London Plane seed ball
|Platanus × hispanica|
The London Plane or Hybrid Plane (Platanus × hispanica, synonyms Platanus × acerifolia and Platanus × hybrida) is a tree in the genus Platanus. Otto von Münchhausen (1716-1774 was a German Botanist. He was Chancellor of University of Göttingen and a correspondent of Linnaeus. Platanus is a small genus of Trees native to the Northern Hemisphere. It is usually thought to be a hybrid of the Oriental Plane, P. In Biology, hybrid has two meanings The first meaning is the result of interbreeding between two animals or plants of different taxa. Platanus orientalis, also known commonly as the Oriental plane, is a very large widespreading and long-lived deciduous Tree in the Platanaceae orientalis, with the American Plane (American sycamore), P. occidentalis. Some authorities think that it may be a cultivar of P. orientalis, but there is little evidence for this.
It is a large deciduous tree growing to 20-35 m (exceptionally over 40 m) tall, with a trunk up to 3 m or more in circumference. New Mexico State University, or NMSU is a Land-grant university that has its main campus in Las Cruces, New Mexico. Botany Autumn leaf color. See --> In Botany and Horticulture, deciduous Plants, including A tree is a perennial Woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or The bark is usually pale grey-green, smooth and exfoliating, or buff-brown and not exfoliating. Bark, also known as periderm is the outermost layer of stems and Roots of Woody plants such as Trees It overlays the Wood and consists The leaves are thick and stiff-textured, broad, palmately lobed, superficially maple-like, the leaf blade 10-20 cm long and 12-25 cm broad, with a petiole 3-10 cm long. In Botany, a leaf is an above-ground Plant organ specialized for Photosynthesis. Acer ( maple) is a Genus of Trees or Shrubs They are variously classified in a family of their own the Aceraceae, or In Botany, the petiole is the small stalk attaching the Leaf blade to the stem. The young leaves in spring are coated with minute, fine, stiff hairs at first, but these wear off and by late summer the leaves are hairless or nearly so. The flowers are borne in one to three (most often two) dense spherical inflorescences on a pendulous stem, with male and female flowers on separate stems. A flower, also known as a bloom or Blossom, is the reproductive structure found in Flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also An inflorescence is a group or cluster of Flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main Branch or a complicated arrangement of branches The fruit matures in about 6 months, to 2-3 cm diameter, and comprises a dense spherical cluster of achenes with numerous stiff hairs which aid wind dispersal; the cluster breaks up slowly over the winter to release the numerous 2-3 mm seeds. The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. An achene is a type of simple dry Fruit produced by many species of Flowering plants Achenes are "monocarpellate" (formed from one Carpel
It was first recorded as occurring in Spain in the 17th century, where the Oriental Plane and the American Plane had been planted in proximity to one another. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar
The leaf and flower characteristics are intermediate between the two parent species, the leaf being more deeply lobed than P. occidentalis but less so than P. orientalis, and the seed balls typically two per stem (one in P. occidentalis, 3-6 in P. orientalis). The hybrid is fertile, and seedlings are occasionally found near mature trees.
Controlled reciprocal pollinations between Platanus occidentalis and P. orientalis resulted in good yields of germinable seed and true hybrid seedlings. Crosses of both species, as females, with P. racemosa and P. wrightii produced extremely low yields of germinable seed, but true hybrids were obtained from all interspecific combinations. Apomixis (asexual reproduction from non-fertilized seeds) appeared common in P. orientalis .
In 1968 and 1970, Frank S. Santamour, Jr. , recreated the P. orientalis, P. occidentalis cross using a P. orientalis of Turkish origin with American sycamores (P. occidentalis). The offspring were evaluated following several years of exposure to anthracnose infection. Canker and anthracnose are general terms for a large number of different Plant Diseases characterised by broadly similar Symptoms including the Two selections'Columbia' and 'Liberty' were released in August, 1984. [1 & 4].
It is very tolerant of atmospheric pollution and root compaction, and for this reason it is a popular urban roadside tree. It is now extensively cultivated in most temperate latitudes as an ornamental and parkland tree, and is a commonly planted tree in cities throughout the temperate regions of the world, not just London but Buenos Aires, New York City, Paris, Madrid, Melbourne,Shanghai, Chicago and many others. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern The City of New York Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3 Shanghai ( 上[[wikt 海|海]] is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest urban areas in the world with over 20 million Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. It has a greater degree of winter cold tolerance than the Oriental Plane, and is less susceptible to anthracnose disease than the American Plane. Canker and anthracnose are general terms for a large number of different Plant Diseases characterised by broadly similar Symptoms including the The seeds are used as a food source by some finches and squirrels. Finches are Passerine Birds often Seed -eating found chiefly in the northern hemisphere and Africa. A squirrel is one of the many small or medium-sized Rodents in the family Sciuridae.
The tree is fairly wind-resistant. Finches are Passerine Birds often Seed -eating found chiefly in the northern hemisphere and Africa. However, it has a number of problems in urban use, most notably the short, stiff hairs shed by the young leaves and the dispersing seeds; these are an irritant if breathed in, and can exacerbate breathing difficulties for people with asthma. Asthma is a chronic Condition involving the Respiratory system in which the airways occasionally constrict become inflamed, and are The large leaves can create a disposal problem in cities. These leaves are tough and sometimes can take more than one year to break down if they remain whole.
The leaf of the London Plane is the symbol of the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, and is prominently featured on signs and buildings in public parks across the city. The City of New York Department of Parks & Recreation (colloquially the Parks Department) is the department of government of the City of New York responsible for Ironically the tree is today on the NYC Parks Department's list of restricted use trees for street tree planting.
London Planes are often pruned by a technique called pollarding. Pollarding is a Woodland management method of encouraging lateral branches by cutting off a tree stem or minor branches two or three metres above ground level A pollarded tree has a drastically different appearance than an unpruned tree, being much shorter with stunted, club-like branches. Although pollarding requires frequent maintenance (the trees must usually be repruned every year), it creates a distinctive shape that is often sought after in plazas, main streets, and other urban areas.