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Politics of Bangladesh takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Bangladesh is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially The constitution of Bangladesh is the supreme law in Bangladesh. The 2006–2008 Bangladeshi political crisis began in October 2006 when a caretaker government — designated by the constitution to oversee the vote — assumed The President is the head of state, a largely ceremonial post elected by the parliament Iajuddin Ahmed ( ইয়াজউদ্দিন আহম্মেদ (born February 1, 1931) is the current President of Bangladesh and has been in The Prime Minister of Bangladesh is in practice the most powerful political position in Bangladesh. Dr Fakhruddin Ahmed (ড ফখরুদ্দীন আহমেদ Fokhruddin Ahmed)(born May 1, 1940, in Bikrampur of Dhaka District Jatiyo Sangshad ( Bangla: জাতীয় সংসদ Jatio Shôngshod) or National Assembly is the national parliament of Bangladesh. This article lists political parties in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has a fading Two-party system, which means that there are two dominant political Elections in Bangladesh gives information on Election and election results in Bangladesh. General elections were held in Bangladesh on 1 October 2001. 300 single-seat constituencies for the Jatiyo Sangshad were contested by 1935 candidates General elections are scheduled to be held in Bangladesh on 18 December 2008. |||} Bangladesh consists of a number of administrative areas called divisions ( bibhag), each named after its respective capital The divisions of Bangladesh are divided into 64 districts or zila ( Bengali: জেলা jela) |||} The districts of Bangladesh are divided into subdistricts or upazilas ( Bengali উপজেলা upojela) 2005 was a bad year for national security in Bangladesh. Nearly every day was marked by bombings and on one day in particular Bangladesh pursues a moderate Foreign policy that places heavy reliance on multinational Diplomacy, especially at the United Nations. Information on politics by country is available for every Country, including both De jure and De facto independent A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its The Prime Minister of Bangladesh is in practice the most powerful political position in Bangladesh. This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State A multi-party system is a system in which three or more political parties have the capacity to gain control of government separately or in coalition Executive power is exercised by the government. In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. The Constitution of Bangladesh was written in 1972 and has undergone thirteen amendments. The constitution of Bangladesh is the supreme law in Bangladesh. 
|President||Iajuddin Ahmed||6 September 2002|
|Chief Advisor of Care-taker Government||Fakhruddin Ahmed||12 January 2007|
The President is the head of state , a largely ceremonial post. The President is the head of state, a largely ceremonial post elected by the parliament Iajuddin Ahmed ( ইয়াজউদ্দিন আহম্মেদ (born February 1, 1931) is the current President of Bangladesh and has been in Events 3114 BC - According to the Proleptic Julian calendar the current era in the Maya Long Count Calendar started See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. The Prime Minister of Bangladesh is in practice the most powerful political position in Bangladesh. Dr Fakhruddin Ahmed (ড ফখরুদ্দীন আহমেদ Fokhruddin Ahmed)(born May 1, 1940, in Bikrampur of Dhaka District Events 475 - Basiliscus becomes Byzantine Emperor, with a coronation ceremony in the Hebdomon palace in Constantinople Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The President is the head of state, a largely ceremonial post elected by the parliament Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state The real power is held by the Prime Minister, who is the head of government. The Prime Minister of Bangladesh is in practice the most powerful political position in Bangladesh. This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State The president is elected by the legislature every five years and has normally limited powers that are substantially expanded during the tenure of a caretaker government, mainly in controlling the transition to a new government. In Politics, a caretaker government rules temporarily A caretaker government is often set up following a War until stable Democratic rule can be restored Bangladesh has instituted a unique system of transfer of power; at the end of the tenure of the government, power is handed over to members of a civil society for three months, who run the general elections and transfer the power to elected representatives. This system was first practiced in 1991 and adopted to the constitution in 1996. 
The prime minister is ceremonially appointed by the president and must be a member of parliament (MP), commanding the confidence of the majority of the MPs. The Prime Minister of Bangladesh is in practice the most powerful political position in Bangladesh. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a Parliament. The cabinet is composed of ministers selected by the prime minister and appointed by the president. A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of Government, typically representing the executive branch. A minister or a secretary is a Politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional Government.
The legislature is a unicameral, 300-seat body, the Jatiyo Sangshad. Jatiyo Sangsad Bhaban ( Bengali: জাতীয় সংসদ ভবন Jatio Shôngshod Bhôbon) is the National Assembly Building of Bangladesh, located Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or Parliamentary chamber Jatiyo Sangshad ( Bangla: জাতীয় সংসদ Jatio Shôngshod) or National Assembly is the national parliament of Bangladesh. The 300 members are elected by universal suffrage at least every 5 years. Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to There is universal suffrage for all citizens at the age of 18. Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to
"On 16 May 2004, the Jatiyo Sangshad (the national parliament) passed the 14th constitutional amendment to reintroduce quotas for women (article 65). Events 1204 - Baldwin IX Count of Flanders is crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The number of seats in parliament is to be raised to 345, 45 (13%) of which will be reserved for women in the next parliament. The seats will be allocated to parties in proportion to their overall share of the vote. This quota system replaces the previous quota law which expired in 2001. Until 2001 a system of reserved seats for women was used, where 30 seats out of 330 were reserved to women (chosen by indirect election by the 300 directly elected MPs). This provision of guaranteeing women reserved seats expired in April 2001. This quota system was first introduced by the 1972 Constitution (originally providing for 15 reserved seats for women, out of 315 seats, for a period of 10 years). In 1978 a presidential proclamation enlarged the number of reserved seats to 30 and extended the period of reservation to 15 years from the date of promulgation of the constitution of the Republic in December 1972. The constitutional provision lapsed in 1987 and was re-incorporated in the constitution by an amendment in 1990 to be effective for 10 years from the first meeting of the legislature next elected. This provision also lapsed in 2001. The Parliament elected in October 2001 does not have reserved seats for women. Women's groups are lobbying for these seats to become directly elected positions and for the number of reserved seats to be increased. " International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance
The 8th Parliament had its first sitting on 28 October 2001. International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA is an International organization based in Stockholm Events 306 - Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor. 312 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar.
The two major parties in Bangladesh are the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) and Bangladesh Awami League. This article lists political parties in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has a fading Two-party system, which means that there are two dominant political Bangladesh Nationalist Party ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ জাতীয়তাবাদী দল Bangladesh Jatiotabadi Dôl, BNP is the immediate The Bangladesh Awami League ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ also translated Bangladesh People's League) is the mainstream BNP finds its allies among Islamist parties like Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh while Awami League aligns itself traditionally with leftist and secularist parties. Islamism ( Islam + ism; Arabic: al-'islāmiyya) a set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh (aka 'Jamaat' is the largest Islamist Political party in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Awami League ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ also translated Bangladesh People's League) is the mainstream Secularism is generally the assertion that governmental practices or institutions should exist separately from Religion or religious beliefs Another important player is the Jatiya Party, headed by former military ruler Ershad. The Jatiya Party (Ershad ( National Party (Ershad) is a Political party in Bangladesh. The Awami League-BNP rivalry has been bitter and punctuated by protests, violence and murder. Student politics is particularly strong in Bangladesh, a legacy from the liberation movement era. Almost all parties have highly active student wings, and students have been elected to the Parliament.
Two radical Islamist parties, Jagrata Muslim Janata Bangladesh (JMJB) and Jama'atul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB), were banned in February 2005 by Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP). Jāgrātā Muslim Jānātā Bānglādesh (Awakened Muslim Masses of Bangladesh also known by the acronym JMJB, is an Islamist organisation based in Bangladesh Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen ( alternate spelling Jama'atul Mujahideen Bangladesh; abbreviated JMB) (জামাত-উল-মুজাহিদীন বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh Nationalist Party ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ জাতীয়তাবাদী দল Bangladesh Jatiotabadi Dôl, BNP is the immediate Since then, a series of bomb attacks took place in the country and have been blamed on those groups, and hundreds of suspected members have been detained in numerous security operations, including the head the of those two parties in 2006. The first recorded case of a suicide bomb attack in Bangladesh took place in November 2005.
|Bangladesh Nationalist Party (Bangladesh Jatiyatabadi Dal)||22,833,978||40. Jatiyo Sangshad ( Bangla: জাতীয় সংসদ Jatio Shôngshod) or National Assembly is the national parliament of Bangladesh. General elections were held in Bangladesh on 1 October 2001. 300 single-seat constituencies for the Jatiyo Sangshad were contested by 1935 candidates Bangladesh Nationalist Party ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ জাতীয়তাবাদী দল Bangladesh Jatiotabadi Dôl, BNP is the immediate 97||193|
|Bangladesh Awami League||22,365,516||40. The Bangladesh Awami League ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ also translated Bangladesh People's League) is the mainstream 13||62|
|Jatiya Party (Ershad)||7. The Jatiya Party (Ershad ( National Party (Ershad) is a Political party in Bangladesh. Islami Jatiya Oikya Front (Islamic National United Front a political front in Bangladesh, led by Jatiya Party (Ershad. 25||14|
|Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh||2,385,316||4. Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh (aka 'Jamaat' is the largest Islamist Political party in Bangladesh. 28||17|
|Jatiya Party (Naziur)||621,772||1. The Jatiya Party (Naziur ( National Party (Naziur) is a Political party in Bangladesh. 12||4|
|Islami Oikya Jote||376,343||. The Islami Oikya Jote ( Bengali: Islami Oikko Joţ, "Islamic Unity Front" is a Political party in Bangladesh. 68||2|
|Krishak Shramik Janata League||261,344||. The Peasants' and Workers' People League ( Bangla: কৃষক শ্রমিক জনতা লীগ ( Krishak Sramik Janata League) is a Political party 47||2|
|Jatiya Party (Manju)||243,617||. The Jatiya Party (Manju ( National Party (Manju) is a Political party in Bangladesh. 44||1|
|Non-partisan and others||6|
|Total (turnout 74. 9 %)||55,728,162||100. 0||300|
|Source: Bangladesh Election Commission through Adam Carr and Daily Star|
The highest judiciary body is the Supreme Court, whose Chief Justice and judges are recommended by the Prime Minister and formally appointed by the President. In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State The Supreme Court of Bangladesh is the highest court of law in Bangladesh. The judiciary has come under criticism for lack of independence. Indeed, magistrates for lower courts are selected via the same process for all members of the civil service, an office which is run by the executive. In the summer of 2007, a new law has been enacted to redress this problem. Laws are loosely based on English common law, but family laws such as marriage and inheritance are based on religious scripts, and hence differ from one religious community to another. English law is the legal system of England and Wales, and is the basis of Common law legal systems used in most Commonwealth countriesand the
The provisional government of the new nation of Bangladesh was formed in Dhaka with Justice Abu Sayeed Choudhury as President, and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman ("Mujib")--who was released from Pakistani prison in early 1972--as Prime Minister. Dhaka (also known as Dacca ( Bangla: ঢাকা ɖʱaka is the Capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান ''Shekh Mujibur Rôhman''
Mujib came to office with immense personal popularity, but had difficulty transforming this popular support into the political strength needed to function as head of government. The new constitution, which came into force in December 1972, created a strong executive prime minister, a largely ceremonial presidency, an independent judiciary, and a unicameral legislature on a modified Westminster model. The 1972 constitution adopted as state policy the Awami League's (AL) four basic principles of nationalism, secularism, socialism, and democracy. The Bangladesh Awami League ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ also translated Bangladesh People's League) is the mainstream The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Secularism is generally the assertion that governmental practices or institutions should exist separately from Religion or religious beliefs Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system
The first parliamentary elections held under the 1972 constitution were in March 1973, with the Awami League winning a massive majority. No other political party in Bangladesh's early years was able to duplicate or challenge the League's broad-based appeal, membership, or organizational strength. Relying heavily on experienced civil servants and members of the Awami League, the new Bangladesh Government focused on relief, rehabilitation, and reconstruction of the economy and society. Economic conditions remained precarious, however. In December 1974, Mujib decided that continuing economic deterioration and mounting civil disorder required strong measures. Civil disorder, also known as civil unrest, is a broad term that is typically used by law enforcement to describe one or more forms of disturbance caused by a group of people After proclaiming a state of emergency, Mujib used his parliamentary majority to win a constitutional amendment limiting the powers of the legislative and judicial branches, establishing an executive presidency, and instituting a one-party system, the Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BAKSAL), which all members of Parliament were obliged to join. The Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (বাংলাদেশ কৃষক শ্রমিক আওয়ামী লীগ Bangladesh Krishôk Sromik Aoami Lig) was The Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (বাংলাদেশ কৃষক শ্রমিক আওয়ামী লীগ Bangladesh Krishôk Sromik Aoami Lig) was
Despite some improvement in the economic situation during the first half of 1975, implementation of promised political reforms was slow, and criticism of government policies became increasingly centered on Mujib. In August 1975, Mujib, and most of his family, were assassinated by mid-level army officers. His daughter, Sheikh Hasina, happened to be out of the country. Sheikh Hasina Wazed (শেখ হাসিনা ওয়াজেদ Shekh Hasina Oajed) (born September 28 1947 was the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 1996 A new government, headed by former Mujib associate Khandakar Moshtaque, was formed.
Successive military coups resulted in the emergence of Army Chief of Staff Gen. Ziaur Rahman ("Zia") as strongman. Ziaur Rahman (জিয়াউর রহমান Ziaur Rôhman) (January 19 1936 &ndash May 30 1981 was the President of Bangladesh and the founder He pledged the army's support to the civilian government headed by President Chief Justice Sayem. Acting at Zia's behest, Sayem dissolved Parliament, promising fresh elections in 1977, and instituted martial law. Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect when the military takes control of the normal administration of justice
Acting behind the scenes of the Martial Law Administration (MLA), Zia sought to invigorate government policy and administration. While continuing the ban on political parties, he sought to revitalize the demoralized bureaucracy, to begin new economic development programs, and to emphasize family planning. In November 1976, Zia became Chief Martial Law Administrator (CMLA) and assumed the presidency upon Sayem's retirement 5 months later, promising national elections in 1978. The office of the Chief martial law administrator was a senior government post created in countries such as Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia that gave
As President, Zia announced a 19-point program of economic reform and began dismantling the MLA. Keeping his promise to hold elections, Zia won a 5-year term in June 1978 elections, with 76% of the vote. In November 1978, his government removed the remaining restrictions on political party activities in time for parliamentary elections in February 1979. These elections, which were contested by more than 30 parties, marked the culmination of Zia's transformation of Bangladesh's Government from the MLA to a democratically elected, constitutional one. The AL and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), founded by Zia, emerged as the two major parties. Bangladesh Nationalist Party ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ জাতীয়তাবাদী দল Bangladesh Jatiotabadi Dôl, BNP is the immediate The constitution was again amended to provide for an executive prime minister appointed by the president, and responsible to a parliamentary majority.
In May 1981, Zia was assassinated in Chittagong by dissident elements of the military. Chittagong ( Bengali: চট্টগ্রাম Chôţţogram) is Bangladesh 's main Seaport and its second-largest city The attempted coup never spread beyond that city, and the major conspirators were either taken into custody or killed. In accordance with the constitution, Vice President Justice Abdus Sattar was sworn in as acting president. __FORCETOC__ For the Vice President of the United States, their roles and other information see Vice President of the United States. Justice Abdus Sattar ( 1906 - October 5, 1985) was a Bangladeshi Jurist and politician who served as the President of He declared a new national emergency and called for election of a new president within 6 months--an election Sattar won as the BNP's candidate. President Sattar sought to follow the policies of his predecessor and retained essentially the same cabinet, but the army stepped in once again.
Army Chief of Staff Lt. Gen. Hussain Mohammed Ershad assumed power in a bloodless coup in March 1982. Hossain Mohammad Ershad (হুসেইন মুহাম্মাদ এরশাদ Husein Muhammad Ershad) (b Like his predecessors, Ershad suspended the constitution and--citing pervasive corruption, ineffectual government, and economic mismanagement--declared martial law. The following year, Ershad assumed the presidency, retaining his positions as army chief and CMLA. During most of 1984, Ershad sought the opposition parties' participation in local elections under martial law. The opposition's refusal to participate, however, forced Ershad to abandon these plans. Ershad sought public support for his regime in a national referendum on his leadership in March 1985. He won overwhelmingly, although turnout was small. Two months later, Ershad held elections for local council chairmen. Pro-government candidates won a majority of the posts, setting in motion the President's ambitious decentralization program. Political life was further liberalized in early 1986, and additional political rights, including the right to hold large public rallies, were restored. At the same time, the Jatiya (People's) Party, designed as Ershad's political vehicle for the transition from martial law, was established. The Jatiya Party (Ershad ( National Party (Ershad) is a Political party in Bangladesh.
Despite a boycott by the BNP, led by President Zia's widow, Begum Khaleda Zia, parliamentary elections were held on schedule in May 1986. A boycott is a form of Consumer activism involving the act of voluntarily abstaining from using buying or dealing with someone or some other organization as an expression of Khaleda Zia ( খালেদা জিয়া (born 15 August 1945) was the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 1991 to 1996 the first woman The Jatiya Party won a modest majority of the 300 elected seats in the national assembly. The participation of the Awami League--led by the late Prime Minister Mujib's daughter, Sheikh Hasina Wazed--lent the elections some credibility, despite widespread charges of voting irregularities. Sheikh Hasina Wazed (শেখ হাসিনা ওয়াজেদ Shekh Hasina Oajed) (born September 28 1947 was the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 1996
Ershad resigned as Army Chief of Staff and retired from military service in preparation for the presidential elections, scheduled for October. Protesting that martial law was still in effect, both the BNP and the AL refused to put up opposing candidates. Ershad easily outdistanced the remaining candidates, taking 84% of the vote. Although Ershad's government claimed a turnout of more than 50%, opposition leaders, and much of the foreign press, estimated a far lower percentage and alleged voting irregularities.
Ershad continued his stated commitment to lift martial law. In November 1986, his government mustered the necessary two-thirds majority in the national assembly to amend the constitution and confirm the previous actions of the martial law regime. The President then lifted martial law, and the opposition parties took their elected seats in the national assembly.
In July 1987, however, after the government hastily pushed through a controversial legislative bill to include military representation on local administrative councils, the opposition walked out of Parliament. Passage of the bill helped spark an opposition movement that quickly gathered momentum, uniting Bangladesh's opposition parties for the first time. The government began to arrest scores of opposition activists under the country's Special Powers Act of 1974. Despite these arrests, opposition parties continued to organize protest marches and nationwide strikes. After declaring a state of emergency, Ershad dissolved Parliament and scheduled fresh elections for March 1988.
All major opposition parties refused government overtures to participate in these polls, maintaining that the government was incapable of holding free and fair elections. Despite the opposition boycott, the government proceeded. A boycott is a form of Consumer activism involving the act of voluntarily abstaining from using buying or dealing with someone or some other organization as an expression of The ruling Jatiya Party won 251 of the 300 seats. The Parliament, while still regarded by the opposition as an illegitimate body, held its sessions as scheduled, and passed a large number of bills, including, in June 1988, a controversial constitutional amendment making Islam Bangladesh's state religion. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or Creed officially
By 1989, the domestic political situation in the country seemed to have quieted. The local council elections were generally considered by international observers to have been less violent and more free and fair than previous elections. However, opposition to Ershad's rule began to regain momentum, escalating by the end of 1990 in frequent general strikes, increased campus protests, public rallies, and a general disintegration of law and order. A general strike is a Strike action by a critical mass of the labour force in a city region or country
On December 6, 1990, Ershad offered his resignation. Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) On February 27, 1991, after 2 months of widespread civil unrest, an interim government oversaw what most observers believed to be the nation's most free and fair elections to date. Events 1560 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar.
The center-right BNP won a plurality of seats and formed a coalition government with the Islamic party Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh, with Khaleda Zia, widow of Ziaur Rahman, obtaining the post of Prime Minister. Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh (aka 'Jamaat' is the largest Islamist Political party in Bangladesh. Khaleda Zia ( খালেদা জিয়া (born 15 August 1945) was the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 1991 to 1996 the first woman Only four parties had more than 10 members elected to the 1991 Parliament: The BNP, led by Prime Minister Begum Khaleda Zia; the AL, led by Sheikh Hasina; the Jamaat-e-Islami (JI), led by Golam Azam; and the Jatiya Party (JP), led by acting chairman Mizanur Rahman Choudhury while its founder, former President Ershad, served out a prison sentence on corruption charges. Sheikh Hasina Wazed (শেখ হাসিনা ওয়াজেদ Shekh Hasina Oajed) (born September 28 1947 was the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 1996 Ghulam Azam (গোলাম আযম (born 1922 is a Bangladeshi political leader The electorate approved still more changes to the constitution, formally re-creating a parliamentary system and returning governing power to the office of the prime minister, as in Bangladesh's original 1972 constitution. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In October 1991, members of Parliament elected a new head of state, President Abdur Rahman Biswas. Abdur Rahman Biswas (আব্দুর রহমান বিশ্বাস (born 1 September
In March 1994, controversy over a parliamentary by-election, which the opposition claimed the government had rigged, led to an indefinite boycott of Parliament by the entire opposition. A boycott is a form of Consumer activism involving the act of voluntarily abstaining from using buying or dealing with someone or some other organization as an expression of The opposition also began a program of repeated general strikes to press its demand that Khaleda Zia's government resign and a caretaker government supervise a general election. Efforts to mediate the dispute, under the auspices of the Commonwealth Secretariat, failed. The Commonwealth Secretariat is the main intergovernmental agency and central institution of the Commonwealth of Nations. After another attempt at a negotiated settlement failed narrowly in late December 1994, the opposition resigned en masse from Parliament. The opposition then continued a campaign of Marches, demonstrations, and strikes in an effort to force the government to resign. Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by Employees to perform work. The opposition, including the Awami League's Sheikh Hasina, pledged to boycott national elections scheduled for February 15, 1996. Events 590 - Khosrau II is crowned as king of Persia 1637 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar)
In February, Khaleda Zia was re-elected for the second term by a landslide in voting boycotted and denounced as unfair by the three main opposition parties. In March 1996, following escalating political turmoil, the sitting Parliament enacted a constitutional amendment to allow a neutral caretaker government to assume power conduct new parliamentary elections; former Chief Justice Mohammed Habibur Rahman was named Chief Advisor (a position equivalent to prime minister) in the interim government. The Chief Advisor of the Caretaker Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh takes over as the Head of State during the 90 day Caretaker Government that is mandated to New parliamentary elections were held in June 1996 and were won by the Awami League; party leader Sheikh Hasina became Prime Minister.
Sheikh Hasina formed what she called a "Government of National Consensus" in June 1996, which included one minister from the Jatiya Party and another from the Jatiyo Samajtantric Dal, a very small leftist party. The Jatiya Party never entered into a formal coalition arrangement, and party president H. M. Ershad withdrew his support from the government in September 1997. Only three parties had more than 10 members elected to the 1996 Parliament: The Awami League, BNP, and Jatiya Party. Jatiya Party president, Ershad, was released from prison on bail in January 1997.
Although international and domestic election observers found the June 1996 election free and fair, the BNP protested alleged vote rigging by the Awami League. Ultimately, however, the BNP party decided to join the new Parliament. The BNP soon charged that police and Awami League activists were engaged in large-scale harassment and jailing of opposition activists. At the end of 1996, the BNP staged a parliamentary walkout over this and other grievances but returned in January 1997 under a four-point agreement with the ruling party. The BNP asserted that this agreement was never implemented and later staged another walkout in August 1997. The BNP returned to Parliament under another agreement in March 1998.
In June 1999, the BNP and other opposition parties again began to abstain from attending Parliament. Opposition parties have staged an increasing number of nationwide general strikes, rising from 6 days of general strikes in 1997 to 27 days in 1999. A general strike is a Strike action by a critical mass of the labour force in a city region or country A four-party opposition alliance formed at the beginning of 1999 announced that it would boycott parliamentary by-elections and local government elections unless the government took steps demanded by the opposition to ensure electoral fairness. The government did not take these steps, and the opposition has subsequently boycotted all elections, including municipal council elections in February 1999, several parliamentary by-elections, and the Chittagong city corporation elections in January 2000. The opposition demands that the Awami League government step down immediately to make way for a caretaker government to preside over paliamentary and local government.
Khaleda Zia won a second term in 2001. Her coalition included several Islamist parties, a fact which was criticized by those who feared post-9/11 Islamic radicalism and de-secularization in Bangladesh. Islamist violence targeting courts and imposing social strictures became a serious problem as Zia's term wore on. It came to a head in 2005 with the first suicide bombing and a coordinated bombing. This problem abated as two parties were outlawed and the leaders of the movement were rounded up.
An election was scheduled for the end of 2006, however it did not take place. The caretaker government was accused of BNP bias by Hasina and her coalition, who fomented nationwide protests and shutdowns. In January 2007, the head of the caretaker government stepped down, many believe under pressure from the military.
Fakhruddin Ahmed, former World Bank economist, was selected to replace him and has committed himself to rooting out corruption and preparing a better voter list. Dr Fakhruddin Ahmed (ড ফখরুদ্দীন আহমেদ Fokhruddin Ahmed)(born May 1, 1940, in Bikrampur of Dhaka District The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e Emergency law was declared and a massive campaign to crack down on corruption is underway. By July 2007 some 200,000 people had been arrested. The government says it will hold elections before the end of 2008.
In April, Ahmed's administration attempted to reform the political parties by exiling Hasina and Zia, but they backed down amid domestic and international protestations. Hasina, who had been visiting her children in US, was allowed to return but she faced serious charges, including involvement in the assassination of four political rivals. In July, she was taken into custody after two businessmen testified that she had extorted 80 million taka (US$1. The taka ( Bengali: টাকা ṭaka) is the Currency of Bangladesh. 16 million) from them.  This provoked angry protests from her supporters; even her bitter rival Khalida Zia, as well as six British MPs and MEPs, called for her release. Khaleda Zia ( খালেদা জিয়া (born 15 August 1945) was the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 1991 to 1996 the first woman  Khaleda herself faces charges of tax evasion.
At the local government level, the country is divided into divisions, districts, subdistricts, unions, and villages. Local officials are elected at the union level. All larger administrative units are run by members of the civil service.
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