|Main interests||Platonism, Metaphysics, Mysticism|
|Notable ideas||"The One", Emanationism, Henosis, Nous|
|Influenced by||Ammonius Saccas, Plato, Numenius of Apamea, Alexander of Aphrodisias, and Middle Platonism, Pythagoreanism, Persian philosophy, Indian Philosophy|
|Influenced||Porphyry, Iamblichus, Julian, Hypatia, Hierocles, Proclus, Damascius, Simplicius, Augustine, Boethius, Pseudo-Dionysius, John Scotus Eriugena, Bonaventure, Gemistus Pletho, and Christianity, Gnosticism, Renaissance Platonism|
Plotinus (Greek: Πλωτῖνος) (ca. This page lists some links to ancient philosophy. In Western philosophy, the spread of Christianity through the Roman Empire marked the end of Hellenistic Lycopolis or Lykopolis ( Greek:, Strabo xvii p 802 Steph B s v Campania is a region of Southern Italy in Europe. The region has a population of around 5 Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical Philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD founded by Platonism is the Philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it Metaphysics is the branch of Philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science Mysticism (from the Greek grc μυστικός mystikos, an initiate of a Mystery religion) is the pursuit of communion with identity Emanationism is Platonic monism and an idea in the Cosmology or Cosmogony of certain religious or philosophical systems Henosis is also a synonym of Bulbophyllum, a genus of orchid Within the realm of Neoplatonic philosophy, henosis (Greek grc Nous (ˈnuːs Greek: or) is a philosophical term for Mind or Intellect. Ammonius Saccas ( 3rd century AD) was a Greek Philosopher from Alexandria who was often referred to as one of the founders of Neoplatonism. Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece Numenius of Apamea was a Greek philosopher who lived in Apamea in Syria and flourished during the latter half of the 2nd century AD Alexander of Aphrodisias was the most celebrated of the Ancient Greek commentators on the writings of Aristotle. Middle Platonism was the development of certain philosophical doctrines associated with Plato from approximately 130 B Pythagoreanism is a term used for the Esoteric and metaphysical beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers the Pythagoreans who were much influenced Iranian philosophy or Persian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian The term Indian philosophy (Sanskrit Darshanas) may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought that originated in the Indian subcontinent Flavius Claudius Julianus, known also as Julian or Julian the Apostate (331 or 332 to 26 June 363) was Roman Emperor (Caesar Hypatia of Alexandria (haɪˈpeɪʃə ( Greek:; born between AD 350 and 370 – 415 was a Greek scholar from Alexandria in Egypt, considered Hierocles of Alexandria was a Greek Neoplatonist writer who was active around AD 430. Proclus Lycaeus ( February 8, c 411 &ndash April 17, 485) called "The Successor" or "Diadochos" ( Greek Próklos Damascius (grc Δαμάσκιος born in Damascus ca AD 458 died after AD 538 known as "the last of the Neoplatonists," was the last scholarch of the Simplicius (Σιμπλίκιος of Cilicia, lived c 490-c 560 AD was a disciple of Ammonius and Damascius, and was one of the last of the Neoplatonists Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius (480&ndash524 or 525 was a Christian philosopher of the 6th century Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, also known as Pseudo-Denys, is the anonymous theologian and philosopher of the late 5th to early 6th century whose Corpus Areopagiticum Saint Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (San Bonaventura (1221 &ndash July 15, 1274) born John of Fidanza (Giovanni di Fidanza was the eighth Minister Georgius Gemistos (or Plethon, Pletho) in Greek Γεώργιος Πλήθων Γεμιστός, (c Neoplatonism was a major influence on Christian theology throughout Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages in the West notably due to (1 St Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of Hellenistic philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, based Platonism underwent a revival in the Renaissance, as part of a general revival of interest in Classical antiquity. The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c AD 204–270) was a major philosopher of the ancient world who is widely considered the founder of Neoplatonism (along with his teacher Ammonius Saccas. For the area code see Area code 204. For the car see Peugeot 204. Events By Place Roman Empire Quintillus briefly holds power over the Roman Empire and is succeeded by Aurelian. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical Philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD founded by Ammonius Saccas ( 3rd century AD) was a Greek Philosopher from Alexandria who was often referred to as one of the founders of Neoplatonism. ) Much of our biographical information about him comes from Porphyry's preface to his edition of Plotinus' Enneads. Porphyry of Tyre ( Greek:, c AD 233&ndashc 309 was a Phoenician Neoplatonic philosopher The Six Enneads, sometimes abbreviated to The Enneads or Enneads, is the collection of writings of Plotinus, edited and His metaphysical writings have inspired centuries of Pagan, Christian, Jewish, Islamic and Gnostic metaphysicians and mystics. Metaphysics is the branch of Philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world Christian philosophy is a term to describe the fusion of various fields of Philosophy with the theological doctrines of Christianity. Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar Gnosticism (γνώσις gnōsis, Knowledge) refers to a diverse Syncretistic Religious movement consisting of various Belief systems
Porphyry reported that Plotinus was 66 years old when he died in 270, the second year of the reign of the emperor Claudius II, thus giving us the year of his teacher's birth as around 204. Porphyry of Tyre ( Greek:, c AD 233&ndashc 309 was a Phoenician Neoplatonic philosopher For the area code see Area code 204. For the car see Peugeot 204. Eunapius reported that Plotinus was born in the Deltaic Lycopolis (Latin: Lyco) in Egypt, which has led to speculations that he may have been a native Egyptian of Roman, Greek, or Hellenized Egyptian descent. Eunapius was a Greek Sophist and Historian of the 4th century. Lycopolis or Lykopolis ( Greek:, Strabo xvii p 802 Steph B s v Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Hellenization (or Hellenisation) is a term used to describe the spread of Greek culture. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now
Plotinus had an inherent distrust of materiality (an attitude common to Platonism), holding to the view that phenomena were a poor image or mimicry (mimesis) of something "higher and intelligible" [VI. Platonism is the Philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it Mimesis ( μίμησις from μιμεîσθαι) is a critical and Philosophical term that carries a wide range of meanings including I] which was the "truer part of genuine Being". This distrust extended to the body, including his own; it is reported by Porphyry that at one point he refused to have his portrait painted, presumably for much the same reasons of dislike. Likewise Plotinus never discussed his ancestry, childhood, or his place or date of birth. From all accounts his personal and social life exhibited the highest moral and spiritual standards.
Plotinus took up the study of philosophy at the age of twenty-seven, around the year 232, and travelled to Alexandria to study. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Events By Topic Religion Relics of St Thomas are brought to Edessa from India. Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια There Plotinus was dissatisfied with every teacher he encountered until an acquaintance suggested he listen to the ideas of Ammonius Saccas. Ammonius Saccas ( 3rd century AD) was a Greek Philosopher from Alexandria who was often referred to as one of the founders of Neoplatonism. Upon hearing Ammonius lecture, he declared to his friend, "this was the man I was looking for," and began to study intently under his new instructor. Besides Ammonius, Plotinus was also influenced by the works of Alexander of Aphrodisias, Numenius, and various Stoics. Alexander of Aphrodisias was the most celebrated of the Ancient Greek commentators on the writings of Aristotle. Numenius of Apamea was a Greek philosopher who lived in Apamea in Syria and flourished during the latter half of the 2nd century AD Stoicism, a school of Hellenistic philosophy, was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early third century BC
After spending the next eleven years in Alexandria, he then decided to investigate the philosophical teachings of the Persian philosophers and the Indian philosophers around the age of 38. Iranian philosophy or Persian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian The term Indian philosophy (Sanskrit Darshanas) may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought that originated in the Indian subcontinent  In the pursuit of this endeavour he left Alexandria and joined the army of Gordian III as it marched on Persia. Marcus Antonius Gordianus ( January 20 225 – February 11, 244) known in English as Gordian III, was Roman Emperor However, the campaign was a failure, and on Gordian's eventual death Plotinus found himself abandoned in a hostile land, and only with difficulty found his way back to safety in Antioch. Antioch on the Orontes (Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη Antiochia ad Orontem also
At the age of forty, during the reign of Philip the Arab, he came to Rome, where he stayed for most of the remainder of his life. Marcus Julius Philippus or Philippus I Arabs (c 204 - 249 known in English as Philip the Arab or formerly (prior to World War II in Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 There he attracted a number of students. His innermost circle included Porphyry, Amelius Gentilianus of Tuscany, the Senator Castricius Firmus, and Eustochius of Alexandria, a doctor who devoted himself to learning from Plotinus and attended to him until his death. Amelius, whose family name was Gentilianus was a Neoplatonist philosopher and writer of the second half of the 3rd century Tuscany (Toscana is a region in Italy. It has an area of 22990 km² and a population of about 3 Porphyry Porphyry, the most important of Plotinus 's pupils was born in Tyre c Porphyry Porphyry, the most important of Plotinus 's pupils was born in Tyre c Other students included: Zethos, an Arab by ancestry who died before Plotinus, leaving him a legacy and some land; Zoticus, a critic and poet; Paulinus, a doctor of Scythopolis; and Serapion from Alexandria. Porphyry Porphyry, the most important of Plotinus 's pupils was born in Tyre c The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Porphyry Porphyry, the most important of Plotinus 's pupils was born in Tyre c Porphyry Porphyry, the most important of Plotinus 's pupils was born in Tyre c (בֵּית שְׁאָן بيسان Bayt Šān or بيسان, Beisan or Bisan) is a city in the North District of Israel Porphyry Porphyry, the most important of Plotinus 's pupils was born in Tyre c He had students amongst the Roman Senate beside Castricius, such as Marcellus Orontius, Sabinillus, and Rogantianus. The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. Porphyry Porphyry, the most important of Plotinus 's pupils was born in Tyre c Porphyry Porphyry, the most important of Plotinus 's pupils was born in Tyre c Porphyry Porphyry, the most important of Plotinus 's pupils was born in Tyre c Women were also numbered amongst his students, including Gemina, in whose house he lived during his residence in Rome, and her daughter, also Gemina; and Amphiclea, the wife of Ariston the son of Iamblichus.  Finally, Plotinus was a correspondent of the philosopher Cassius Longinus.
While in Rome Plotinus also gained the respect of the Emperor Gallienus and his wife Salonina. Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus (218-268 ruled the Roman Empire as co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260 and then as the sole Roman Emperor Cornelia Salonina (d 268 Milan) was an Augusta, wife of Roman Emperor Gallienus and mother of Valerianus, Saloninus At one point Plotinus attempted to interest Gallienus in rebuilding an abandoned settlement in Campania, known as the 'City of Philosophers', where the inhabitants would live under the constitution set out in Plato's Laws. Campania is a region of Southern Italy in Europe. The region has a population of around 5 Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece An Imperial subsidy was never granted, for reasons unknown to Porphyry, who reports the incident.
Porphyry subsequently went to live in Sicily, where word reached him that his former teacher had died. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. The philosopher spent his final days in seclusion on an estate in Campania which his friend Zethos had bequeathed him. Campania is a region of Southern Italy in Europe. The region has a population of around 5 According to the account of Eustochius, who attended him at the end, Plotinus' final words were: "Strive to give back the Divine in yourselves to the Divine in the All. " Eustochius records that a snake crept under the bed where Plotinus lay, and slipped away through a hole in the wall; at the same moment the philosopher died.
Plotinus wrote the essays that became the Enneads over a period of several years from ca. 253 until a few months before his death seventeen years later. The Six Enneads, sometimes abbreviated to The Enneads or Enneads, is the collection of writings of Plotinus, edited and Circa (often abbreviated c, ca, ca or cca and sometimes Italicized to show it is Latin) means "about" Events By Place Roman Empire Period of the Thirty Tyrants in the Roman empire Porphyry makes note that the Enneads, before being compiled and arranged by himself, were merely the enormous collection of notes and essays which Plotinus used in his lectures and debates, rather than a formal book. Plotinus was unable to revise his own work due to his poor eyesight, yet his writings required extensive editing, according to Porphyry: his master's handwriting was atrocious, he did not properly separate his words, and he cared little for niceties of spelling. Plotinus intensely disliked the editorial process, and turned the task to Porphyry, who not only polished them but put them into the arrangement we now have.
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|Platonic doctrine of recollection|
|Form of the Good|
|Participants in Dialogues|
|Discussions of Plato's works|
|Dialogues of Plato|
|Metaphor of the sun|
|Analogy of the divided line|
|Allegory of the cave|
|Third Man Argument|
|Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?|
Plotinus taught that there is a supreme, totally transcendent "One", containing no division, multiplicity or distinction; likewise it is beyond all categories of being and non-being. Platonism is the Philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it The phrase Platonic idealism usually refers to Plato's theory of forms or doctrine of ideas the exact philosophical meaning of which is perhaps one of the most disputed questions Platonic realism is a philosophical term usually used to refer to the idea of realism regarding the existence of universals after the Greek Middle Platonism was the development of certain philosophical doctrines associated with Plato from approximately 130 B Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical Philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD founded by Platonic Epistemology holds that knowledge is innate so that learning is the development of ideas buried deep in the soul often under the mid-wife-like guidance of The Socratic Method (or Method of Elenchus or Socratic Debate) named after the Classical Greek philosopher Socrates, is a form of Socratic dialogue ( Greek Σωκρατικός λόγος or Σωκρατικός διάλογος) is a genre of prose literary works developed in Plato 's Theory of Forms asserts that Forms (or Ideas) and not the material world of change known to us through sensation, possess Platonic Epistemology holds that knowledge is innate so that learning is the development of ideas buried deep in the soul often under the mid-wife-like guidance of Plato describes "The Idea of the Good" in his Dialogue, The Republic, speaking through the character of Socrates. SOCRATES is the European Community action programme in the field of Education. Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (ˌælsɨˈbaɪədiːz (pronunciation Greek:, transliterated Alkibiádēs Kleiníou Skambōnidēs) meaning Alcibiades Protagoras ( Greek:) (ca 490&ndash 420 BC was a pre-Socratic Greek Philosopher and is numbered as one of the Sophists by Parmenides of Elea ( Greek:, early 5th century BC was an Ancient Greek Philosopher born in Elea, a Greek city on the southern coast of Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece Proclus Lycaeus ( February 8, c 411 &ndash April 17, 485) called "The Successor" or "Diadochos" ( Greek Próklos Plato, in ''The Republic'' (507b-509c uses the sun as a Metaphor for the source of "illumination" arguably intellectual illumination which he held to Plato, in his dialogue The Republic Book 6 (509D–513E has Socrates explain the literary device of a divided line to teach basic philosophical The Allegory of the Cave is an Allegory used by the Greek Philosopher Plato in his work The Republic. Plato, in his dialogue Phaedrus (sections 246a - 254e uses the Chariot Allegory to explain his view of the human soul The Third Man Argument (commonly referred to as TMA) first offered by Plato in his dialogue Parmenides, is a Philosophical criticism of Plato's la ''Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?'' is a Latin phrase from the Roman poet Juvenal, variously translated as "Who watches the watchmen?" "Who watches Disambiguation For the Wigwam album see Being (album, for spiritual or religious beingness, see Ego (spirituality The concept of "being" is derived by us from the objects of human experience, and is an attribute of such objects, but the infinite, transcendent One is beyond all such objects, and therefore is beyond the concepts that we derive from them. The One "cannot be any existing thing", and cannot be merely the sum of all such things (compare the Stoic doctrine of disbelief in non-material existence), but "is prior to all existents". Stoicism, a school of Hellenistic philosophy, was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early third century BC Thus, no attributes can be assigned to the One. We can only identify it with the Good and the principle of Beauty. [I. 6. 9]
For example, thought cannot be attributed to the One because thought implies distinction between a thinker and an object of thought. Thought and thinking are mental forms and Processes respectively ("thought" is both Even the self-contemplating intelligence must contain duality. "Once you have uttered 'The Good,' add no further thought: by any addition, and in proportion to that addition, you introduce a deficiency. " [III. 8. 10] Plotinus denies sentience, self-awareness or any other action to the One [V. 6. 6], rather if we insist on describing it further we must call the One a sheer Dynamis or potentiality without which nothing could exist. [III. 8. 10] As Plotinus explains in both places and elsewhere [e. g. V. 6. 3], it is impossible for the One to be Being or a self-aware Creator God. At [V. 6. 4], Plotinus compared the One to "light", the Divine Nous (first will towards Good) to the "Sun", and lastly the Soul to the "Moon" whose light is merely a "derivative conglomeration of light from the 'Sun'". Nous (ˈnuːs Greek: or) is a philosophical term for Mind or Intellect. The first light could exist without any celestial body.
The One, being beyond all attributes including being and non-being, is the source of the world -- but not through any act of creation, willful or otherwise, since activity cannot be ascribed to the unchangeable, immutable One. Plotinus argues instead that the multiple cannot exist without the simple. The "less perfect" must, of necessity, "emanate", or issue forth, from the "perfect" or "more perfect". Thus, all of "creation" emanates from the One in succeeding stages of lesser and lesser perfection. These stages are not temporally isolated, but occur throughout time as a constant process. Later Neoplatonic philosophers, especially Iamblichus, added hundreds of intermediate beings as emanations between the One and humanity; but Plotinus' system was much simpler in comparison.
Plotinus offers an alternative to the orthodox Christian notion of creation ex nihilo (out of nothing), which attributes to God the deliberation of mind and action of a will, although Plotinus never mentions Christianity in any of his works. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Emanation ex deo (out of God), confirms the absolute transcendence of the One, making the unfolding of the cosmos purely a consequence of its existence; the One is in no way affected or diminished by these emanations. Though the emanations are, since as they become farther away from the source they became diminished. Plotinus uses the analogy of the Sun which emanates light indiscriminately without thereby diminishing itself, or reflection in a mirror which in no way diminishes or otherwise alters the object being reflected. The Sun (Sol is the Star at the center of the Solar System.
The first emanation is nous (thought or the divine mind, logos or order, reason), identified metaphorically with the demiurge in Plato's Timaeus. Nous (ˈnuːs Greek: or) is a philosophical term for Mind or Intellect. Demiurge (the Latinized form of Greek demiourgos, δημιουργός, literally "public or skilled worker" from demos Timaeus ( Greek: Τίμαιος, Timaios) is a theoretical treatise of Plato in the form of a Socratic dialogue, written It is the first will towards Good. Will, or willpower is a philosophical concept that is defined in several different ways From nous proceeds the world soul, which Plotinus subdivides into upper and lower, identifying the lower aspect of Soul with nature. For other uses see Anima Mundi Anima mundi ( Latin) is the world soul, a pure ethereal spirit which was proclaimed by Nature, in the broadest sense is equivalent to the natural world, physical universe, material world or material universe. From the world soul proceeds individual human souls, and finally, matter, at the lowest level of being and thus the least perfected level of the cosmos. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus The great chain of being or scala naturæ is a classical and western Medieval conception of the order of the universe whose chief characteristic is a strict Perfection is broadly a state of completeness and flawlessness Despite this relatively pedestrian assessment of the material world, Plotinus asserted the ultimately divine nature of material creation since it ultimately derives from the One, through the mediums of nous and the world soul. It is by the Good or through beauty that we recognize the One, in material things and then in the Forms. Plato 's Theory of Forms asserts that Forms (or Ideas) and not the material world of change known to us through sensation, possess 
The essentially devotional nature of Plotinus' philosophy may be further illustrated by his concept of attaining ecstatic union with the One (henosis see Iamblichus). Henosis is also a synonym of Bulbophyllum, a genus of orchid Within the realm of Neoplatonic philosophy, henosis (Greek grc Porphyry relates that Plotinus attained such a union four times during the years he knew him. This may be related to enlightenment, liberation, and other concepts of mystical union common to many Eastern and Western traditions. Mysticism (from the Greek grc μυστικός mystikos, an initiate of a Mystery religion) is the pursuit of communion with identity Some have compared Plotinus' teachings to the Hindu school of Advaita Vedanta (advaita "not two", or "non-dual"),. Advaita Vedanta ( IAST Advaita Vedānta; Sanskrit अद्वैत वेदान्त əd̪vait̪ə veːd̪ɑːnt̪ə is a sub-school of the
Authentic human happiness for Plotinus consists of the true human identifying with that which is the best in the universe. Because happiness is beyond anything physical, Plotinus stresses the point that worldly fortune does not control true human happiness, and thus “… there exists no single human being that does not either potentially or effectively possess this thing we hold to constitute happiness. ” (Enneads I. 4. 4) The issue of happiness is one of Plotinus’ greatest imprints on Western thought, as he is one of the first to introduce the idea that eudaimonia (happiness) is attainable only within consciousness. Eudaimonia ( Greek:) is a classical Greek word commonly translated as ' Happiness '
The true human is an incorporeal contemplative capacity of the soul, and superior to all things corporeal. It then follows that real human happiness is independent of the physical world. Real happiness is, instead, dependent on the metaphysical and authentic human being found in this highest capacity of Reason. “For man, and especially the Proficient, is not the Couplement of Soul and body: the proof is that man can be disengaged from the body and disdain its nominal goods. ” (Enneads I. 4. 14) The human who has achieved happiness will not be bothered by sickness, discomfort, etc. , as his focus is on the greatest things. Authentic human happiness is the utilization of the most authentically human capacity of contemplation. Even in daily, physical action, the flourishing human’s “…Act is determined by the higher phase of the Soul. ” (Enneads III. 4. 6) Even in the most dramatic arguments Plotinus considers (if the Proficient is subject to extreme physical torture, for example), he concludes this only strengthens his claim of true happiness being metaphysical, as the truly happy human being would understand that that which is being tortured is merely a body, not the conscious self, and happiness could persist.
Plotinus offers a comprehensive description of his conception of a person who has achieved eudaimonia. “The perfect life” involves a man who commands reason and contemplation. (Enneads I. 4. 4) A happy person will not sway between happy and sad, as many of Plotinus’ contemporaries believed. Stoics, for example, question the ability of someone to be happy (presupposing happiness is contemplation) if they are mentally incapacitated or even asleep- Plotinus disregards this claim, as the soul and true human do not sleep or even exist in time, nor will a living human who has achieved eudaimonia suddenly stop using its greatest, most authentic capacity just because of the body’s discomfort in the physical realm. “…The Proficient’s will is set always and only inward. ” (Enneads I. 4. 11)
Overall, happiness for Plotinus is ". . . a flight from this world's ways and things. " (Theat 176AB) and a focus on the highest, i. e. Forms and The One.
Plotinus seems to be one of the first to argue against the still popular notion of causal Astrology. Astrology (from Greek grc ἄστρον astron, "constellation star" and grc -λογία -logia) is a group of Systems In the late tractate 2. 3, "Are the stars causes?", Plotinus makes the argument that specific stars influencing one's fortune (a common hellenistic theme) attributes irrationality to a perfect universe, and eliminates moral turpitude. This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period. Irrationality is talking or acting without regard of Rationality. He does, however, claim the stars and planets are ensouled, as witnessed by their movement. The soul, according to many religious and philosophical beliefs is the self-awareness, or Consciousness, unique to a particular living In Physics, motion means a constant change in the location of a body
Modern conferences within the Hellenic philosophy fields of study have been held in order to address what Plotinus stated in his tract Against the Gnostics and who he was addressing it to. Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of Hellenistic philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, based In order to separate and clarify the events and persons involved in the origin of the term "Gnostic". From the dialogue, it appears that the word had an origin in the Platonic and Hellenistic tradition long before the group calling themselves "Gnostics" -- or the group covered under the modern term "Gnosticism" -- ever appeared. It would seem that this shift from Platonic to Gnostic usage has led many people to confusion. The strategy of sectarians taking Greek terms from philosophical contexts and re-applying them to religious contexts was popular in Christianity, the Cult of Isis and other ancient religious contexts including Hermetic ones (see Alexander of Abonutichus for an example). Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Isis is a goddess in Ancient Egyptian religious beliefs and is celebrated in their mythology as the ideal mother and wife patron of nature and magic friend of slaves sinners Hermetica is a category of popular Late Antique literature purporting to contain secret wisdom and generally attributed to Hermes Trismegistus, "thrice-great Alexander of Abonutichus (d c 170 CE was a Greek mystic and the founder of the Glycon cult that briefly achieved wide popularity in the Roman
In the case of gnosticism it is important to understand that Plotinus and the Neoplatonists viewed it as a form of heresy or sectarianism to the Pythagorean and Platonic philosophy of the Mediterranean and Middle East. Gnosticism (γνώσις gnōsis, Knowledge) refers to a diverse Syncretistic Religious movement consisting of various Belief systems Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical Philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD founded by Sectarianism is Bigotry, Discrimination, Prejudice or Hatred arising from attaching importance to perceived differences between subdivisions  He accused them of using senseless jargon and being overly dramatic and insolent in their distortion of Plato's Ontology.  Plotinus attacks his opponents as untraditional, irrational and immoral and arrogant. He also attacks them as elitist and blasphemous to Plato for the Gnostics despising the material world and its maker. 
Plotinus, for example, attacked the Gnostics for vilifying Plato's ontology of the universe contained in Timaeus, and the universes' creation by the demiurge. In Philosophy, ontology (from the Greek, genitive: of being (part Timaeus ( Greek: Τίμαιος, Timaios) is a theoretical treatise of Plato in the form of a Socratic dialogue, written Demiurge (the Latinized form of Greek demiourgos, δημιουργός, literally "public or skilled worker" from demos  In this view the Demiurge is an artist or craftsman, in that he creates through mixing or amalgamating what already is. Plotinus accused Gnosticism of vilifing the Demiurge or craftsman that crafted the material world, even thinking of the material world as evil or a prison.
The Neoplatonic movement (though Plotinus would have simply referred to himself as a philosopher of Plato) seems to be motivated by the desire of Plotinus to revive the pagan philosophical tradition.  Plotinus was not claiming to innovate with the Enneads, but to clarify aspects of the works of Plato that he considered misrepresented or misunderstood.  Plotinus referred to tradition as a way to interpret Plato's intentions. Because the teachings of Plato were for members of the academy rather than the general public, it was easy for outsiders to misunderstand Plato's meaning. However, Plotinus attempted to clarify how the philosophers of the academy had not arrived at the same conclusions (such as misotheism or Dystheism of the creator God as an answer to the problem of evil) as the targets of his criticism. Misotheism is the "hatred of God " or "hatred of the Gods " (from the Greek adjective μισόθεος "hating the gods" a compound of Misotheism is the "hatred of God " or "hatred of the Gods " (from the Greek adjective μισόθεος "hating the gods" a compound of In the Philosophy of religion and Theology, the problem of evil is the problem of reconciling the existence of Evil or Suffering in the world
Neoplatonism was a philosophical foundation for paganism, and as a means of defending the theoretic of paganism against Christianity (see Porphyry, Eunapius). Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Eunapius was a Greek Sophist and Historian of the 4th century. However, many Christians were also influenced by Neoplatonism, most notably Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite. Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, also known as Pseudo-Denys, is the anonymous theologian and philosopher of the late 5th to early 6th century whose Corpus Areopagiticum St. Augustine, though often referred to as a "Platonist," acquired his Platonist philosophy through the mediation of Plotinus' teachings.
In the Renaissance the philosopher Marsilio Ficino set up an Academy under the patronage of Cosimo de Medici in Florence, mirroring that of Plato. His work was of great importance in reconciling the philosophy of Plato directly with Christianity. One of his most distinguished pupils was Pico della Mirandola, author of An Oration On the Dignity of Man. Our term 'Neo Platonist' has its origins in the Renaissance. In England, Plotinus was the cardinal influence on the 17th-century school of the Cambridge Platonists, and on numerous writers from Samuel Taylor Coleridge to W.B. Yeats and Kathleen Raine. The Cambridge Platonists were a group of Philosophers at Cambridge University in the middle of the 17th century (between 1633 and 1688 Samuel Taylor Coleridge ( 21 October 1772 &ndash 25 July 1834) was an English Poet, Critic and philosopher Kathleen Jessie Raine ( June 14 1908 – July 6 2003) was a British poet critic and Independent scholar writing in particular
Indeed, Plotinus' philosophy still exerts influence today: in the 20th century, American integral theorist Ken Wilber has drawn heavily upon the Enneads in his cosmology, reaching some metaphysical conclusions comparable to Plotinus' own. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on The United States of America —commonly referred to as the This article is about the integral movement in philosophy and psychology Kenneth Earl "Ken" Wilber Jr (b January 31, 1949, Oklahoma City, U Cosmology (from Greek grc κοσμολογία - grc κόσμος kosmos, "universe" and grc -λογία -logia) is study Metaphysics is the branch of Philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science Robert Pirsig's "Metaphysics of Quality" is similar to Plotinus's philosophy in that Pirsig posited a preconscious dynamic quality that precedes the subject/object dichotomy.  Many of the Indian philosophers of great renown such as Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Ananda Coomaraswamy and others used the writing of Plotinus in their own texts as a superlative elaboration upon Indian monism, specifically Upanishadic and Advaita Vedantic thought. Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, OM ( Telugu:సర్వేపల్లి రాధాకృష్ణ Tamil:சர்வேபள்ளி Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy (ஆனந்த குமாரசுவாமி 22 August, 1877, Colombo - 9 September, 1947, Monism is the metaphysical and Theological view that all is one that all reality is subsumed under the most fundamental category of being or existence The Upanishads ( Devanagari: उपनिषद् IAST: upaniṣad also spelled "Upanisad" are Hindu scriptures that constitute the core teachings Advaita Vedanta ( IAST Advaita Vedānta; Sanskrit अद्वैत वेदान्त əd̪vait̪ə veːd̪ɑːnt̪ə is a sub-school of the Vedanta ( Devanagari: sa वेदान्त Vedānta) is a spiritual tradition explained in the Upanishads that is concerned with the Self-realisation In more recent times, the ideas of Plotinus have been considered and included in the philosophical movement, Integral theory, and in particular, quoted heavily by leading integral philosopher Ken Wilber. This article is about the integral movement in philosophy and psychology Kenneth Earl "Ken" Wilber Jr (b January 31, 1949, Oklahoma City, U
Neo-Platonism and the ideas of Plotinus influenced medieval Islam as well, since the Sunni Abbasids fused Greek concepts into sponsored state texts, and found great influence amongst the Ismaili Shia. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic For the Egyptian city see Ismaïlia. The Ismāʿīlī ( Urdu: إسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون  Persian philosophers as well, such as Muhammad al-Nasafi and Abu Yaqub Sijistani. Abu Yaqub Sijistani (active 971 CE was an Ismaili missionary and Neo-Platonic Philosopher, who was martyred a few years after 971 CE By the 11th century, Neo-Platonism was adopted by the Fatimid state of Egypt, and taught by their da'i (Islam). Da‘wah usually denotes proselytizing of Islam. The Arabic دعوة da‘wah means literally "issuing a summons"  Neo-Platonism was brought to the Fatimid court by Iraqi Hamid al-Din al-Kirmani, although his teachings differed from Nasafi and Sijistani, who were more aligned with original teachings of Plotinus. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Hamid al–Din Abu’l–Hasan Ahmad b ‘Abdallah al–Kirmani (996–1021 CE) was a Persian Isma'ili scholar who served as a Da'i  The teachings of Kirmani in turn influenced philosophers such as Nasir Khusraw of Persia. Abu Mo’in Hamid ad-Din Nasir ibn Khusraw al-Qubadiani or Nasir Khusraw Qubadyani spelled ''Khusrow'' (1004 - 1088 AD ( was a Persian ( Tajik) poet philosopher