime Minister is the Head of Government of the United Arab Emirates. Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum ( Arabic محمد بن راشد المكتوم) also Sheikh Mohammed ( Honourific) (born July 22, A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation The Federal National Council ( Arabic: المجلس الوطني الإتحادي al-Majlis al-Watani al-Ittihadi) is the Legislature of the United List of Rulers of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi Al Nahyan of Al Abu Falah Dynasty List of Rulers of the Emirate of Ajman An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office The first elections ever to be held in the United Arab Emirates took place on 16 December, 18 December and 20 December 2006. |||}The United Arab Emirates is composed of 7 Emirates ( imarat; singular imarah) See also ISO 3166-2AE The UAE joined the United Nations and the Arab League and has established diplomatic relations with more than 60 countries including the United States, Japan The US Department of State notes in its annual report on human rights practices that numerous fundamental practices and policies violate human rights in the United Arab Emirates Information on politics by country is available for every Country, including both De jure and De facto independent A federation ( Latin: foedus, covenant is a union comprising a number of partially self-governing states or regions united by a central ("federal" A presidential system is a System of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term separately from the Legislature An elective monarchy is a Monarchy ruled by someone generally from a Royal house, who is elected by a group Absolute monarchy is a monarchical Form of government where the king and queen have absolute power over everything Abu Dhabi, officially the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, (إمارة أبو ظبي, literally "Father of Gazelle " is one of seven emirates that Ajmān (or Ujman; Arabic: عجمان) is one of the seven emirates comprising the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Fujairah ( Arabic: الفجيرة,) is one of the seven Emirates that make up the United Arab Emirates, on the Gulf of Oman in Sharjah ( Arabic: الشارقة,, pronounced /'ʃɑɹdʒə/ in English) is one of the emirates of the United Arab Emirates (UAE Dubai (in دبيّ,) is one of the seven emirates and most populous city of the United Arab Emirates (UAE Ras Al-Khaimah ( Arabic: رأس الخيمة,, literally "The Top of the Tent" is one of the emirates of the United Arab Emirates Umm al-Quwain ( Arabic: أمّ القيوين,, literally "Mother of two powers" is one of the emirates in the United Arab Emirates. The ruler of Abu Dhabi is President of the United Arab Emirates, the head of state, and the ruler of Dubai is the Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates, the head of government. The President is the Head of State of the United Arab Emirates. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state Dubai (in دبيّ,) is one of the seven emirates and most populous city of the United Arab Emirates (UAE The Prime Minister is the Head of Government of the United Arab Emirates. This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State
|President||Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan||3 November 2004|
|Prime Minister||Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum||5 January 2006|
Administratively, the UAE is a federation of seven emirates, each with its own ruler. The President is the Head of State of the United Arab Emirates. Khalifa bin Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan (خليفة بن زايد بن سلطان النهيان referred to either as Sheikh Nahyan or Sheikh Khalifa is the current Events 644 - Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second Muslim Caliph, is killed by a Persian slave in Medina. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The Prime Minister is the Head of Government of the United Arab Emirates. Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum ( Arabic محمد بن راشد المكتوم) also Sheikh Mohammed ( Honourific) (born July 22, Events 1477 - Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is killed and Burgundy becomes part of France. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. A federation ( Latin: foedus, covenant is a union comprising a number of partially self-governing states or regions united by a central ("federal" An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Arab Monarch styled Emir. The pace of local government reform in each emirate is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights (notably oil) and revenues. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. In this milieu, federal powers have developed slowly. The constitution established the positions of president (chief of state) and vice president, each serving 5-year terms; a Council of Ministers (cabinet), led by a prime minister (head of government); a supreme council of rulers; and a 40-member National Assembly, a consultative body whose members are appointed by the emirate rulers. Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan was president of the UAE from its foundation until his death on 2 November 2004. Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan (زايد بن سلطان آل نهيان (1918 &mdash 2 November 2004) the principal architect of United Arab Events 1570 - A Tidal wave in the North Sea devastates the coast from Holland to Jutland, killing more than 1000 "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " His eldest son, Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, is the current president. Khalifa bin Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan (خليفة بن زايد بن سلطان النهيان referred to either as Sheikh Nahyan or Sheikh Khalifa is the current The federation has a Federal Supreme Council. The Supreme Council consists of the individual rulers of the seven emirates. The President and Vice-President are elected by the Supreme Council every five years. Although unofficial, the Presidency is de facto hereditary to the Al Nahyan clan of Abu Dhabi and the Premiership is hereditary to the Al-Maktoom clan of Dubai. A clan is a group of People united by Kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor The Supreme Council also elects the Council of Ministers, while an appointed 40-member Federal National Council, drawn from all the emirates, reviews proposed laws.
Ministry of Presidential Affairs
Ministry of State for Supreme Council and GCC Affairs
Ministry of State for Cabinet Affairs
Ministry of Finance & Industry
Ministry of Energy
Ministry of Education
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs
Ministry of Public Works & Housing
Ministry of Justice, Islamic Affairs & Awqaf
Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
Ministry of Economy & Planning
Ministry of Information & Culture
Ministry of Interior
Ministry of Communications
Ministry of Health
Ministry of Defence
Institute of Administrative Development
Federal Customs Authority
Federal Authority of Electricity & Water
Federal Environment Agency
Stocks and Commodities Authority
Emirates Organization for Properties
State Audit Institution
General Information Authority
The relative political and financial influence of each emirate is reflected in the allocation of positions in the federal government. The ruler of Abu Dhabi, whose emirate is the UAE's major oil producer, is president of the UAE. The ruler of Dubai, which is the UAE's commercial center and a significant oil producer, is vice president and prime minister. Dubai (in دبيّ,) is one of the seven emirates and most populous city of the United Arab Emirates (UAE
Since achieving independence in 1971, the UAE has worked to strengthen its federal institutions. Nonetheless, each emirate still retains substantial autonomy, and progress toward greater federal integration has slowed in recent years. A basic concept in the UAE Government's development as a federal system is that a significant percentage of each emirate's revenues should be devoted to the UAE central budget.
Though the United Arab Emirates have a kind of parliament, they had their first elections in December, 2006. The first elections ever to be held in the United Arab Emirates took place on 16 December, 18 December and 20 December 2006. The Federal National Council (al-Majlis al-Watani al-Ittihadi) has 40 members, representing the Emirates, half appointed by the rulers of the constituent states and the other half elected to serve two-year terms, with only advisory tasks. The Federal National Council ( Arabic: المجلس الوطني الإتحادي al-Majlis al-Watani al-Ittihadi) is the Legislature of the United The United Arab Emirates does not allow political parties. The first election occurred during mid-December 2006. The first elections ever to be held in the United Arab Emirates took place on 16 December, 18 December and 20 December 2006. 
|Members appointed by the rulers of the constituent states||20|
"More wealth usually leads to the growth of a middle class independent of the state, as well as to rising levels of education, a growing number of mass media and means of communication and therefore a larger spread of information. The Federal National Council ( Arabic: المجلس الوطني الإتحادي al-Majlis al-Watani al-Ittihadi) is the Legislature of the United The first elections ever to be held in the United Arab Emirates took place on 16 December, 18 December and 20 December 2006. As a result of these changes, a pro-democratic political culture emerges, including a pluralistic and active civil society and the general quest for political participation. "
Although this is what the modernisation theory suggests as a consequence after years of development, the UAE seems to be still far beyond the emergence of any meaningful political life. In fact, the rulers hold power on the basis of their dynastic position and their legitimacy in a system of tribal consensus. Rapid modernization, enormous strides in education, and the influx of a large foreign population have changed the face of the society but have not fundamentally altered this traditional political system. So, how can we explain the almost non-existence of civil society participation in the political life? One main attempt to do so is through the famous 'rentier state' theory. UAE is one of those states that can be described as 'rentier', where by definition is one of those "countries that receive on a regular basis substantial amounts of external economic rent. "
Such states including United Arab Emirates generate most of their income from foreign actors, "accrue directly to the state, and only a small fraction of the population is engaged in the generation of this rent, while the rest nevertheless might benefit from the distribution and utilization of it". 
Given the high revenue derived from oil, UAE government like many in the Persian Gulf region collect very low taxes, if any at all. As a result, these governments including the UAE's, face very low levels of accountability and representation demands from their people, and even when they exist the rentier governments are highly resistible by nature to pressures from below and have shown their ability to contain/ignore them.  This makes sense of the famous phrase "no representation without taxation" (from the concept of “No taxation without representation”) and reflects the political reality in these countries. " No taxation without representation " began as a Slogan in the period 1763–1776 that summarized a primary grievance of the British Colonists
The huge government spending, furthermore, in every dimension of the economy have made the people absolutely satisfied and managed to divert their attention to other areas than politics, given their free access to education and health services, as well as the subsidised primary commodities, which all led to the overall economic wellbeing. "Oil wealth, in sum, makes possible a fairly high standard of living for the people, but enables the government to keep the public politically demobilized, either by fiscal generosity or by repression, and does not bring about the social changes that usually lead to political mobilization in favor of democracy. As quantitative studies demonstrate, oil wealth has indeed a strong negative impact on the level of democracy". 
This is the primary political economy approach that explains the lack of democracy in this country. But this is not to say at all that the political life has been frozen in the UAE. The Emirates are witnessing some political changes driven by the wider American influences, some would argue, aimed at the whole region following the US “Greater Middle East Initiative”. The Greater Middle East (also known as " The New Middle East " is a political term coined by the Bush administration to englobe together various
One important step towards democratic government: On December 1, 2005, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan announced that half of the Federal National Council would be elected while the other half appointed by the rulers. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Khalifa bin Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan (خليفة بن زايد بن سلطان النهيان referred to either as Sheikh Nahyan or Sheikh Khalifa is the current This was assumed to be the first of many steps towards a democratic government.
Besides that, the 2007 Freedom House’s Freedom in the World report classifies the United Arab Emirates basically as a non-democratic, “Not free” country. Freedom House is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Democracy, political Freedom in the World is a yearly report by US-based Freedom House that attempts to measure the degree of Democracy and political freedom
As of 2004, the governments of the United Arab Emirates have been accused by several human rights organisations of acting in contravention of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in the country's failure to allow freedom of expression. The US Department of State notes in its annual report on human rights practices that numerous fundamental practices and policies violate human rights in the United Arab Emirates Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled The Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly ( 10 December 1948 at Palais The Barnabas Fund organization cites that the Dubai emirate removed the right of appeal against deportation by expatriates accused of so called religious crimes, such as trying to convert a Muslim to another religion. The Barnabas Fund is an evangelical Protestant Christian missionary organisation that serves Christians in many countries who face discrimination or persecution and makes Amnesty International lists further problems relating to human rights on its website, such as the mass detainment of 250 persons related to the United States-led War on Terror, the ill treatment of prisoners in prison, and the continued use of flogging and the death penalty. Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a Western based international Non-governmental organization which defines its mission as "to The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is the common term for the military political and legal, and ideological conflict and specifically for U Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment.
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