(Lucius?) Mestrius Plutarchus
Parallel Lives, Amyot translation, 1565
|Born||Circa 46 AD|
|Died||Circa 120 AD|
|Occupation||Biographer, essayist, priest, ambassador, magistrate|
|Literary movement||Middle Platonism,|
Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; c. Plutarch 's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, commonly called Parallel Lives or Plutarch's Lives, is a series of Jacques Amyot ( October 30, 1513 - February 6, 1593) French Renaissance writer and translator was born of poor parents at Melun Circa (often abbreviated c, ca, ca or cca and sometimes Italicized to show it is Latin) means "about" Year 46 was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Chaeronea (Χαιρώνεια is a municipality in the Boeotia Prefecture, Greece. Boeotia ( Greek: Βοιωτία; - Voiotía, also Viotía) is one of the Prefectures of Greece. Circa (often abbreviated c, ca, ca or cca and sometimes Italicized to show it is Latin) means "about" Delphi ( Greek,) ( pronounce and dialectal forms) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western Phocis ( Greek, Modern: Φωκίδα foˈkiða Ancient / Katharevousa: Φωκίς foˈkis is an ancient district and a modern prefecture Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. A biography (from the Greek words bíos (βίος meaning "life" and gráphein (γράφειν meaning "to write" is an account An essay is usually a short piece of writing It is often written from an author's personal point of view. A priest or priestess is a person having the authority or power to administer religious rites in particular rites of sacrifice to and propitiation of a deity or deities An ambassador is the highest ranking Diplomat who represents their country A magistrate is a judicial officer In Common law systems a magistrate usually has limited authority to administer and enforce the Law. Nationality is a relationship between a Person and their State of Origin, Culture, association Affiliation and/or Loyalty The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca A biography (from the Greek words bíos (βίος meaning "life" and gráphein (γράφειν meaning "to write" is an account The Moralia (gr Greek &mdash loosely translatable This is a list of modern literary movements: that is movements after the Renaissance. Middle Platonism was the development of certain philosophical doctrines associated with Plato from approximately 130 B Ancient Greek literature refers to Literature written in the Greek language until the 4th century AD Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly 46 AD - 120 AD), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. Year 46 was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions See also History An historian is an individual who studies and writes about History, and is regarded as an Authority on it Biographers are Authors who write an account of another person's life while autobiographers are authors who write their own Biography. This article is an abbreviated list of Essayists - individuals notable for writing essays on various topics Middle Platonism was the development of certain philosophical doctrines associated with Plato from approximately 130 B  Plutarch was born to a prominent family in Chaeronea, Boeotia [Greece], a town about twenty miles east of Delphi. Chaeronea (Χαιρώνεια is a municipality in the Boeotia Prefecture, Greece. Boeotia, Beotia, or Bœotia ( Greek: Βοιωτία - English biːˈoʊʃiə formerly Cadmeis was a region of Ancient Greece, north of the Delphi ( Greek,) ( pronounce and dialectal forms) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western His oeuvre consists of the Parallel Lives and the Moralia. In Fine art, a work of art (or artwork or work) is a creation such as a Song, Book, Film, Video game, Plutarch 's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, commonly called Parallel Lives or Plutarch's Lives, is a series of The Moralia (gr Greek &mdash loosely translatable
Plutarch was born in AD 46 [a] in the small town of Chaeronea, in the Greek region known as Boeotia. Chaeronea (Χαιρώνεια is a municipality in the Boeotia Prefecture, Greece. Boeotia, Beotia, or Bœotia ( Greek: Βοιωτία - English biːˈoʊʃiə formerly Cadmeis was a region of Ancient Greece, north of the The name of Plutarch's father has not been preserved, but it was probably Nikarchus, from the common habit of Greek families to repeat a name in alternate generations. His family was wealthy. The name of Plutarch's grandfather was Lamprias, as he attested in Moralia. His brothers, Timon and Lamprias, are frequently mentioned in his essays and dialogues, where Timon is spoken of in the most affectionate terms. Rualdus, in his 1624 work Life of Plutarchus, recovered the name of Plutarch's wife, Timoxena, from internal evidence afforded by his writings. Joannes Rualdus was a French scholar who compiled a Life of Plutarchus which was prefixed to the Paris Edition of 1624 in two volumes folio of Plutarch's A letter is still extant, addressed by Plutarch to his wife, bidding her not give way to excessive grief at the death of their two year old daughter, who was named Timoxena after her mother. Interestingly, he hinted at a belief in reincarnation in that letter of consolation.
The exact number of his sons is not certain, although two of them, Autobulus and second Plutarch, are often mentioned. Plutarch's treatise on the Timaeus of Plato is dedicated to them, and the marriage of his son Autobulus is the occasion of one of the dinner-parties recorded in the 'Table Talk. ' Another person, Soklarus, is spoken of in terms which seem to imply that he was Plutarch's son, but this is nowhere definitely stated. His treatise on Marriage Questions, addressed to Eurydike and Pollianus, seems to speak of her as having been recently an inmate of his house, but without enabling us to form an opinion whether she was his daughter or not. In Greek mythology, Eurydice ( Eurydíkê, Εὐρυδίκη was an oak nymph or a sweet maiden 
Plutarch studied mathematics and philosophy at the Academy of Athens under Ammonius from 66 to 67. . He had a number of influential friends, including Soscius Senecio and Fundanus, both important senators, to whom some of his later writings were dedicated. Quintus Sosius Senecio ( ''fl'' 1st century was a Roman Empire politician The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. Plutarch travelled widely in the Mediterranean world, including central Greece, Sparta, Corinth, Patrae (Patras), Sardes, Alexandria, and two trips to Rome[b]. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2
|"The soul, being eternal, after death is like a caged bird that has been released. If it has been a long time in the body, and has become tame by many affairs and long habit, the soul will immediately take another body and once again become involved in the troubles of the world. The worst thing about old age is that the soul's memory of the other world grows dim, while at the same time its attachment to things of this world becomes so strong that the soul tends to retain the form that it had in the body. But that soul which remains only a short time within a body, until liberated by the higher powers, quickly recovers its fire and goes on to higher things. "|
|Plutarch (The Consolation, Moralia)|
He lived most of his life at Chaeronea, and was initiated into the mysteries of the Greek god Apollo. Mystery Religions, Sacred Mysteries or simply Mysteries, were "religious cults of the Graeco-Roman However, his duties as the senior of the two priests of Apollo at the Oracle of Delphi (where he was responsible for interpreting the auguries of the Pythia) apparently occupied little of his time. PYTHIA is a computer simulation program for particle collisions at very high energies (see Event (particle physics) in Particle accelerators PYTHIA is a computer simulation program for particle collisions at very high energies (see Event (particle physics) in Particle accelerators He led an active social and civic life while producing an incredible body of writing, much of which is still extant.
For many years Plutarch served as one of the two priests at the temple of Apollo at Delphi (the site of the famous Delphic Oracle) twenty miles from his home. By his writings and lectures Plutarch became a celebrity in the Roman empire, yet he continued to reside where he was born, and actively participated in local affairs, even serving as mayor. At his country estate, guests from all over the empire congregated for serious conversation, presided over by Plutarch in his marble chair. Many of these dialogues were recorded and published, and the 78 essays and other works which have survived are now known collectively as the Moralia.
In addition to his duties as a priest of the Delphic temple, Plutarch was also a magistrate in Chaeronea and he represented his home on various missions to foreign countries during his early adult years. His friend Lucius Mestrius Florus, a Roman consul, sponsored Plutarch as a Roman citizen, and according to the 10th century historian George Syncellus, late in life, the Emperor Hadrian appointed him procurator (in name only) of Achaea – a position that entitled him to wear the vestments and ornaments of a consul himself. Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire See also History An historian is an individual who studies and writes about History, and is regarded as an Authority on it George Syncellus (died after 810 was a Byzantine chronicler and ecclesiastic Publius Aelius Hadrianus (January 24 76 &ndash July 10 138 as emperor Imperator Caesar Divi Traiani filius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus, and Divus Hadrianus after Achaea was a province of the Roman Empire, consisting of the modern-day Peloponnese in southern Greece and bordered on the north by
Plutarch held the office of Archon in his native municipality, probably only an annual one which he likely served more than once. He busied himself with all the little matters of the town and undertook the humblest of duties. 
The Suda, a medieval Greek encyclopedia, states that Hadrian's predecessor Trajan made Plutarch procurator of Illyria, but most historians consider that unlikely, since Illyria was not a procuratorial province, and Plutarch probably did not speak Illyrian. The Suda or Souda ( also, Suidas) is a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus, commonly known as Trajan ( September 18 53 &ndash August 9 117) was a Roman Emperor who Illyria ( Albanian Iliria ( Ancient Greek; Latin Illyria; see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by groups identified as
Plutarch died between the years 119 AD and 127 AD. [c]
His best-known work is the Parallel Lives, a series of biographies of famous Greeks and Romans, arranged as dyads to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings. Plutarch 's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, commonly called Parallel Lives or Plutarch's Lives, is a series of Plutarch 's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, commonly called Parallel Lives or Plutarch's Lives, is a series of A biography (from the Greek words bíos (βίος meaning "life" and gráphein (γράφειν meaning "to write" is an account A moral is a message conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a story or event The surviving Lives contain twenty-three pairs of biographies, each pair containing one Greek Life and one Roman Life, as well as four unpaired single Lives. As he explains in the first paragraph of his Life of Alexander, Plutarch was not concerned with writing histories, as such, but in exploring the influence of character — good or bad — on the lives and destinies of famous men. Moral character or character is an evaluation of a particular individual's moral qualities Some of the more interesting Lives — for instance, those of Heracles and Philip II of Macedon — no longer exist, and many of the remaining Lives are truncated, contain obvious lacunae, or have been tampered with by later writers. In Greek mythology, Heracles or Herakles ("glory of Hera " or Philip II of Macedon, ( Greek: Φίλιππος Β' ο Μακεδών &mdash φίλος = friend + ίππος = Horse A lacuna is a gap in a Manuscript, Inscription, text painting or a musical work The existing Parallel Lives include Solon, Themistocles, Aristides, Pericles, Alcibiades, Nicias, Demosthenes, Philopoemen, Timoleon, Dion, Alexander, Pyrrhus, Marius, Sulla, Romulus, Pompey, Mark Antony, Brutus, Julius Caesar, and Cicero. Plutarch 's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, commonly called Parallel Lives or Plutarch's Lives, is a series of Solon ( ancient Greek:, c 638 BC&ndash558 BC was an Athenian Statesman, Lawmaker and Lyric poet. Themistocles ( Greek:; c 524&ndash459 BC was an Athenian soldier and statesman Aristides or Aristeides ( Greek, 530–468 BC was an Athenian soldier and statesman Pericles (also spelled Perikles) (c 495 – 429 BC Greek:, meaning "surrounded by glory" was a prominent and influential Statesman, orator Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (ˌælsɨˈbaɪədiːz (pronunciation Greek:, transliterated Alkibiádēs Kleiníou Skambōnidēs) meaning Alcibiades Nicias or Nikias (Νικίας (c470 BC-413 BC was an Athenian politician and general during the period of the Peloponnesian War. For the Athenian general see Demosthenes (general. For the ancient physician see Demosthenes Philalethes. Philopoemen (in Greek, Φιλοποίμην transliterated as Philopoimen) (b Timoleon ( Greek: Τιμολέων son of Timodemus of Corinth (ca Alexander is a common male first name Origin The name in English is taken from the Greek name Ἀλέξανδρος (Alexandros Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix ( Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX (c Romulus (c 771 BC– c 717 BC and Remus (c 771 BC–c 753 BC are the traditional founders of Rome, appearing in Roman mythology Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N ( c January 14 83 BC&ndash August 1, 30 BC known in English as Mark Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman
Plutarch's Life of Alexander is one of the five surviving tertiary sources about the Macedonian conqueror, Alexander the Great, and it includes anecdotes and descriptions of incidents that appear in no other source. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' For other uses see Anecdota. For a comparison of anecdote with other kinds of stories see Myth legend fairy tale and fable. Likewise, his portrait of Numa Pompilius, an early Roman king, also contains unique information about the early Roman calendar. Numa Pompilius, according to Legend, was the second King of Rome, succeeding Romulus. The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire.
Plutarch's Life of Pyrrhus is a key text because it is the main historical account on Roman history for the period from 293 to 264 BC, for which neither Dionysius nor Livy have surviving texts. Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Halicarnassus c 60 BC–after 7 BC was a Greek historian and teacher of Rhetoric, who flourished during the reign of Titus Livius (traditionally 59 BC &ndash AD 17 known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome 
|"It is not histories I am writing, but lives; and in the most glorious deeds there is not always an indication of virtue or vice, indeed a small thing like a phrase or a jest often makes a greater revelation of a character than battles where thousands die. "|
|Plutarch (Life of Alexander/Life of Julius Caesar, Parallel Lives, [tr. E. L. Bowie])|
Plutarch stretches and occasionally fabricates the similarities between famous Greeks and Romans in order to write their biographies as parallels. For instance, the lives of Nicias and Crassus have nothing in common except that both men were rich and both suffered a great military defeat at the ends of their lives. 
In his Life of Pompey, Plutarch praises Pompey's trustworthy character and tactful behavior in order to conjure up a moral judgment that goes against most historical accounts. Plutarch delivers anecdotes with moral points, rather than in-depth comparative analyses of the causes of the fall of the Achaemenid Empire and the Roman Republic. The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the 
In defense of Plutarch, he generally sums up all his moral anecdotes in a chronological sequence unlike his Roman contemporary Suetonius. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (ca 69/75 &ndash after 130 was an equestrian and a historian during the Roman Empire. 
The remainder of Plutarch's surviving work is collected under the title of the Moralia (loosely translated as Customs and Mores). The Moralia (gr Greek &mdash loosely translatable The Moralia (gr Greek &mdash loosely translatable It is an eclectic collection of seventy-eight essays and transcribed speeches, which includes On Fraternal Affection - a discourse on honour and affection of siblings toward each other, On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the Great - an important adjunct to his Life of the great king, On the Worship of Isis and Osiris (a crucial source of information on Egyptian religious rites), along with more philosophical treatises, such as On the Decline of the Oracles, On the Delays of the Divine Vengeance, On Peace of Mind and lighter fare, such as Odysseus and Gryllus, a humorous dialogue between Homer's Odysseus and one of Circe's enchanted pigs. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' Isis is a goddess in Ancient Egyptian religious beliefs and is celebrated in their mythology as the ideal mother and wife patron of nature and magic friend of slaves sinners Osiris ( Greek language, also Usiris; the Egyptian language name is variously transliterated Asar, Aser, Ausar, Ausir Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now grc-Latn Odysseus or la Ulysses ( Greek grc-Latn Odysseus; Latin: la Ulixes or more commonly Ulysses) oʊˈdɪsiəs A dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog) is a reciprocal Conversation between two or more entities. Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the In Greek mythology, Circe ( sərsē; Greek Κίρκη Kírkē, falcon is a Queen Goddess (or sometimes a Nymph The Moralia was composed first, while writing the Lives occupied much of the last two decades of Plutarch's own life.
In On the Malice of Herodotus Plutarch criticizes the historian Herodotus for all manners of prejudice and misrepresentation. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash It has been called the “first instance in literature of the slashing review. ” The 19th century English historian George Grote considered this essay a serious attack upon the works of Herodotus, and speaks of the "honourable frankness which Plutarch calls his malignity. George Grote ( November 17, 1794 – June 18, 1871) was an English classical Historian, best known in the field for a major " Plutarch makes some palpable hits, catching Herodotus out in various errors, but it is also probable that it was merely a rhetorical exercise, in which Plutarch plays devil's advocate to see what could be said against so favourite and well-known a writer.  According to Plutarch scholar R. H. Barrow, Herodotus’ real failing in Plutarch’s eyes was to advance any criticism at all of those states that saved Greece from Persia. “Plutarch,” he concluded, “is fanatically biased in favor of the Greek cities; they can do no wrong. ”
A pair of interesting minor works in Book IV of the Moralia is the Roman and Greek Questions. The customs of Romans and Greeks are illuminated in little essays that pose questions such as 'Why were patricians not permitted to live on the Capitoline?' (no. 91) and then suggests answers to them, often several mutually exclusive.
Pseudo-Plutarch is the conventional name given to the unknown authors of a number of pseudepigrapha attributed to Plutarch. Pseudo-Plutarch is the conventional name given to the unknown authors of a number of Pseudepigrapha attributed to Plutarch. Some editions of the Moralia include several works now known to be pseudepigrapha: among these are the Lives of the Ten Orators (biographies of the Ten Orators of ancient Athens, based on Caecilius of Calacte), The Doctrines of the Philosophers, and On Music. Pseudepigrapha (from Ancient Greek ψευδής The ten Attic orators were considered the greatest Orators and logographers of the classical era ( 5th century BC – 4th century BC Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's Caecilius, of Calacte in Sicily, Greek Rhetorician flourished at Rome during the reign of Augustus. One "pseudo-Plutarch" is held responsible for all of these works, though their authorship is of course unknown. Pseudo-Plutarch is the conventional name given to the unknown authors of a number of Pseudepigrapha attributed to Plutarch. The thoughts and opinions recorded are not Plutarch's and come from a slightly later era, though they are all classical in origin.
The Romans loved the Lives, and enough copies were written out over the centuries so that a copy of most of the lives managed to survive to the present day. Some scholars, however, believe that only a third to one-half of Plutarch’s corpus is extant. The lost works of Plutarch are determined by references in his own texts to them and from other authors references over time. A lost work is a document or literary work produced some time in the past of which no surviving copies are known to exist There are traces of twelve more Lives that are now lost. 
Plutarch's general procedure for the Lives was to write the life of a prominent Greek, then cast about for a suitable Roman parallel, and end with a brief comparison of the Greek and Roman lives. Currently, only nineteen of the parallel lives end with a comparison while possibly they all did at one time. Also missing are many of his Lives which appear in a list of his writings, those of Hercules, the first pair of Parallel Lives, Scipio Africanus and Epaminondas, and the companions to the four solo biographies. Even the lives of such important figures as Augustus, Claudius, and Nero have not been found and may be lost forever. 
Plutarch's writings had enormous influence on English and French literature. The term English literature refers to Literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by Writers not necessarily from This article is a general introduction to French literature For detailed information on French literature in specific historic periods see the separate historical articles in the In his plays, Shakespeare paraphrased parts of Thomas North's translation of selected Lives, and occasionally quoted from them verbatim. William Shakespeare ( baptised Sir Thomas North (1535 - 1604 was an English translator of Plutarch, second son of the 1st Baron North.
Ralph Waldo Emerson and the Transcendentalists were greatly influenced by the Moralia so much that Emerson called the Lives "a bible for heroes" in his glowing introduction to the five volume 19th century edition of his Moralia. Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25 1803 &ndash April 27 1882 was an American essayist philosopher poet and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early 19th century Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in Literature, Religion, Culture, and Philosophy that emerged in New England in the The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar  Emerson also wrote that "We cannot read Plutarch without a tingling of the blood; and I accept the saying of the Chinese Mencius: 'A sage is the instructor of a hundred ages. Life Mencius also known by his birth name Meng Ke or Ko, was born in the State of Zou (simp When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. ' "
Montaigne's own Essays draw deeply on Plutarch's Moralia and are consciously modeled on the Greek’s easygoing, discursive inquiries into science, manners, customs, and beliefs. Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (French miʃɛl ekɛm də mɔ̃tɛɲ ( February 28 1533 &ndash September 13 1592) was one of the most influential writers His essays contain more than four hundred references to Plutarch and his works. 
James Boswell quoted Plutarch's line about writing lives, rather than biographies, in the introduction to his own Life of Samuel Johnson. James Boswell 9th Laird of Auchinleck ( October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer diarist and Author born in Edinburgh Samuel Johnson (often referred to as Dr Johnson) (18 September His other admirers include Ben Jonson, John Dryden, Alexander Hamilton, John Milton, and Sir Francis Bacon, as well as such disparate figures as Cotton Mather and Robert Browning. Benjamin Jonson ( c 11 June 1572 &ndash 6 August 1637) was an English Renaissance Dramatist John Dryden (– was an influential English poet Literary critic, Translator and playwright who dominated the literary life of Restoration England John Milton ( 9 December, 1608 – 8 November, 1674) was an English Poet, Prose Polemicist and Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban KC QC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626 was an English Philosopher, Statesman, and author Cotton Mather (February 12 1663 &ndash February 13 1728 AB 1678 ( Harvard College) A Robert Browning (7 May 1812 - 12 December 1889 was an English poet and playwright whose mastery of Dramatic verse, especially Dramatic monologues made him one of
Plutarch's direct influence declined in the 19th and 20th centuries, though his influence remains embedded in the popular ideas of Greek and Roman history. 
There are translations in English, French, Italian and German.
Jacques Amyot's translations brought Plutarch's works to Western Europe. Jacques Amyot ( October 30, 1513 - February 6, 1593) French Renaissance writer and translator was born of poor parents at Melun He went to Italy and studied the Vatican text of Plutarch, from which he published a French translation of the Lives in 1559 and Moralia in 1572, which were widely read by educated Europe.  Amyot's translations had as deep an impression in England as France, because Thomas North later published his English translation of the Lives in 1579 based on Amyot’s French translation instead of the original Greek.
Plutarch's Lives were translated into English, from Amyot's version, by Sir Thomas North in 1579. The complete Moralia was first translated into English from the original Greek by Philemon Holland (q. v. ) in 1603.
In 1683, John Dryden began a life of Plutarch and oversaw a translation of the Lives by several hands and based on the original Greek. This translation has been reworked and revised several times, most recently in the nineteenth century by the English poet and classicist Arthur Hugh Clough which can be found in The Modern Library Random House, Inc. Arthur Hugh Clough ( January 1, 1819 &ndash November 13, 1861) was an English Poet, and the brother of Anne Jemima translation.
From 1901-1912, American classicist Bernadotte Perrin produced a new translation of the Lives for the Loeb library series.
There is one translation of Parallel Lives into Latin, titled "Pour le Dauphin" (French for "for the Prince") written by a scribe in the court of Louis XV of France. Louis XV is said to have commissioned the translation because he wanted his grandson, Louis XVI, to learn the successes and failings of the famous classical leaders, but thought that Greek was not as useful as Latin.
Plutarch's Lives and Moralia were translated into German by Johann Friedrich Salomon Kaltwasser:
a. Middle Platonism was the development of certain philosophical doctrines associated with Plato from approximately 130 B ^ Plutarch's date of birth probably occurred during the reign of the Roman Emperor Claudius and between 45 AD and 50 AD, though the exact date is debated. Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus or Claudius I ( August 1, 10 BC &ndash October 13, AD 54 ( Tiberius Claudius Drusus from birth to 
b. ^ Plutarch was once believed to have spent 40 years in Rome, but it is currently thought that he traveled to Rome once or twice for a short period.
c. ^ Plutarch died between the years 119 AD and 127 AD.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Mestrius Plutarchus; Πλούταρχος (Greek)|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Greek writer- historian and essayist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||c. 46|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Chaeronea, Boeotia|
|DATE OF DEATH||127|
|PLACE OF DEATH|