The Philosophical Magazine is arguably the world’s oldest commercially published scientific journal. For a broader class of publications which include scientific journals see Academic journal. Initiated by Richard Taylor in 1798 and published continuously by Taylor & Francis ever since, it was the journal of choice for such luminaries as Faraday, Joule, Maxwell, J. Richard Taylor (1781–1858 was an English naturalist and Publisher of Scientific journals He published the first edition of the Philosophical Year 1798 ( MDCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in the United Kingdom which publishes books and academic journals J. Thomson, Rayleigh and Rutherford. Indeed, the development of science over more than 200 years can be comprehensively traced in its pages. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding
The name of the journal dates from a period when ‘natural philosophy’ embraced all aspects of science: physics, chemistry, astronomy, medicine, botany, biology and geology, in addition to natural phenomena of many kinds, for instance earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, lightning strikes and aurora. Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties Astronomy (from the Greek words astron (ἄστρον "star" and nomos (νόμος "law" is the scientific study Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the Botany, plant science(s, phytology, or plant biology is a branch of Biology and is the scientific study of plant Life Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles Geology (from Greek γη gê, "earth" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth 's crust that creates Seismic waves Earthquakes are recorded with a Seismometer Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of Electricity, which typically occurs during Thunderstorms and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or The very first paper published in the journal carried the title ‘Account of Mr Cartright’s Patent Steam Engine’. Other articles in the first volume include ‘Methods of discovering whether Wine has been adulterated with any Metals prejudicial to Health’ and ‘Description of the Apparatus used by Lavoisier to produce Water from its component Parts, Oxygen and Hydrogen’.
Early in the nineteenth century, classic papers by Humphry Davy, Michael Faraday and James Prescott Joule enlivened the journal’s pages, and in the 1860s, James Clerk Maxwell contributed several long articles, culminating in a paper containing the deduction that light is an electromagnetic wave or, as he put it himself, ‘We can scarcely avoid the inference that light consists in transverse undulations of the same medium which is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena’. Sir Humphry Davy 1st Baronet FRS MRIA (17 December 1778 &ndash 29 May 1829 was a British Chemist and inventor Michael Faraday, FRS ( September 22 1791 – August 25 1867) was an English James Prescott Joule FRS (ˈdʒuːl December 24, 1818 &ndash October 11, 1889) was an English Physicist Events and trends Technology The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was completed in 1869 James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 &ndash 5 November 1879 was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. Electromagnetic radiation takes the form of self-propagating Waves in a Vacuum or in Matter. The famous experimental paper of Albert A. Michelson and Edward Morley was published in 1887 and this was followed ten years later by J.J. Thomson’s article ‘Cathode Rays’ – essentially the discovery of the electron. Albert Abraham Michelson ( December 19, 1852 &ndash May 9, 1931) was a Polish - American Physicist known Edward Williams Morley ( January 29, 1838 - February 24 1923) was an American Scientist famous for the Michelson-Morley Year 1887 ( MDCCCLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Sir Joseph John “JJ” Thomson, OM, FRS (18 December 1856 &ndash 30 August 1940 was a British Physicist and Nobel laureate The electron is a fundamental Subatomic particle that was identified and assigned the negative charge in 1897 by J
In 1814, the Philosophical Magazine merged with the Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and the Arts, otherwise known as Nicholson's Journal, to form The Philosophical Magazine and Journal. Year 1814 ( MDCCCXIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Further mergers with the Annals of Philosophy and The Edinburgh Journal of Science led to the retitling of the journal in 1840, to "The London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science"! In 1949, the title reverted to The Philosophical Magazine, for ease of reference. Year 1840 ( MDCCCXL) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
In the early part of the 20th century, Ernest Rutherford was a frequent contributor. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Ernest Rutherford 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, OM, PC, FRS (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937 was a New Zealand Physicist He once told a friend to ‘watch out for the next issue of Philosophical Magazine; it is highly radioactive!’ Aside from his work on understanding radioactivity, Rutherford proposed the experiments of Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden that verified his nuclear model of the atom and led to Niels Bohr’s famous paper on planetary electrons, which was published in the journal in 1913. Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable Atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting ionizing particles and Radiation. Johannes (Hans Wilhelm Geiger ( September 30, 1882 &ndash September 24, 1945) was a German Physicist. Sir Ernest Marsden ( 19 February 1889 - 15 December 1970) was a English - New Zealand Physicist. History See also Atomic theory, Atomism The concept that matter is composed of discrete units and cannot be divided into arbitrarily tiny Niels Henrik David Bohr (nels ˈb̥oɐ̯ˀ in Danish 7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962 was a Danish Physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Another classic contribution from Rutherford was entitled ‘Collision of α Particles with Light Atoms. IV. An Anomalous Effect in Nitrogen’ – an article describing no less than the first artificial transmutation of an element. Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one Chemical element or Isotope into another which occurs through Nuclear reactions Natural transmutation occurs A chemical element is a type of Atom that is distinguished by its Atomic number; that is by the number of Protons in its nucleus.
In 1978 the journal was divided into two independent parts, Philosophical Magazine A and Philosophical Magazine B. Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) Part A published papers on structure, defects and mechanical properties while Part B focussed on statistical mechanics, electronic, optical and magnetic properties. Structure is a fundamental and sometimes Intangible notion covering the Recognition, Observation, nature, and Stability of Statistical mechanics is the application of Probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations to the field of Mechanics Electronics refers to the flow of charge (moving Electrons through Nonmetal conductors (mainly Semiconductors, whereas electrical In Physics, magnetism is one of the Phenomena by which Materials exert attractive or repulsive Forces on other Materials.
Since the middle of the 20th Century, “Phil Mag”, as the journal is affectionately known, has focussed on condensed matter physics and published significant papers on dislocations, mechanical properties of solids, amorphous semiconductors and glasses. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Condensed matter physics is the field of Physics that deals with the macroscopic physical properties of Matter. In Materials science, a dislocation is a Crystallographic defect, or irregularity within a Crystal structure. Mechanics ( Greek) is the branch of Physics concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to Forces or displacements A solid' object is in the States of matter characterized by resistance to Deformation and changes of Volume. An amorphous solid is a Solid in which there is no Long-range order of the positions of the Atoms (Solids in which there is long-range atomic order are A semiconductor' is a Solid material that has Electrical conductivity in between a conductor and an insulator; it can vary over that Glasses, also called eyeglasses or spectacles, are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the Eyes normally for vision correction, As subject area evolved and it became more difficult to classify research into distinct areas, it was no longer considered necessary to publish the journal in two parts, so in 2003 parts A and B were re-merged. In its current form, 36 issues of Philosophical Magazine are published each year, supplemented by 12 issues of Philosophical Magazine Letters.
Philosophical Magazine has a tradition of appointing distinguished and world-renowned Editors with eminent scientists such as John Tyndall, J.J. Thomson, Sir Nevill Mott and William Lawrence Bragg previously occupying this role. Editors are a British Indie rock band from Birmingham who formed in 2002 John Tyndall FRS ( August 2, 1820 &ndash December 4, 1893) was a prominent 19th century Irish Physicist. Sir Joseph John “JJ” Thomson, OM, FRS (18 December 1856 &ndash 30 August 1940 was a British Physicist and Nobel laureate Sir Nevill Francis Mott ( 30 September, 1905 &ndash 8 August, 1996) FRS, CH, was a British physicist Sir William Lawrence Bragg CH, FRS, ( 31 March 1890 – 1 July 1971) was an Australian Physicist The journal is currently edited by Lindsay Greer of the University of Cambridge and Peter Riseborough of Temple University, Philadelphia. The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the Temple University is a state-related public research University in Philadelphia. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə
In 1987, the sister journal Philosophical Magazine Letters was launched with the aim of rapidly publishing short communications on all aspects of condensed matter physics. Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) Condensed matter physics is the field of Physics that deals with the macroscopic physical properties of Matter. Phil Mag Letters is edited by E. A. Davis, who is also General and Co-ordinating Editor for both parts of the journal.