A police officer (also known as a policeman or police constable, and colloquially as copper, cop or bobby (on the beat)) is a warranted worker of a police force. South Australia is a state of Australia in the southern central part of the country Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Landespolizei (or LaPo is a term used in the Federal Republic of Germany to denote the law enforcement services which patrol the German Bundesländer Hamburg (English, German: ˈhambʊɐk local pronunciation Low German / Low Saxon: Hamborg) is the second-largest city in Germany Most often the term warrant refers to a specific type of Authorization; a Writ issued by a competent officer usually a Judge or Magistrate Police are agents or agencies usually of the executive, empowered to enforce the law and to effect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force
As well as general policing, officers can be trained in special duties such as counter-terrorism; surveillance; child protection; royalty or diplomatic protection; and investigating major crime such as fraud, rape, murder, and people or drug trafficking. Counter-terrorism or counterterrorism refers to the practices tactics, techniques and strategies that Governments militaries, Police departments Surveillance is the monitoring of Behavior. Systems surveillance is the process of monitoring the behavior of people objects or processes within systems for conformity Child protection is used to describe a set of usually government-run services designed to protect Children and encourage Family stability Protective security units typically provide policing security intelligence and bodyguard services for Sovereigns and Politicians In the broadest sense a fraud is a Deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual Rape, also referred to as Sexual assault, is an Assault by a person involving Sexual intercourse with or Sexual penetration of another person Murder is the unlawful killing of another human person with Malice aforethought, as defined in Common Law countries Human trafficking is the recruitment transportation harbouring or receipt of people for the purposes of slavery forced labor (including bonded labor or debt bondage and servitude The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global Black market consisting of the cultivation manufacture distribution and sale of illegal Drugs
It must be noted that the responsibilities of a police officer are extremely broad. Officers are expected to be able to respond in some fashion to any and all situations that may arise while they are on duty. Also officers must act as government officials in the cases of investigation. In some communities, rules and procedures governing conduct and duties of police officers requires that they act if needed even when they are off duty. In Administrative law, rulemaking refers to the process that executive and independent agencies use to create or promulgate,
In most Western legal systems, the major role of the police is to maintain order, keeping the peace through enforcement of laws and societal norms. The Segway PT is a two-wheeled, self-balancing Electric vehicle invented by Dean Kamen. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings They also function to discourage and investigate crimes, with particular emphasis on crime against people, property, or the law. Deterrence is but a theory from behavioural psychology about preventing or controlling actions or behavior through fear of punishment or retribution. In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment In order to maintain public order, police have legal authority to apprehend suspected perpetrators, detain them, and then inform the appropriate authorities. See criminal law. The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different Jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential
Police are often used as an emergency service and may provide a public safety function at large gatherings, as well as in emergencies, disasters, and search and rescue situations. Emergency services are organizations which ensure Public safety by addressing different emergencies Emergency management (or disaster management) is the discipline of dealing with and avoiding risks For the TV series of this title see Search and Rescue (TV series. To provide a prompt response in emergencies, the police often coordinate their operations with fire and emergency medical services. Distinguish from a Firefight, which means a battle with firearms Emergency medical services (abbreviated to the initialism "EMS" in many countries are a branch of Emergency services dedicated to providing out-of-hospital In some jurisdictions, individuals serve jointly as police officers as well as firefighters or paramedics. In many countries there is a common emergency service number that allows the police, firefighters, or medical services to be summoned to an emergency. Many countries' public telephone networks have a single emergency telephone number, sometimes known as the universal emergency telephone number or occasionally the
Police are also responsible for reporting minor offenses by issuing citations which typically may result in the imposition of fines, particularly for violations of traffic law. A summons (also in Britain known as a claim form) is a legal document issued by a court (a judicial summons) or by an administrative agency of government (an Fines is a Municipality of Almería province, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Traffic on Roads may consist of Pedestrians ridden or herded Animals Vehicles Streetcars and other Conveyances either singly Traffic enforcement is often and effectively accomplished by police officers on motorcycles — called motor officers, these officers refer to the motorcycles they ride on duty as simply motors. MotorCycle is the title of a 1993 album by Rock band Daniel Amos, released on BAI Records. Police sometimes involve themselves in the maintenance of public order, even where no legal transgressions have occurred — for example, in some Australian jurisdictions, people who are drunk and causing a public nuisance may be removed to a "drying-out center" until they recover from the effects of the alcohol. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Drunkenness or inebriation is the state of being intoxicated by consumption of Alcoholic beverages to a degree that mental and physical faculties are noticeably Police are also trained to assist persons in distress, such motorists whose car has broken down and people experiencing a medical emergency. Police are typically trained in basic first aid such as CPR.
In addition, many park rangers are nowadays commissioned as law enforcement officers and carry out a law-enforcement role within national parks and other backcountry wilderness and recreational areas. A Park ranger is a person in lead of protecting and preserving parklands - national state or provincial parks A national park is a reserve of land usually declared and owned by a national Government, protected from most Human development and pollution Military police perform law enforcement functions within the military. Military police ( MPs) are normally the Police of a Military Organization.
Police can serve as an instrument of oppression in jurisdictions where the political climate is hostile to plurality. Police forces have been used historically to suppress dissent and crush protests when political leaders had the authority to place such limits on freedom to assemble. Police brutality is a term generally applied to oppressive or violent actions by police officers in a jurisdiction where the citizens freedoms may have been violated by police overstepping their authority. Police brutality is the world wide use of excessive force usually physical but potentially also in the form verbal attacks and psychological intimidation, by
In socialist and anarchist theory and analysis, the police are seen as the main force responsible for defending the interests of the bourgeoisie and maintaining the status quo, primarily by protecting private property and capital from the "dispossessed" classes (the "proletariat"). Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Status quo is a Latin term meaning the present existing state of affairs or "the state in which" Property is any physical or virtual entity that is owned by an individual The proletariat (from Latin la ''proles'' "offspring" is a term used to identify a lower Social class; a member of such a class is proletarian Socialists and anarchists argue that although police may have in at least some cases the responsibility for maintaining the safety of citizens and even carry out such a responsibility, most crimes originate from class inequality or the psychological effects of this as well as hierarchy, and therefore that these crimes would not exist in a classless and non-hierarchical society, where goods are evenly distributed and hierarchy has been removed. Economic inequality refers to disparities in the distribution of Economic Assets and Income. Social hierarchy is a multi-tiered pyramid-like social or functional structure having an apex as the centralization of power This article is translated from and may fit related articles there better.
Under socialist theories of law, the law, and the state itself, are established to serve as a tool of the dominant class or classes of a society. Socialist law is the official name of the Legal system used in Communist states It is based on the civil law system with major modifications and additions In a Communist society, this has meant that law is intended to serve as a tool of the Communist party in promoting and protecting the revolution and overseeing the restructuring of society. In practice, this meant that police in Communist countries have had a role as secret police against political opponents and dissidents against the Party. Secret police (sometimes political police) are a Police agency which operates in Secrecy to maintain National security against internal This has presented a challenge for post-Communist societies trying to establish effective police institutions and the rule of law, as the vacuum following Party dominance and the memories of the activities of predecessors such as the NKVD, KGB, Stasi and Securitate left many post-Communist states without police forces widely considered legitimate or respectable. Post-Communism is a name sometimes given to the period of political and economic Transition in former Communist states located in parts of Europe and The rule of law, in its most basic form is the principle that no one is above the law The NKVD ( НКВД, ru Народный Комиссариат Внутренних Дел ''Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del'') or People's Commissariat KGB ( Transliteration of "КГБ" is the Russian abbreviation of Committee for State Security ( Komityet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosty For the regular police in East Germany see Volkspolizei. The Ministerium für Staatssicherheit ( Ministry for State Security See also Serviciul Român de Informaţii The Securitate ( Romanian for Security; official full name Departamentul Securităţii Statului
In most countries, candidates for the police force must have completed some formal education. Increasing numbers of people are joining the police force who possess tertiary education and in response to this many police forces have developed a "fast-track" scheme whereby those with university degrees spend 2-3 years as a police constable before receiving promotion to higher ranks, such as sergeants, inspectors etc. Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage third level and' post-secondary education', is the educational level following the completion of a school providing A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of Higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing (Officers who work within investigative divisions or plainclothes are not necessarily a higher rank but merely do a slightly different job. ) Police officers are also recruited from those with experience in the military or security services. Most law enforcement agencies now have measurable physical fitness requirements for officers. Physical fitness is used in two close meanings general fitness (a state of Health and well-being and specific fitness (a task-oriented definition based on the ability In the United States state laws may codify state-wide qualification standards regarding age, education, criminal record, and training but in other places requirements are set by local police agencies. A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government In Law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a Jurisdiction in certain areas usually by subject forming a Legal code.
Police agencies are usually semi-military in organization, so that with specified experience or training qualifications officers become eligible for promotion to a higher supervisory rank, such as sergeant. A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking A supervisor, foreman foreperson team leader overseer cell coach facilitator or area coordinator is a manager in business Sergeant is a rank used in some form by most militaries police forces and other uniformed organizations around the world Promotion is not automatic and usually requires the candidate to pass some kind of examination, interview board or other selection procedure. Although promotion normally includes an increase in salary, it also brings with it an increase in responsibility and for most, an increase in administrative paperwork. A salary is a form of periodic payment from an Employer to an Employee, which may be specified in an Employment contract. Unlike military service, it is not unusual for police officers to remain or choose to remain at lower levels, never getting promoted. There is no stigma attached to this - experienced line patrol officers are highly regarded.
After completing a certain period of service, officers may also apply for specialist positions, such as detective, police dog handler, mounted police officer, motorcycle officer, water police officer, or firearms officer (in forces which are not routinely armed). A police dog is a Dog that is trained specifically to assist Police and similar law-enforcement personnel with their work Mounted police are Police who patrol on Horseback They continue to serve in remote areas and in metropolitan areas where their day-to-day function may be picturesque Water police, also called harbour patrols, port police, marine/maritime police, nautical patrols, bay constables or river police An Authorised Firearms Officer ( AFO) is a British police officer who has received training and authorisation to carry and use Firearms The
In some countries such as in Singapore, police ranks may also be beefed up through conscription, similar to national service in the military. Singapore Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority National service is a common name for mandatory or voluntary government service programs (most often focusing on military service Qualifications may thus be relaxed or enhanced depending on the target mix of conscripts. In Singapore, for example, conscripts face tougher physical requirements in areas such as eyesight, but are less stringent with minimum academic qualification requirements. Some police officers also join as volunteers, who again may do so via differing qualification requirements.
Due to the unpredictable nature of law enforcement, police officers have the potential to encounter many dangerous situations in the course of their career. Officers face an increased risk of infectious diseases, physical injury and death, as well as the potential for emotional disorder due to both the high stress and inherently adversarial nature of police work. An infectious disease is a clinically evident Disease resulting from the presence of Pathogenic microbial agents including Pathogenic viruses Pathogenic These dangers are encountered in many different situations e. g. the investigation, pursuit, and apprehension of criminals, motor vehicle stops, crimes, response to terrorism, intervention in domestic disputes, investigating traffic accidents, and directing traffic. Vehicles, derived from the Latin word vehiculum, are non-living Means of transport. Traffic on Roads may consist of Pedestrians ridden or herded Animals Vehicles Streetcars and other Conveyances either singly The constant risk, uncertainty and tension inherent in law enforcement and the exposure to vast amounts of human suffering and violence can lead susceptible individuals to anxiety, depression, and alcoholism.
Individuals are drawn to police work for many reasons. Among these often include a desire to protect the public and social order from criminals and danger; a desire to hold a position of respect and authority; a disdain for or antipathy towards criminals and rule breakers; the professional challenges of the work; the employment benefits that are provided with civil service jobs in many countries; the sense of camaraderie that often holds among police; or a family tradition of police work or civil service. An important task of the recruitment activity of police agencies in many countries is screening potential candidates to determine the fitness of their character and personality for the work, often through background investigations and consultation with a psychologist. Even though police work is very dangerous, police officers are still seen by some people as necessary to maintain order. As a result, police officers are generally held in high regard by the population they serve. This can vary from country to country however, depending on past experiences with the police or general national perception.
Line of duty deaths are deaths which occur while an officer is conducting his or her appointed duties. Despite the increased risk of being a victim of a homicide, automobile accidents are the most common cause of officer deaths. Officers are more likely to be involved in traffic accidents because of their large amount of time spent conducting vehicle patrols, as well as their work outside their vehicles alongside or on the roadway, or in dangerous pursuits. Officers killed by suspects make up a smaller proportion of deaths. In the U. S. in 2005, 156 line of duty deaths were recorded of which 44% were from assaults on officers, 35% vehicle related (only 3% during vehicular pursuits) and the rest from other causes: heart attacks during arrests/foot pursuits, diseases contracted from suspects, accidental gun discharges, falls, and drownings. 
Police officers who die in the line of duty, especially those who die from the actions of suspects, are often given elaborate funerals, attended by large numbers of fellow officers. Their families may also be eligible for special pensions. Fallen officers are often remembered in public memorials such as the U. S. 's National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial. National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial in Washington DC at Judiciary Square honors the more than 18200 U
Statistically, 18,838 law enforcement officers are known to have died in the line of duty in the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In Canada, 757 law enforcement officers met a similar fate. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page In the United Kingdom, about 3,600 law enforcement officers are known to have died in the line of duty. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Singapore Police Force registered just over 100 deaths in a century up to the year 2000. The Singapore Police Force ( Abbreviation: SPF; Chinese: 新加坡警察部队; Malay: Pasukan Polis Singapura Tamil This is a list of Singapore Police officers from the Singapore Police Force who were killed in the line of duty, based on official records from the
A typical police officer, dependent on duties may carry various equipment on their duty belt, to assist them in performing their duties
The equipment carried typically includes some or all of the following (varies from country to country):
Vehicle-based officers may also typically carry additional equipment, as would those assigned to specialist units. Handcuffs are restraint devices designed to secure an individual's Wrists close together PlastiCuffs (also called FlexiCuffs) are a form of Physical restraint for the hands using plastic straps A police notebook, pocket notebook or PNB is a Notebook used by police officers to officially record details and incidents while on patrol Pepper spray (also known as OC spray (from " Oleoresin Capsicum " OC gas, capsicum spray, or oleoresin capsicum CS gas is the common name for 2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile (also called o-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (chemical formula C10H5ClN2 A firearm is a Tool that projects either single or multiple Projectiles at high velocity through a controlled explosion An electroshock weapon is an Incapacitant Weapon used for subduing a person by administering Electric shock aimed at disrupting superficial muscle A badge is a device, patch or accoutrement which is presented or displayed to indicate some feat of service a special accomplishment a symbol of authority granted by taking A flashlight (also called an electric torch or torch) is a portable electric spotlight which emits light from a small incandescent Lightbulb
Equipment carried on patrol vehicles might typically include:
Police officers may patrol on foot, but most commonly have some form of transport.